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[ 1] Abayev, NV (1949- ) and Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  Tibetan Medicine: Yesterday, Today 
and Tomorrow (Russian). Science and Religion (Moscow) 9 (1988), pp. 33-36.
 The authors discuss a number of problems connected with the spreading of medical knowledge 
in medieval Tibet. They describe the fundamental treatises of Tibetan Medicine, analyse the 
three humors of the Tibetan medical system (rlung, mkhris-pa and bad-kan) and define the 
contribution of Tibetan physicians to the  general history of medicine. In addition the article 
covers problems of spreading Tibetan Medicine in Transbaikalia, Tuva and Kalmykia.

[ 2] Abayev, NV and Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  Fundamentals of Tibetan Medicine: The Three 
Humours (Russian). Asia and Africa Today (Moscow) 6 (1989), pp. 54-56.
[ 3] Abayev, NV and Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  On the History of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 
Asia and Africa Today (Moscow) 3 (1989), pp. 58-59.
 This paper deals with the development of the traditional medical system in medieval Tibet, 
gives insight into the historical connections with the Ayurvedic and Chinese medical systems, 
and the role of Central Asia and the Middle East in the formation of Tibetan Medicine. Buddhist 
influence on the doctrine and practice of Tibetan Medicine is observed. The authors 
characterize the canonic classical works and treatises, and they discuss the history of the main 
medical schools in medieval Tibet.

[ 4] Adams, Vincanne:  Modes of Production and Medicine: An Examination of the Theory in 
(sic) Light of Sherpa Medical Traditionalism. Social Science & Medicine 27 (1988), pp. 505-
 "Anthropologists have described the tendency of people in developing countries to become
more committed to Western medicine as they become more involved in capitalist production. 
This paper examines the interdependence of socio-economic and medical systems by suggesting 
explanations for the persistent use of traditional medicine by Nepalese Sherpas who are drawn 
into the world's capitalist economy through tourism.. . . The Upper Khumbu has a plethora of 
therapists who belong to three general categories: orthodox Buddhist practitioners, unorthodox 
religious or shamanic practitioners, and biomedical practitioners. Orthodox Buddhist practitioners 
include rimpoches, gyeshis, village lamas, thawas, and amchis. Rimpoches, or monastic lamas, 
and gyeshis, Buddhist scholars, are always considered to be reincarnate persons. While 
rimpoches are nearly always abbots of monasteries, gyeshis generally live outside of the 
monastery within villages. 
Village lamas are actually monks who received some training in a Buddhist monastery but have 
broken their vows. They are called thawa-lokpu (lit. a monk-broken, or one who has broken his 
vows), but are learned enough to perform most village rituals and to read and write Tibetan. They 
live in the village and are generally married. 
Thawas are monastic monks who reside away from home in monasteries as students of religion. 
Like village lamas, thawas are not physicians. Finally, amchis are physicians trained in Tibetan 
medical philosophies. Often amchis are considered to be reincarnate beings, although they do not 
generally reside in monasteries. The two permanent amchis of the Upper Khumbu both received 
their training in Tibet prior to the 1950s. One of them is considered an incarnate of a very high 
lama who previously lived in Tibet; the other is considered an incarnation of a ngawa lineage, 
indicating Tantric abilities to perform black magic at the request of clients.- Amchis practice 
medicine based upon Ayurvedic medical traditions that came to Tibet along with Buddhism during 
the eighth century A.D. 
Their diagnoses may use examinations of the patient's pulse, urine, sputum, feces, and eyes, 
and their treatments use an extensive pharmacopoeia, massage oinments, dietary restrictions, 
prescribed behaviors, moxibustion, burning and cupping techniques. They are also said to 
perform minor surgery, though I have never heard of such treatment in the Khumbu. Like other 
religious personnel, amchis believe that illness results from disharmony, specifically within the 
body's humors. Humoral imbalance can be triggered by bad karma from previous lives, climate, 
diet, emotions (particularly from bad behavior), poisoning, and the actions of demons. Amchis 
also hold that some diseases are self-limiting and require no treatment. Therapeutic encounters 
with amchis can take from 25 min to several hours, and possibly return visits. If the amchi is 
very busy, as those in Kathmandu often are, a visit may last 5-10 min. Patients generally pay for 
their services at the time they receive care. As with most lamas, amchis receive money wrapped 
in a white scarf or kata in amounts which vary depending on the patient. Food is also offered as 
payment for treatment by some people. Sherpas also may say that they do not pay the amchi at 
the time of treatment because they make contributions at other times."

[ 5] Adhikary, SR et al: Proceedings of the Seminar on Traditional Medicines and the Role of 
Medical Plants. Kathmandu, August 2nd-3rd, 1979. Nepal Pharmaceutical Association, 
Kathmandu 1979.
[ 6] Adler, Lea:  Rencontre avec les medecins du toit du monde. Terre Sauvage, May 1993.
[ 7] Agapitov, NN and Khangalov, MN:  Materials for Studying Shamanism in Siberia (Russian). 
Proceedings of the East-Siberian Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society (St. 
Petersburg) 14, No.1-2 (1883), pp. 1-61.
 This work is based on personal observations of N. Agapitov during his expedition to the Baikal, 
Balangin and Indin Buryats in 1881 studying their form of shamanism, and on materials 
supplied by M. Khangalov in his manuscript on a shaman's burial. The work includes a detailed 
description of the religious practises of the Buryats of the Irkutsk province (deities, sacred 
iconography and idols, sacrifices, divination, shamanism with its "healing rituals" and notions 
on the soul and the future life). Buryat beliefs have reached the higher levels of polytheism. 
Heaven and the heavenly deities (tengris) play the foremost role. Antother important aspect is 
represented by the idols and sacred images (ongons). The designation ongon is sometimes 
applied to deities of a lower rank and some renowned ancient shamans also possess this title.
[ 8] Ainslie, Whitelow: Materia Indica; or, some account of those articles which are employed 
by the Hindoos (sic), and other Eastern nations, in their medicine, arts, and agriculture, 
comprising also formulae, with practical observations, names of diseases in various Eastern 
languages, and a copious list of oriental books immediately connected with general science, 
etc. etc. 2 vols. xxiv, 645; xxxix, 604 p. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, London 
[ 9] Akong Rinpoche (Arya): Taming the Tiger. 176 p. Dzalendara Publ., Kagyu Samye Ling 
Tibetan Center, Eskdalemuir/Langholm, U.K. 1987.
 Reprint: Wisdom Books, London 1994. French Edition: L'art de dresser le tigre intérieur. Paris, 
Ed. Tchou 1991.- In the first part of this book Akong Rinpoche explains common sense 
principles of the Buddhist view as applied to everyday life. The second part consists of a 
sequence of meditational exercises which, if practised consistently, will provide a basis for 
self-knowledge, mind therapy and self-healing which will continue to serve throughout one's 

[10] Akong Rinpoche (Arya): Den Tiger zähmen. Anleitung zur Selbstheilung aus der Weisheit 
Tibets. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Sylvia Wetzel. 194 p. Theseus, Zürich/München 1993.
 (Taming the Tiger, 1987).- Der Autor Dharma Arya Akong Rinpoche ist ein anerkannter Lehrer 
der Karma-Kagyü-Tradition des tibetischen Buddhismus mit einer umfassenden Ausbildung in 
Meditation und Medizin. Zusammen mit Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche hat er 1967 das tibetische 
Zentrum Samye Ling in Schottland gegründet und leitet heute tibetische Zentren in Europa, 
Afrika und Asien.

[11] Akong Rinpoche: The Tara College of Tibetan Medicine. Edinburgh, Prospectus 1994. 
15 p., Edinburgh 1994.
 "Over recent years there have been several visits to Europe by Tibetan doctors offering 
consultations, lectures and treatment. But a Western student who wished to undertake a 
comprehensive course in the study of Tibetan medicine had to attend the Tibetan Medical & 
Astrological Institute in Dharamsala or the Chakpori Medical Institute in Darjeeling (both in 
Northern India). Whilst several colleges of Chinese Medicine have been successfully established 
in Britain for many years now, offering training in a range of therapies from acupuncture to 
herbal medicine, the ancient medical systems of Tibet have remained out of reach for all but a 
few intrepid Westerners. After several years of trying we have finally established a working 
link with Tibet's central institute for the study of medicine and natural sciences, the Lhasa 
Mentsikang. We are supremely fortunate to have Professor Kempo Troru Tsenam, Tibet's most 
eminent physician, scholar and medical expert as our Director of Studies. Professor Kempo 
Troru Tsenam will personally lead the studies with the assistance of two other eminent Tibetan 
physicians: Dr. Thubten Phuntsok and Dr. Sonam Chime. The study programme for the four 
year part time course will consist of 8 one month residential study blocks, two in each year. 
Two of these blocks will be held in Tibet, the others in Scotland. Trips to Tibet will take place 
in the second year, when students will visit the eastern region of Derge, concentrating primarily 
on the collection of herbs and preparation of medicines and the final year when students will 
study at the Lhasa Mentsikang and sit final examinations. Students in Tibet currently undertake 
a four year full-time training and whilst this course has, by necessity, been structured to make 
it available to students living in the West, it is our intention that standards of excellence and 
depth of study will the highest possible."

[12] Aldrich, Michael R:  Tantric Cannabis Use In India. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 
(Beloit/Wisc) 9 (No. 3) (1977), pp. 227-233.
 "Tantric Cannabis use in India arose in about the 7th century A.D. in an explosive mingling of 
the doctrines and practices of Shivaite Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. Tantrism reached its 
height in medieval Bengal and the Himalayan kingdoms, and may be secretly practiced today. 
Several poets and writers in Calcutta told me in 1965-1966 that they were involved in Tantric 
rituals, but they may have been deceiving me. Professor Agehananda Bharati informs me 
[personal communication] that at the present time, no one performs the traditional Tantric 
ceremonies --  'they only write and talk about it'. Moreover, there is a Mahayana Buddhist 
tradition that the Gautama Buddha subsisted on one hempseed daily during six years of 
asceticism preceding his enlightenment (Beal 1883:143). Even hemp fiber is regarded as sacred 
in Tibet. Because it is so durable, Tibetan monastic histories are often written on hemp paper. 
These Sino-Tibetan traditions were absorbed into Vajrayana iconography, where the Buddha is 
sometimes depicted with sharply serrated 'soma leaves' in his begging bowl. Thus Buddha's 
asceticism as well as Shiva's is associated with cannabis in Tantric belief --. 
Large oral doses of marijuana are truly hallucinogenic. Vast and celestial visual hallucinations 
occur which, in this ceremony, are directed: different gods and goddesses are imagined during 
specific portions of the ritual. Suggestibility is increased, and this can be very valuable when 
following the strictly delineated series of exercises which comprise this ceremony. Moreover, a 
common hallucination induced by large doses of cannabis is time and space distortion: minutes 
seem like hours, small rooms yawn into deep caverns, and every activity is imbued with a 
sense of timeless grandeur. On the stage set for the performance of these rites, the 
worshipper's 'set and setting' is made optimal for its purpose. The place reeks with incense, 
beautiful flowers abound, the light from temple lamps flickers softly, and the participants are 
beautiful and clean, intent upon mystical experience. In such conditions the marijuana highly 
augments the practice of Kundalini yoga and vice versa. It seems an ideal way to attain a 
sense of one's own divinity through euphoric experimentation with the powers of one's mind. 
Indeed, the use of high-dose marijuana coupled with Kundalini yoga may even help the male 
worshipper retain his sperm, and make him aware of the presence of the Goddess within 
himself. More important, in the ecstatic union of the human and the divine represented by this 
ritual, the sense of self is transcended by both partners. The role of cannabis in Tantric 
ceremony is thus to enable the worshippers to feel the divinity within and without themselves."

[13] Alekseyeva, AA, Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Komarova, MN, Kongel'm, Mikheyev, 
BJ, and Yakovlyev, GP: Medicinal Plants of Buryatia (Russian). 207 p. Buryat Book Publishing 
House, Ulan-Ude 1974.
[14] Alphen, Jan van and Aris, Anthony(General Editor): Oriental Medicine. An Illustrated Guide 
to the Asian Arts of Healing. 272 p. Serindia, London 1995.
 In part two: "The World of Tibetan Medicine". Authors are Fernand Meyer, Kenneth Holmes, 
and Khenpo Troru Tsenam.- The traditional medical systems of Asia evolved over centuries of 
empirical observation and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Based on a corpus of written 
material, they are found embedded with the symbols, concepts of the body and world views 
characterising the historical differences between civilisations. This is the first book to present 
to both general and specialist readerships an illustrated guide to the main codified medical 
traditions of Asia from the perspective of Western scholars as well as that of physicians 
actually working today within the traditional system of Tibetan medicine.- The main streams of 
Indian, Tibetan and Chinese medicine are the subject of fifteen contributions, providing a brief 
history of each system and a clear exposition of theory and the principal methods of diagnosis 
and treatment. How these ancient systems have adapted and are actually integrated today 
with Western biomedicine in India, Tibet, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Korea and Japan, is the 
subject of individual chapters.

[15] Amipa, T(endhon) D: Heilkunst vom Himalaja. In: Vom Dach der Welt. Tibeter in der 
Schweiz. Hrsg. Albers & Fuchs, in Zusammenarbeit mit der "Weltwoche".  pp. 91-92. Die 
Weltwoche, Zürich 1993.
 Die tibetische Medizin befaßt sich fundamental mit der Erhaltung der Balance der drei "nyes-
pa", der Lebensessenzen. Die "nyes-pa" sind "rLung", "mKhris-pa" und "Bad-Kan", 
metaphorisch übersetzt mit Wind, Galle und Schleim. Diese "nyes-pa" haben eine duale 
Funktion. In Harmonie zueinander erhalten sie die physische und mentale Gesundheit, im 
Ungleichgewicht agieren sie als Ursache von Krankheiten. Einfluß auf diese Balance haben auch 
die sieben Komponenten Nahrung (der subtile Teil der Nahrung, der nicht ausgeschieden wird), 
Blut, Haut (auch Muskeln), Fett, Knochen, Mark und Samen sowie die drei Körpersekretionen 
Urin, Stuhl und Transpiration.

[16] Amur-Sanan, A: Mudreshkin's Son (Russian).  Molodaya Gvardiya, Moscow 1935.
[17] Andreyev, VI, Schmulevich, MM, and Batuyev, BB: Essays on the History of Buryatian 
Culture (Russian).  Buryat Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1972.
 On Tibetan medicine: see Vol. I,  pp. 207-232.

[18] Anikeyeva, SM: The Tibetan Medical Treatise Man-ngag rin-chen 'byung-gnas (Russian). 
Rerikhovskie Chteniya (= The Roerich's Readings). The Materials of the Conference.  pp. 260-
265, Novosibirsk 1980.
 A structural description of the treatise "Man-ngag rin-chen 'byung-gnas" (= The Source of 
Precious Instructions) is given. It is considered to be a collection of prescriptions, which is 
called a "sbyor" in Tibetan. The treatise was published approximately in the XIXth century.

[19] Anikeyeva, SM:  The Experience of the Classification of Tibetan Medical Sources (based 
on the materials of the Tibetan fund of the Leningrad branch of the Institute for Oriental 
Studies of the USSR, Academy of Sciences) (Russian). "Vestnik Leningradskogo 
Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta" =Bulletin of the Leningrad State University No. 2 (1983),
pp. 57-61.

[20] Ankov:  What is the Tibetan Medicine (in Buryatian language). The Atheist (Ulan-Ude) Nr. 1 
(1937), pp. 13-20.
[21] Anonymus:  On the Medical Treatment of the Buryats (Russian). "Medichinskaya Gaseta" 
=The Medical Newspaper (Russian)  (1849), pp. 289-291.

[22] Anonymus:  On the Problem of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). "Vostochnoe Oboszenie" 
=The Oriental Review (Russian) 8 (1899), pp. 12-15.
[23] Anonymus:  On the Practice of Medical Treatments by the Lamas (Russian). Vostochnoe 
Obozrenie (= The Oriental Review) (Russian) 127 (1903).

[24] Anonymus:  Tibetische Medizin. Die buddhistische Welt [Mitteilungen und Notizen] 
(Breslau) 2 (1906/1910 (sic!)), pp. 29-30.

[25] Anonymus:  The Kalmykian Miracles in Astrakhan (Russian). "Severno-Kavkazskaya 
Gaseta" =Northern Caucasus Newspaper (Russian) 30 (1909), p. 3.

[26] Anonymus:  A Tibetan Anatomical Chart. 1 illustr. British Medical Journal (London) 1 
(1923), p. 530.
 "Among the trophies of the second Mount Everest expedition is an anatomical chart brought 
back by Captain J. V. L. Noel from a Tibetan monastery at Gyantse, in the mountainous 
regions between Darjeeling and Lhasa. Captain Noel was the official photographer to the 
party.- There is no clue to the age of the picture; it may be anything from 50 to 300 years old. 
The anatomical details are crude and fanciful; they are indeed rendered with a spirited disdain 
for accuracy; they bear out Garrison's observation that Hindu medicine was particularly weak 
in its anatomy. Like the pre-Vesalian anatomical drawings of Europe, this Tibetan chart bears 
little evidence of original observations or dissection. It has rather the appearance of being the 
work of a skilled copyist working to a traditional pattern and adding such artistic flourishes as 
his fancy directs."

[27] Anonymus:  The Question of Recognition of the Tibetan Medicine (Russian). "Sovetskiy 
Medichinskiy Zhurnal" =The Soviet Medical Journal (Russian) 11 (1936), pp. 876-877.

[28] Anonymus:  Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Izvestiya [Newspaper] 11. April (1936), p. 4.

[29] Anonymus: Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: "Bol'shaya Medichinskaya Enchiklopediya" 
=The Great Medical Encyclopaedia. Vol. 17 (Russian). pp. 234-236, Moscow 1936.
[30] Anonymus: Chinese Folk Medicine (Russian). Moscow 1959.

[31] Anonymus: Medicine in the Countries of the Ancient East (Russian). In: The Great Medical 
Encyclopaedia. Vol. 17 (Russian). pp. 66-96, Moscow 1960.
[32] Anonymus: Mumiyah and the Stimulation of Regenerative Processes (Russian). 555 p. 
Irfon Publishing House, Dushanbe 1971.
[33] Anonymus:  "The Magic Resin" (Russian). "Trud" =Work (Russian) 31. January 1973, p. 

[34] Anonymus:  The Practice of Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Review (Delhi) IX, 5-6 (1974),
p. 20.
 Besides other points, this article covers 'Astrology and Medicine': "In Tibetan a medical 
college is called 'Men-tsi Khang' which means the 'House of Medicine and Astrology'. In Tibet 
the medical students were taught astrology beside medicine, as it is important for a successful 
practice. Basically astrology provides a time precision to the medical practice. Tibetan medicine 
is prepared at such times and seasons as recommended by an astrologer. According to Tibetan 
Medicine there are four ways of contracting a disease: seasonal changes; 360 evil spirits 
attacking living beings with disease; food; habit. A knowledge of astrology is essential in 
treating those diseases caused by the four seasons - spring, summer, autumn and winter. 
Astrology is also used in diagnosing, particularly when the doctor can't go to a patient or vice 
versa, the doctor can accurately diagnose with the information such as the patient's age and 

[35] Anonymus:  Free Medicine to Tibetans. Tibetan Review (Delhi) XII, 12 (1977), p. 13.
 "The Dalai Lama has donated a large sum of money for the preparation and distribution of a 
special Tibetan vitamin pill to all the Tibetans in exile. The medicine known as Sedru Dangne 
(=essential nutrients) has never been prepared in India before. The Dalai  Lama last month 
made available enough money to the Tibetan Medical Centre to prepare 30 pills for each 
Tibetan in exile with a view to 'improving their health'. The Medical Centre has already 
prepared and distributed 500.000 pills. This, however, has not been found sufficient and more 
are under preparation at the moment. The cost of the five ingredients used for the 500.000 
pills has been about Rs. 130.000. The pills have been sent to the heads of all the Tibetan 
settlements and communities for distribution among their people. A charge of 50 paisa per 
head is being made by the Centre. Two pills together have to be taken before breakfast for 15 
consecutive days."

[36] Anonymus:  Medizinische Enzyklopädie (Die tibetische Medizin). Mit 4 Abb. China im Bild 
(Beijing) Nr. 1 (1979), p. 48.
 Der Artikel lautet in toto: "Die tibetische Medizin, vom tibetischen Volk im langjährigen Kampf 
gegen Krankheiten unter besonderen lokalen Bedingungen geschaffen und entwickelt, ist ein 
wichtiger Bestandteil der traditionellen chinesischen Heilkunde. Überdies hat sie auch ständig 
medizinische Erfahrungen der Han und anderer Nationalitäten in sich aufgenommen, besitzt ein 
eigenes theoretisches System ebenso wie reiche praktische Erfahrungen. Das wichtigste 
klassische Werk der tibetischen Medizin ist der aus dem 8. Jahrhundert stammende 
"Medizinische Kodex in vier Bänden". Er behandelt die Grundlagentheorie, Anatomie, 
Diagnostik, Pathologie, Therapeutik, Vorbeugung und Pharmakologie. Der Teil für 
Pharmakologie verzeichnet nahezu 400 verschiedene tierische, pflanzliche und mineralische 
Medikamente. Viele davon sind nur auf dem kalten Hochland von Tibet zu finden. Aufgrund des 
Buchs wurden auch Farbtafeln sehr fein und genau ausgeführt. Viele der Heilkräuter sind 
anhand dieser Zeichnungen erkenntlich."

[37] Anonymus:  Indo-Tibetan Medicine Atlas. Tibetan Review (Calcutta) XVI, No. 4 (1981), 
pp. 24-25.
 Refers to a note in the 'Hindustan Times: New Delhi 3/31/1981': "Bri-cha, Medicinal Atlas to 
be published in USSR; this atlas is the only complete copy, at the Historical Museum of Ulan-
Ude." - This has been a wrong information, as until 1986 (when the complete set of "The 
Atlas of Tibetan Medicine - The Tibetan Medical Thangkas" was published in Lhasa) the 
scientists in Ulan-Ude did not have any information about this set of Thangkas.- The copy at 
the Historical Museum in Ulan-Ude is incomplete, as plate No. 62 is missing; it was copied by 
Robert Beer, one of the finest exponents of Tibetan Thangka painting, from the Lhasa version; 
the inscriptions to plate 62 were done by the great scholar and lexicographer Ala Zenkar 
Rinpoche, based on the text of the Lhasa version. So plate No. 62 could be incorporated in the 
book "Tibetan Medical Paintings" (Serindia Publications, London, 1992).- The researchers in 
Ulan-Ude (The Buryat Research Center of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of 
Sciences) have deciphered the captions and compiled a commentary to the Atlas. The Institute 
where old Tibetan medicine is studied unites philologists, medical men, botanists, 
immunologists and other specialists. The group of philologists is headed by Bal-Dorji Badarayev, 
a Buryat by nationality who studied at Leningrad University in the 1940s. When he graduated 
from the faculty of Oriental Studies, Yuri Roerich, who had returned to Moscow from India, 
was just organising a group of postgraduate students. Thus Badarayev became a pupil of this 
famous Orientalist.

[38] Anonymus:  Tsothay and Precious Pills. The Tibet Society Newsletter (Bloomington) New 
series No. 11 (1982), pp. 11-12.
 The article reads in toto: "After the successful completion of compounding the 'Ngochu 
Tsothay (Dngul-chu gtso-thal)' - purified mercury, sulphur and sixteen minerals and metals - 
the doctors at the Tibetan Medical Institute made three Precious Pills, using the Tsothay as a 
base. The Zla-shel-chen-mo or the Precious Purified Moon Crystal was the first precious pill 
compounded. This pill comprises about 55 different ingredients, purifies the blood, helps with 
the circulation of the blood, combats poisons in the body, and treats liver ailments. It is 
excellent for combating infections and inflammations such as ulcers and is a good tonic for the 
health. This pill clears all senses and restores the memory, and also prevents wrinkles and 
white hair. The Rin-chen Mang-sbyor-chen-mo or the Great Precious Accumulation pill was 
compounded in the Centre earlier, but this is the first time that it is compounded with the 
This pill has about 65 different ingredients and is excellent for combating poisons of any nature 
and treats old and hidden diseases. It is especially beneficial for combating plant, insect, animal 
and chemical poisons. The Rin-chen Ratna-bsam-'phel or the Precious Wish Fulfilling Jewel is 
also compounded accurately for the first time out of Tibet. This pill has 70 different 
ingredients, with the addition of the Tsothay, which has 18 different ingredients; it totals to 88 
different substances. This pill controls poisons in the body system, hypertension, strokes, 
paralysis and all nerve disorders. It is good for heart ailments, cancer and it has also been used 
for the treatment of tuberculosis. This latter pill is very popular with the Chinese and from what 
is made in Tibet, 90% of this pill is sent to China for the use of Chinese officials and even for 
export to Western countries, as stated by doctors coming out of Tibet. The above pills are 
prescribed by Tibetan doctors for cancer. It has proven to help a number of cancer patients and 
it has been extremely beneficial in relieving pain in advanced cancer patients, though a more 
thorough research on the benefits of these pills for this special disease can be done in the near 

[39] Anonymus:  Three Years of Tibetan Health Department [Special Report]. Tibetan Review 
(Delhi) XX, 2 (1985), pp. 7-9.
[40] Anonymus: Tibetan Medical Hospital. A Brief Introduction of Tibetan Medicine and 
Hospital [Title and text in Chinese, with English translation]. 43 p. Tibetan Medical Hospital of 
the Autonomous Region, Lhasa 1987.
[41] Anonymus:  A Brief Account of brGyud bzhi [sic!] ("The four systems in Tibetan 
Medicine") [by the Hospital of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Autonomous Region] (English sic!). 
Tibet Studies [Journal of the Tibetan Academy of Social Science] (Lhasa) 1 (1989), 
pp. 181-194.
 "Tibetan Medicine as part of the medical treasures of China has a history of 1,000 years. In 
the Inner Mongolian, Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu and Qinghai areas there are a number of doctors 
of Tibetan Medicine. They work under the guidance of rGyud-bzhi, a classical book on 
traditional Tibetan Medicine. According to historical records, centuries before the Christian era, 
Tibetan people began to know that some physical parts of the animal, and some plants and 
minerals could be used to cure diseases. They used butter to stop bleeding and Qingke barley 
beer to cure wounds.
 As blon-po-bkah-thang (p. 7) recorded, 'Where is poison, there is medicine'. With the 
accumulation of their knowledge of the nature, the Tibetan Medicine developed step by step. 
Yuthog Yontan Gon-po, a well-known doctor of Tibetan Medicine and a private doctor of Tubo 
king Khri-srong lde-btsan, was born in 708 at Stod-lung skyid-snag. At 25, he studied foreign 
medicine at Bsam-yas and learnt from a doctor of Chinese medicine, srong-sum dga'-ba the 
treatment of apoplexy etc. In the 8th century he went to study medicine in Ngari, Shannan and 
Dar-rtse-mdo, as well as India, Nepal and the interior Wu Tai hills. Finally he compiled 30 and 
more medical works, including the rGyud-bzhi and others. rGyud-bzhi was collated then by 
other doctors. On the base of it the Drag-thang rGyud-bzhi (Drag-thang is a place name) in the 
first illustrated edition was produced in 1573. The book was revised in 1687. Then a more 
clear and precise edition of rGyud-bzhi came out. Meanwhile the notes on rGyud-bzhi were 
published in Tibet in 1689. The rGyud-bzhi was republished in 1889. Then it was amended by 
U-rgyan-bstan-'dzin rgya-mtshod dpal-ldan phun-tshogs and others. Thus, the present Chag-po-
ri edition was produced. To sum up, rGyud-bzhi is a comprehensive medical book that sums up 
the traditional Tibetan Medicine."

[42] Anonymus:  Traditional Tibetan Medical Practices. China Tourism (Hong Kong) No. 146 
(1992), p. 46.
 Some unique aspects of this traditional medical system are presented.

[43] Anonymus: Glimpses of Tibetan Medicine. 11 illustr. ,13 (no pagina) p. Rangwang 
Publications, Delhi, no year.
[44] Antons-Volmerg, Klaus: Von der Vier zur Fünf. Abendländische Persönlichkeitstypologien 
und das buddhistische Mandala. 21 Abb. 116 S. Fabri Verlag, Ulm 1995.
[45] Antsupova, TP: Alkaloid-containing Plants of Liliaceae of the Flora of Buryatia (Russian). 
In: Resul'taty i Perspektivy Nauchnykh Issledovaniy v Oblasti Sozdaniya Lekarstvennykh 
Sredstv iz Rastitel'nogo Syr'ya (= Results and Perspectives of Investigations in the Field of 
Creating Medicinal Remedies from Raw Drug Materials). Abstracts of the Reports of All-Union 
Scientific Conference (Russian), pp. 50-51.  Moscow 1985.
 Many plants from the family Liliaceae are used in Tibetan Medicine. 36 species of Liliaceae 
belonging to 14 genera and growing in Buryatia have been studied. The findings show that this 
plant family in the Buryatian flora offer good prospects for obtaining and studying new alkaloids 
and making new medicaments.

[46] Ardussi, John and Epstein, Lawrence: The Saintly Madman in Tibet. In: Himalayan 
Anthroplogy. The Indo-Tibetan Interface. Ed. James F. Fisher. pp. 327-338. Mouton & Co, The 
Hague/Paris 1978.
 One of the most fascinating characters that runs through the oral and literary traditions of 
Tibet is a trickster-like figure that is perpetually engaged in one sort of perverse activity or 
another - drinking to excess, fornicating, thieving, defying authority, playing magical tricks. In 
short, this character is a sociopath of the first order, who displays all the behavior that 
Tibetans purport to disdain. Aside from the obvious humor and ribald good fun the figure 
engenders, however, there is also a serious side to him. When Tibetans are questioned about 
the motivation and meanings of these figures, they almost invariably say that they behave the 
way they do because they are really Buddhas. With this background we may now turn to the 
saintly madman with the purpose of seeing how this strategy works. To begin with, Tibetans 
consider certain states of mental abnormality to originate in demonically caused harm (gdon). 
All such states are related to seizure by a specific type of demon. Regardless of whether this 
seizure is directly or indirectly caused by demonic interference, it results in the imbalance of 
the humors that control both somatic and mental health. These categories are then discussed in 
the book.

[47] Aris, Anthony(General editor): Tibetan Medical Paintings. Vide Sangye Gyamtso, 
London 1992.

[48] Arkadiyeva, GE, Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), and Komarova, MN:  Antibiotic Evaluation 
of Medicinal Plants used in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" = Plant 
Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 2 (1966), pp. 218-223.

[49] Asboe, Walter:  Notes on Childbirth in Manchat (Western Tibet). Man: The Journal of the 
Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (London) 32 (1932), p. 139 (only).
 "Certain taboos exist in Manchat in respect to women during their period of menstruation, and 
also for expectant mothers. During menstruation a woman is not allowed to approach the 
family hearth, but must eat her food, and perform her household duties at a reasonable 
distance from the fireplace. She may not wash or handle the kitchen utensils during this period, 
for she is regarded as ceremonially unclean, and any infraction of the taboo imposed upon her 
is thought to be a direct affront to the god of the family hearth. No restrictions, however, in the 
way of performing the ordinary domestic duties are laid upon the pregnant woman except that 
she must be on her guard against the influence of the 'Evil Eye'. She will therefore retire 
discreetly on the approach of a stranger. A woman may not on any account bear her child in 
the vicinity of the household temple, or where there are any images of the gods. An apartment 
in the rear of the house is therefore reserved for this purpose, and failing this, she must retire 
to an outhouse or shed --. 
It is also customary to stick an iron trident and an axe into the ground when the ablutions have 
been performed. In the meantime the placenta is buried in the earth, the hole being dug with 
the knife which was used for cutting the cord, and the handle of the knife is buried also. During 
the woman's absence, the floors of the house are freshly mudwashed, and all utensils 
thoroughly scoured. Should another house lie contiguous to the one in which a confinement 
occurs, the occupants behave as if the birth had actually taken place in it. On the completion of 
the ceremonial purification, the mother is covered in a large blanket with two slits in it for the 
eyes, and returns to her home."

[50] Aschoff, Jürgen C (1938- ):  Über Quecksilber in tibetischen "Juwelen-Pillen". 
Nerventonikum par excellence oder gesundheitsschädliches Gift? In Zusammenarbeit mit 
Dr. T. Y. Tashigang, Delhi. Mit 2 Abb. Tibet-Forum (Bonn) 13 (1994), pp. 28-30.
 "Sowohl metallisches Quecksilber (tib. Dngul chu) als auch Zinnober (Quecksilbersulfid, tib.: 
rgya mtshal oder cog la ma) sind uralte Heilmittel der traditionellen chinesischen, der 
ayurvedischen und der tibetischen Medizin. Schon im ältesten tibetischen Standardwerk der 
Medizin, in den 'Gyü shi' (tib. rGyud-bzhi), wird der therapeutische Aspekt von Quecksilber 
beschrieben und zwar praktisch übereinstimmend mit den zeitlich früheren chinesischen und 
ayurvedischen Werken, nämlich zur inneren Anwendung bei Krankheiten des Nervensystems, 
allgemein stimulierend und ausbalancierend sowie förderlich zur Heilung von Knochenbrüchen. 
Die Kunst des Umganges mit Quecksilber bestand immer in der Verarbeitung dieses Metalls, um 
es medizinisch einsetzen zu können. 
Der tibetische Gelehrte und Yogi Ogyen Rinchenpäl (tib. O-rgyan-pa Rin-chen-dpal, 
1203-1309) brachte von seinen Reisen durch Nordindien und Udyana/Swat die Kunst der 
Quecksilberverarbeitung zum medizinischen Einsatz nach Tibet. Unter dem 3. Karmapa 
(1284-1339) wurden erstmals mit Hilfe dieser Technik 'Black pills' (tib.: Rin-chen ril-nag) 
hergestellt, die seither 'Karmapa Black pills' oder 'Precious pills' bzw. 'Juwelen-Pillen' genannt 
werden (nicht, weil die Pillen schwarz sind, sondern in Anspielung auf die Insignie des Karmapa, 
d.h. seine schwarze Kopfbedeckung). Eine der gebräuchlichen Juwelen-Pillen, nämlich Dschu-
mar 25 (tib. Byu dMar 25), wurde genauer untersucht, insbesondere vom neurologisch-
klinischen Aspekt her als vorbeugendes Mittel gegen Migräne. Dschu-mar 25 enthält auch 
Quecksilber. Nach WHO-Kriterien beträgt die tolerierbare Wochendosis an Quecksilber 0,3 mg 
(allerdings bezogen auf Quecksilber-Dämpfe und somit aufgenommen durch die eingeatmete 
Luft). Dennoch: Bei 5 bis 10 mg metallischem Quecksilber pro Dschu-mar-Pille enthält diese 
Juwelen-Pille (nach WHO-Kriterien) die 15 bis 30-fache Quecksilber-Menge, so daß man mit 
zwei bis drei Juwelen-Pillen die von der WHO als Toleranzgrenze gesetzte Jahreshöchstdosis an 
Quecksilber zu sich nimmt."- For additional information see Misra & Mohanty, Delhi 1994.

[51] Aschoff, Jürgen C: Ansätze der tibetischen Medizin und ihre Bedeutung für die westlichen 
Länder. In: Jahreszeitenakademien '95. (Beiträge zur allgemeinen wissenschaftlichen Weiter-
bildung, herausgegeben vom ZAWiW, Universität Ulm), pp. 173-175. Kleine, Bielefeld 1995.
"Traditionelle asiatische Medizinsysteme nehmen für sich in Anspruch, 'holistisch' die 
Gesamtheit des psychophysischen Menschseins zu berücksichtigen. Anspruch und heutige 
Wirklichkeit klaffen dabei so weit auseinander wie bei uns im Westen, denn ein guter Arzt der 
westlichen Medizin arbeitet genauso 'holistisch' wie ein asiatischer Arzt. Hierzu gibt es 
Trotz meiner persönlichen Faszination für die asiatische Kultur und auch für die traditionelle 
asiatische Medizin ist die westliche high-tech-Medizin so himmelhoch überlegen, daß es 
überhaupt keinerlei Diskussion darüber geben kann, daß der ernsthaft kranke Mensch eine 
Überlebenschance nur durch unsere westliche Medizin besitzt. Andererseits können chronische 
Krankheiten wie speziell chronische Magen-Darmerkrankungen oder Arthrosen, das heißt nicht 
lebensbedrohliche oder lebensverkürzende, sondern mit viel Schmerz und Leid verbundene 
Leiden durchaus durch diese traditionellen Medizinsysteme eine gewisse Besserung oder 
Linderung erfahren, weil natürlich auch das gesamte Umfeld, der Glaube an die Therapie und 
den Therapeuten Immunprozesse in Gang setzen, die bei unserer selbstverständlichen Haltung 
der westlichen Medizin gegenüber oder gar einer Skepsis unseren Medikamenten gegenüber 
nicht mehr oder gar negativ verlaufen."

[52] Aschoff, Jürgen C and Tashigang, TY:  Mercury in Tibetan Jewel Pills.  Journal of the 
European Ayurvedic Society (Reinbek) 6 (1996).

[53] Aschoff, Jürgen C, Peters, Thies, and Tashigang, TY: The Tibetan Jewel Pill Byu dmar 25 
in migraine prophylaxis. Results of pharmacological & bacteriological investigations and a 
legalized longterm pilot study in Germany. In: Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the 7th Seminar 
of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Schloß Seggau, Graz, June 18th - 24th 
1995. Academy of Science of Austria, Wien 1997(?).

[54] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) (1943- ):  New Decipherments of Tibetan Names of 
Medicinal Plants (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 9, 
No. 3 (1973), pp. 425-430.
[55] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna): The Problem of Decipherment of Tibetan Names. In: 
Abstracts of the Vth Conference of Young Scholars, dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the 
Establishment of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 24./25. April 1973 in Ulan-
Ude (Russian). pp. 41-42, Ulan-Ude 1973.

[56] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna): The List of the Medicinal Plants from the Twentieth 
Chapter of the Second Volume of "Vaidurya sngon-po" [Vai du rya snon po]. In: Biologicheskie 
Resursy Vostochnoi i Yugo-Vostochnoi Asii i ikh ispol'sovanie (= The Biological Resources of 
East and South-East Asia, and their Use) (Russian). pp. 22-30, Vladivostok 1978.

[57] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna): New Decipherments of Tibetan Names of Medicinal 
Plants. In: "Izuchenie Preparatov Rastitel'nogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya" = Studies 
of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin (Russian). pp. 79-80, Tomsk 1978.

[58] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B:  Decipherment of the Names 
of the Species of the Plant Aconitum L., described in the Tibetan Treatise "Shel-'phreng" 
(Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 12, 1 (1976), 
pp. 96-98.

[59] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): Decipherment of 
Tibetan Plant Names Described in the Treatises Vai du rya snon po and mDzes mtshar mig 
rgyan (Russian). In: Biologicheskoe Deystvie Veshchestv Prirodnogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= 
Biological Effects of Substances of Natural Origin) (Russian), pp. 17-79.  Ulan-Ude 1983.
 Scientific equivalents to Tibetan plant names described in the treatises Vai du rya snon po and 
mDzes mtshar mig rgyan are given. Their botanical identification is based on descriptions in the 
treatises and pictures, taking into consideration works of Russian and of foreign scientists.

[60] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Batuyev, BB, and Bukhasheyeva, TG (1946- ): The 
Description of the Tibetan Collection of Prescriptions "Bolshoy Aginsky Sbyor" (Russian). In: 
The Materials of the Republican Conference of the Pharmacists of Buryatia (Russian). pp. 42-
43, Ulan-Ude 1983.
 The general description of the collection of prescriptions "Bolshoy Aginsky Sbyor" (= The 
Great Collection of Prescriptions of the Aga Monastery) is presented. The prescriptions are 
divided into 15 chapters according to the type of drug prescribed. For severe diseases more 
complex preparations are used. This regularity makes it possible to select 3 to 5-component 
preparations from complex drug mixtures and to elaborate new types of drugs with a certain 
pharmacological action.

[61] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Batuyev, BB, Khapkin, IS, Fedotovskikh, NN, and 
Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich):  The Choice of Combinations of Plants with a Given 
Spectrum of Biological Action. The Study of Tibetan Complex Drugs. Report No. 2 (Russian). 
"Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 21, 1 (1985), pp. 15-25.
 While studying Tibetan prescriptions in order to show species of plants with good prospects, 
and plant combinations with a given spectrum of biological action, the authors noted that the 
system of complex therapy had in the beginning been established by use of medicinal mixtures 
consisting of 3 to 5 component preparations; during later periods in the development of Tibetan 
medicine these combinations comprise up to 60 and more components in the treatment of 
diseases with a more complex aetiopathogenesis. The authors consider plant combinations with 
a given spectrum of biological actions, consisting of four basic tasks: 1. Grouping prescriptions 
according to the given features: prescriptions for treatment of inflammatory processes in 
organs and tissues accompanied by homoeostatic disturbances; prescriptions for treatment of 
complicated diseases of the liver and digestive organs, etc. 2. Tabulations (in the given work 
the authors present 12 tables) showing the compound of the prescription and healing properties 
of each component according to Tibetan treatises. 3. Comparison of components of 
prescriptions with repeated combinations of drugs with a given spectrum of biological action. 
4. Analysis of potencies of drugs considering the chemical compound and pharmacological 
activity of their separate components in accordance with usage of prescriptions of separate 
ingredients and of the whole mixture.- The researchers believe that the combinations analysed 
so far can be used as a basis for making new drugs according to Tibetan prescriptions. The 
proper combination of such preparations permits to test the complex therapy-system of Tibetan 

[62] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich):  Some Results 
and Prospects of Studying Indo-Tibetan Medicinal Plants (Russian). Biological Resources of 
Transbaikalia and their Preservation. A Collection of Articles (Russian).  (1982), pp. 47-54.
 The authors describe briefly 1) the history of Tibetan Medicine with description of plants, 
decipherment of Tibetan plant names and information about their use, giving recommendations 
for phytochemical and pharmacological works according to the Tibetan schemes of treatment; 
2) realization of recommendations for some plants' scrutiny; study of their habitat areas; 
introduction of a few species.

[63] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Batorova, S(of'ya) 
M(ayorovna), Naydakova, TsA, Nikolayev, SM, and Rakshain, KV:  Principles of 
Pharmacotherapy of Hepatitis in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). "Bulletien' Sibirskogo Otdeleniya 
Akademii Medichinskich Nauk SSSR" =Bulletin of Siberian Division, Academy of Medical 
Sciences of the USSR (Novosibirsk) No. 2 (1984), pp. 69-71.
 The main principle of Tibetan Medicine is to treat the human body as an entirety as Tibetan 
physicians have considered any disease as a disturbance of the whole body. Therefore, the 
treatment scheme of different illnesses is rather a complex one: prescription of several 
preparations in appointed sequence, cauterization, blood-letting, and diet. The authors analyse 
the principles of therapy and drugs of Tibetan Medicine for liver diseases. The effect of 39 
Tibetan preparations on the functional state of the liver has been studied; 8 of them have 
shown the most favourable therapeutical effect.

[64] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), and Batuyev, BB: 
Tibetan Classification of Medicinal Plants and its Significance. In: Materials of the Third 
Republican Practical Conference of the Physicians of Buryatia (Russian), pp. 211-212.  Buryat 
Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1975.
[65] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), and Rezanova, OI:  
Decipherment of the Tibetan Name of the Plant bar-ba-da and its Use in Indo-Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 15, 2 (1979), p. 293.

[66] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Rezanova, OI, and 
Tsybenov, ZhTs: New Information about Medicinal Plants in Indo-Tibetan Medicine and the Use 
of their Medicinal Properties. In: "Izuchenie Preparatov Rastitel'nogo i Sinteticheskogo 
Proiskhozhdeniya" = Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin (Russian). 
pp. 81-82, Tomsk 1978.

[67] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), and Yakovlyev, GP: 
Medicinal Plants of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 160 p., with illustr. "Science", Siberian 
Division, Novosibirsk 1985.
 Methods of studying varieties of plants of Tibetan Medicine in the USSR and abroad are 
presented. An analysis is given of a few Tibetan texts with descriptions of medicinal plants. 
Scientific equivalents of Tibetan names of plants have been defined; the basic principles of 
substitution of medicinal plants in Tibetan Medicine are discussed.

[68] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich), Kudrin, AN, 
Tolmachyova, EL, Fedotovskikh, NN, and Khapkin, IS: The Pharmacopoeia of the Tibetan 
Medicine (Russian). 192 p., 8 p. with illustr. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1989.
 With a bibliography of 261 titles.

[69] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Dashiyev, M(unko) D(ashiyevich):  The Experience of 
Decipherment of some Tibetan Names of Medicinal Plants (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" = 
Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 9, 2 (1975), pp. 193-197.

[70] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Fedotovskikh, NN, Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich), 
and Khapkin, IS: Plant Combinations from Tibetan Prescriptions as Premises for Making New 
Phytopreparations (Russian). In: Resul'taty i Perspektivy Nauchnykh Issledovaniy v Oblasti 
Sozdaniya Lekarstvennykh Sredstv iz Rastitel'nogo Syr'ya (= Results and Perspectives of 
Investigations in Creating Medicinal Remedies from Raw Drug Materials). Abstracts of the 
Reports of All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian). pp. 137-138, Moscow 1985.
 Four drug mixtures have been studied. It appears that all 4 preparations have polyvalent 
effects. The components of the mixtures are reported.

[71] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Khapkin, IS, Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich), and 
Fedotovskikh, NN:  Principles of Composing and Using Tibetan Multi-component Medicinal 
Mixtures (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 20 (1984), 
pp. 479-481.
 The principles of composing and using Tibetan multicomponent medicinal mixtures given in the 
rGyud-bzhi and Vai du rya snon po are shown. The authors interpret Tibetan principles and the 
necessity of experimental tests for chemical and pharmacological compatibility of separate 
components of drugs.

[72] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), Konstantinova, NA, and Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna):  
Structural Analysis of Tibetan Prescriptions for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases 
(Russian). Bulletin of Siberian Division, Acad. Med. Sciences of the USSR (Novosibirsk) 6 
(1983), pp. 63-66.
 On the basis of an analysis of Tibetan prescriptions for inflammatory diseases, the main 
structural elements are selected: antiinflammatory drugs; drugs affecting the central nervous 
system, and antibacterial drugs.

[73] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Naydakova, TsA: Food Plants in Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). 144 p., with illustr.- Institute of Biology, Buryat Branch, Siberian Division of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude 1983.
 2nd edition 1987, 136 p., illustr.; 3rd revised and enlarged edition 1991.- This book contains 
information about properties of vegetables used in Tibetan Medicine and described in Tibetan 
medical treatises.

[74] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Schreter, AI:  The Method for Definition of Scientific 
Plant Names According to their Description in Ancient Manuscripts (Russian). "Rastitel'nye 
Resursy" = Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 12, 4 (1976), pp. 609-614.

[75] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Schreter, AV: Prospects of the Use of Computers in 
the Analysis of Information about the Use of Plants in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Medicinal 
Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific Conference 
(Russian), pp. 10-11.  Ulan-Ude 1987.
 Three groups of information exist about the use of medicinal plants from Tibetan treatises and 
specially from collections of prescriptions. These data present forecasting parameters for the 
selection of plants with high biological action.

[76] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Tsybenov, ZhTs: Some Problems in Studying 
Medicinal Plants used in Tibetan Medicine. In: Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 
10th-12th March 1975, on "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" 
= Ethnographical Aspects of Studying Folk Medicine (Russian). pp. 82-83. "Science", 
Leningrad 1975.

[77] Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna) and Tsybenov, ZhTs: Tibetan Medical Treatise of the 
XVIIth century "Vaidurya sngon-po". In: Abstracts of the Conference of Aspirants and Young 
Scholars (Russian), pp. 5-7. - Institute for Oriental Studies, the Academy of Sciences of the 
USSR, Moscow 1975.

[78] Asshauer, Egbert:  Tibetische und chinesische Medizin: Ein Vergleich. Deutsche Zeitschrift 
für Akupunktur (Heidelberg) 27 (1984), pp. 137-144.
 Die tibetische Medizin hat eine lange Geschichte. Sie unterscheidet sich in wesentlichen 
Punkten von der chinesischen Medizin. Darauf wird sowohl vom Standpunkt der Grundlagen, 
der Diagnostik wie auch der Therapie eingegangen. Dem Leser eröffnet sich dadurch eine neue 
Facette fernöstlichen Denkens, betrachtet mit den Augen eines westlichen Arztes.

[79] Asshauer, Egbert:  Tibetische Medizin heute in Theorie und Praxis. Die Medizinische Welt 
37 (1986), pp. 310-315.

[80] Asshauer, Egbert:  Padma 28 - ein tibetisches Heilmittel (Arzneimittelstudie). 
Naturheilpraxis mit Naturmedizin 40 (1987), pp. 1134-1143.

[81] Asshauer, Egbert:  Tibetische Medizin im Exil. Hamburger Ärzteblatt 41 (1987),
pp. 167-168.
[82] Asshauer, Egbert: Tibetische Medizin: Feuerfrei - der Patient soll leben. In: GEO-Spezial: 
Himalaya, pp. 70-76. Gruner und Jahr, Hamburg 1988.

[83] Asshauer, Egbert:  Die Phytopharmakologie der tibetischen Medizin. Erfahrungsbericht über 
eine Mönchsmedizin zwischen Tradition und Gegenwart. Natur- und Ganzheitsmedizin 
(Stuttgart) 2 (1989), pp. 48-53.
 "Das Ungleichgewicht der 'Drei Säfte' Wind, Galle und Schleim verursacht Krankheit. Es kann 
durch Pflanzenheilmittel mit ähnlichen oder entgegengesetzten Eigenschaften - die sich aus der 
Zusammensetzung der Säfte wie der Pflanzen aus den 5 Elementen ergeben - ausgeglichen 
werden. Der heilende Effekt der Pflanzen wird durch ihren Standort, ihre Aufbereitung und ihre 
Mischung bestimmt und kann durch Beimengung mineralischer und tierischer Stoffe verstärkt 
werden. Eine Übernahme der tibetischen Materia medica in den Westen ist praktisch unmöglich, 
weil die schriftliche Tradition unzuverlässig und die mündliche Lehre geheim ist. Die Praxis der 
tibetischen Heilkunde ist eine hohe Kunst, die auf der Pulsdiagnostik basiert und durch Glauben 
und religiöse Rituale verstärkt und zu einer buddhistischen Medizin erweitert wird. Die 
Wirksamkeit einzelner Präparate auch im Westen ist jedoch erwiesen und sollte intensiver 
erforscht werden."

[84] Asshauer, Egbert:  Tibetische Medizin. Amalgam aus traditioneller Heilkunde und 
buddhistischer Metaphysik. Therapeutikon (Karlsruhe) 3, (9) (1989), pp. 474-482.
 "Tibetische Medizin ist mit buddhistischer Philosophie und Psychologie untrennbar verbunden. 
Falsches Denken und Handeln sind wesentliche Krankheitsursachen neben dem unwägbaren 
Einfluß des Karma. Sie führen zu einer Störung der 3 Säfte, die an den Pulsen erkannt und mit 
Pflanzenmedizin behandelt werden kann. Deren Zusammensetzung aus den 5 Elementen wird 
an ihrem Geschmack geprüft und ermöglicht so eine gezielte Korrektur im Mischungsverhältnis 
der Säfte, da diese ihre materielle Basis ebenfalls in den Elementen haben. Jede Heilmaßnahme 
wird aber erst durch den Segen des Medizin-Buddha vollkommen, deshalb haben religiöse Riten, 
Gebete und tantrische Praktiken erhebliches Gewicht im therapeutischen Prozeß."
[85] Asshauer, Egbert:  Tibetische Kräutermischung hilft Aids-Patienten. Welt am Sonntag 42, 
vom 21. Oktober (1990), S. 34.

[86] Asshauer, Egbert:  Padma 28 - eine tibetische Kräutermischung als Immunmodulator. 
Naturheilpraxis mit Naturmedizin 44 (1991), pp. 138-141.

[87] Asshauer, Egbert: Die Fähigkeiten der tibetischen Ärzte in der Pulsdiagnose und 
Kräutermedizin grenzen an das Wunderbare. In: Tibet und seine Medizin. 2500 Jahre Heilkunst. 
pp. 27-28. Pinguin-Verlag, Innsbruck 1992.
 "Die tibetische unterscheidet sich von der indischen oder der chinesischen Medizin auch in der 
Pflanzenheilkunde, nicht so sehr in den zugrundeliegenden Prinzipien, sondern wegen der völlig 
eigenständigen Materia Medica, die bis heute außerhalb Tibets größtenteils unbekannt ist und 
etwas Geheimnisvolles hat. Die meisten Heilkräuter stammen aus dem Hochhimalaya. Das 
Sammeln, Trocknen und Mischen der Kräuter setzt große Erfahrung voraus, die auch durch das 
Studium der alten Texte nicht zu ersetzen ist: Darin sind zwar die Rezepturen beschrieben, 
doch sind die Namen der Pflanzen nicht in allen Landesteilen identisch; außerdem sind die 
Pflanzen - durch ungenaue Beschreibung oder weil viele Arten inzwischen ausgestorben sind - 
oft nicht oder nur sehr schwer zu finden; schließlich fehlen fast immer Maß- und 
Gewichtsangaben. So ist die tibetische Pharmakologie letztlich eine Geheimlehre geblieben, die 
nur mündlich von Lehrer zu Schüler über die Jahrhunderte weitergegeben worden ist."

[88] Asshauer, Egbert:  Theorie und Praxis der tibetischen Medizin. 1. Teil. Tibet und 
Buddhismus 6, Nr. 21, Heft 2 (1992), pp. 26-30.

[89] Asshauer, Egbert:  Theorie und Praxis der tibetischen Medizin. 2. Teil. Tibet und 
Buddhismus 6, Nr. 22, Heft 3 (1992), pp. 23-27.
 Dieser Teil beschäftigt sich vorwiegend mit der Pharmakologie der tibetischen Medizin und mit 
dem Tibetan Medical Institute in Dharamsala.

[90] Asshauer, Egbert: Heilkunst vom Dach der Welt. Tibets sanfte Medizin. 251 S. Herder, 
Freiburg/Br.-Basel-Wien 1993.
 Fundierte und kritische, dabei differenziert auf Geschichte und Gegenwart der tibetischen 
Medizin eingehende Darstellung. Einleitend bemerkt der Autor: "Im Vergleich zur griechisch-
arabischen, zur indischen und zur chinesischen Heilkunde hat die tibetische Medizin - als 
jüngstes der traditionellen Medizinsysteme - wesentlich stärker an allen drei genannten 
Systemen partizipiert. Sie ist insofern synkretistischer (zusammengesetzter, vermischter) als 
jene, die über Jahrhunderte gegenüber äußeren Einflüssen verschlossen geblieben sind, trotz 
mancher Ergänzungen, Erweiterungen und Vermischungen, die auch ihnen zuteil wurden. Wie 
wir sehen werden, ist es den Tibetern aber gelungen, die ganz anders gearteten klimatischen, 
soziokulturellen und epidemiologischen Gegebenheiten des tibetischen Hochlandes zu einem 
eigenständigen Ganzen zu verschmelzen. Vor allem der Buddhismus in seiner tibetischen, 
tantrischen Form hat hier eine bedeutsame, weil verbindliche Rolle gespielt."

[91] Asshauer, Egbert:  Medizinlehre und Pflanzenheilkunde der Tibeter. Zeitschrift für 
Phytotherapie (Stuttgart) 14 (1993), pp. 27-33.
 Aus dieser Übersichtsarbeit hier einiges zur Pillenbehandlung: "Die Verschreibung von Pillen 
aus Heilkräutern steht in der Therapie an erster Stelle. Nach der Theorie sollte allerdings die 
Korrektur von Diät und Verhalten diesen Platz einnehmen; doch sind diese Faktoren bei den 
meisten Patienten - wie bei uns - nur schwer zu ändern. Andere Zubereitungsformen wie 
Dekokte, Sirupe, Zäpfchen etc. sind derzeit aus praktisch-finanziellen Gründen selten. Die 
Wirkung eines Heil- oder eines Nahrungsmittels wird durch seine Zusammensetzung aus den 
fünf Elementen bestimmt, denen bestimmte Eigenschaften zugeschrieben werden. Äther als 
alles durchdringendes Element ist dabei frei von anderen Eigenschaften. Die Mischung aus den 
Elementen bestimmt den Geschmack einer pflanzlichen Droge, der damit der Indikator für ihre 
Eigenschaften und für ihre Wirkung auf ein Ungleichgewicht der Säfte ist. Eine ölige 
Eigenschaft bei Windstörungen hat z. B. Aquilaria agallocha Roxb., eine glatte Rubus idaeopsis 
Focke, eine kühle bei Gallenstörungen Cinnamomum camphora Nees et Eberm., eine stumpfe 
Bambusa textilis McClure; eine rauhe bei Schleimstörungen Hippophae rhamnoides Linn., eine 
leichte Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Süß ist Vitis vinifera L.; bitter Herpetospermum caudigerum 
Wall.; sauer Punica granatum L.; herb Santalum album L.; scharf Piper nigrum L."

[92] Asshauer, Egbert:  Tibetische Medizin im Buddhismus. Dao. Magazin fernöstlicher 
Lebenskunst (Norderstedt) Nr. 4 (1993), pp. 20-22.
 Enthält auch ein Interview mit Dr. Tamden zu Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschieden von tibetischer 
und ayurvedischer Medizin. Aus dieser Übersichtsarbeit zitiere ich über die Pulsdiagnose: "In 
der Diagnostik ist die Pulsdiagnose die wichtigste Maßnahme. Sind mehrere Säfte gleichzeitig 
beeinträchtigt, dann reicht diese oft nicht aus und man zieht die Urindiagnose hinzu. Die 
Zungendiagnose ist ungenau und wird kaum benutzt. Eine gründliche Befragung und eine 
körperliche Untersuchung von Kopf bis Fuß, wie wir sie kennen, findet kaum je statt. Mit der 
Pulsdiagnose lassen sich alle Störungen der drei Säfte diagnostizieren. Es gibt Puls-Frequenzen 
für bestimmte Krankheiten wie Epilepsie, Tumore, Tuberkulose. Sogar der Einfluß böser Geister 
läßt sich mit Hilfe der Pulsdiagnose häufig bestimmen. Da die drei Säfte ja auch den 
psychischen Bereich widerspiegeln, werden Abweichungen vom gesunden Puls sofort erfaßt, 
so daß sich eine gesonderte Befragung oder auch Therapie erübrigt. Tibetische Ärzte fragen 
nicht viel. Sie fühlen den Puls und verschreiben eine Medizin."

[93] Asshauer, Egbert:  Das Kloster Sera: Mönchisches Leben im Exil. Tibet und Buddhismus 9, 
Heft 2 (1995), S. 33 ff.
 Über hygienische und gesundheitliche Probleme in einem Groß-Kloster. Dazu schreibt der 
Autor: "Unser Ziel waren die tibetischen Settlements von Bylakuppee, etwa 75 km von Mysore 
entfernt, wo 18000 Exiltibeter leben. Hier entstanden mit dem Kloster Sera die Mahayana 
Buddhist University und noch zwei kleine Klöster: Ein tantrisches Kolleg der Gelug-Tradition und 
ein Kloster der Nyingma-Tradition als Bewahrer der mönchischen Kultur Tibets. Das Kloster 
Sera besteht aus 2 Kollegien - Sera Jhe und Sera Mhe -, die unabhängig voneinander verwaltet 
werden. 1967 hatten 250-300 Mönche, die alle aus dem Kloster Sera nördlich von Lhasa 
stammten, mit dem Bau begonnen. Jetzt leben hier 3600 meist sehr junge Mönche, von denen 
allein 2600 zu Sera Jhe gehören. Besonders in den letzten Jahren sind jährlich mehr als 150 
Mönche aus Tibet hinzugekommen. Genau das ist auch in Sera Jhe passiert. Die hygienischen 
Verhältnisse waren, bei der Enge der Behausungen und durch den ständigen Zuzug neuer 
Flüchtlinge verständlich, katastrophal. Die Ärzte der traditionellen tibetischen Medizin vom 
Tibetan Medical Institute im sogenannten Camp 1, etwa 5 km vom Kloster entfernt, hatten alle 
Hände voll zu tun. Aber sie waren hier eher machtlos, da es sich fast immer um akute, durch 
unsauberes Wasser bedingte Infektionen, um Hautkrankheiten durch schlechte persönliche 
Hygiene  und Ungeziefer und um Tuberkulose handelte. Hier wirken die traditionellen 
Pflanzenheilmittel zu langsam oder gar nicht."

[94] Avedon, John F:  Exploring the Mysteries of Tibetan Medicine. 3 fig. The New York Times 
Magazine (N.Y.) 11th January (1981), pp. 26-28, 32, 52-53.
 Dr. Richard Selzer, an assistant Professor of surgery at Yale University, said he was practically 
"spellbound" when he first witnessed a demonstration of the Tibetan's unorthodox diagnostic 
techniques, but was unconvinced that what he was seeing held any scientific validity. "Dr. 
Donden drew a chair up to a patient's bed, pulled a shawl over his head while he felt his pulse 
for about 15 minutes, and then he closely examined a urine specimen", Dr. Selzer recalled. "His 
subsequent diagnosis was correct in a way, but it was cast in such highly ambiguous language, 
it could be interpreted in many ways. It was as if he was a human electrocardiogram machine 
interpreting the component parts of the pulse beat."

[95] Avedon, John F: Tibetan Medicine. The Science of Healing. In: In Exile from the Land of 
Snows, pp. 129-156.  Alfred A. Knopf Inc., New York 1984.
 Besides an elaborate biography of Dr. Yeshe Donden [vide also Donden, Delhi 1974] and a 
general introduction into the system of Tibetan Medicine, the author remarks on a interesting 
part of Dr. Donden's visit to the USA: "To test the efficacy of Tibetan drugs by laboratory 
standards, Yeshe Donden agreed, while in Virginia, to engage in an experiment with cancerous 
mice. On the basis of a visual examination alone, he prescribed a general Tibetan cancer drug, 
comprised of over sixty ingredients, for nine tumor-implanted mice in a lab in the University of 
Virginia's vivarium. Six mice refused the medicine and died within thirty-five days. Three mice 
accepted it and survived up to fifty-three days. A second experiment involving sixteen animals 
confirmed the findings, producing the most successful results since work with the particular 
tumor involved began in 1967. Of even greater interest, though, was the fact that Dr. Dhonden 
had no knowledge of the nature of the cancer he was dealing with. 'There are literally hundreds 
of kinds of tumors', commented Dr. Donald Baker, the researcher in charge of the experiment. 
'How often has Dr. Donden encountered a KHT anaplastic sarcoma growing in a highly inbred 
strain of 3CH/HEJ female mice? It would be utterly unreasonable to ask him to decide what 
would be the best treatment. If he had been familiar with these conditions he might well have 
effected a complete cure'. 'There is no question that this is a very fertile area for cancer 
quacks', added Dr. Goldstein. 'In the end, though, things either work or they don't work. Dr. 
Donden has things that work'."

[96] Avedon, John F:  "21 Tibeter überlebten". Ein tibetischer Arzt im chinesischen 
Arbeitslager. 3 Abb. Tibet-Forum (Bonn) 1 (1985), pp. 4-9.
 From: In Exile from the Land of Snows.- Sehr eindrucksvolle Schilderung über die ersten 
beiden Jahre im Gefängnis 1959-1961.

[97] Avicenna (981-1037):  vide Badarayev & Bazaron, Tashkent 1980;  V. K. Jumayev, 
Tashkent 1965.

[98] Azhunova, TA, Shantanova, LN, and Gomboyeva, SB: Pharmacotherapy with the Extract 
from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgii in Experimental Hepatitis (Russian). In: The Second 
Republican Conference on Medical Botany. Abstracts of the Reports (Russian), pp. 332-333. 
Kiev 1988.
 It has been demonstrated that the extract from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgii 
possesses a protective effect on the liver injured by hepatotropic poison. The findings permit to 
suppose that the hepato-protective properties of the extract are due to its antioxidant and 
membrane stabilising activities.

[99] Bacot, Jacques:  La table des présages signifiés par l'éclair. Texte tibétain, publié et 
traduit par J. Bacot. Journal Asiatique (Paris) Series 11, Vol. 1 (1913), pp. 445-449.
[100] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B: On Some Results of Source Research of Indo-Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). In: Rerikhovskie Chteniya (= The Roerich's Readings). The Materials of the 
Conference (Russian), pp. 256-259.  Novosibirsk 1980.
 Brief analysis of investigations conducted by the Buryat Branch of the Siberian Division of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences, up to 1980. This research has two aspects: fundamental source 
research and applied studies of medical books.
[101] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B: The Decipherment of the General System and Structure of the 
rGyud-bzhi (Russian). In: "Vostokovednie issledovaniya v Buryatii" = Oriental Studies in 
Buryatia, pp. 78-92.  "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1990.
 The rGyud-bzhi, the basic treatise of Tibetan Medicine, has 4 volumes and 156 chapters. The 
canon as a medical treatise and as a subject of medical theory is based on systematic and 
structural principles. With the help of systems and a structural method, the author shows the 
inner logical connection between the four volumes of the rGyud-bzhi which determines their 
integrity as a system. The author explains some main terms defining their structure: three 
roots, nine stems, etc.

[102] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B, Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Dashiyev, M(unko) 
D(ashiyevich), and Tsybenov, ZhTs: Methods of Deciphering Tibetan Botanical Terms (Russian). 
In: Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny (= 
Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) 
(Russian), pp. 41-47,  Novosibirsk 1982.
 1) A comparative method for deciphering Tibetan botanical terms is explained; 2) the results of 
interpretation of Tibetan botanical terms from the treatises Vai du rya snon po, Shel 'phreng 
and mDzes mtshar mig rgyan are tabulated.

[103] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B, Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), and Surkova, TA: The Logical 
Basis of Methods of Tibetan Plant Names Decipherment and their Identification (Russian). In: 
Materials on Studying the Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian), pp. 27-41. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1982.
 Methods of decipherment and identification of Tibetan plant names represent a part of the 
comparative-historical method of the history of medicine and pharmacology with the help of 
which important actual tasks are to be solved. The authors show logical bases for Tibetan plant 
names deciphering and their botanical identification process. All the methods are demonstrated 
in tables of identification. Material from medical books like the mDzes mtshar mig rgyan, Shel 
'phreng, Vai du rya snon po and others has been used in the present article. Elaboration and 
logical substantiation of the general deciphering scheme of ancient Oriental plant names make 
it possible to show drug properties of plants and to select certain species of plants with good 
prospects for experimental research.

[104] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B and Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Methodological Problems 
of the Comparative Study of Avicenna's Scientific Heritage and Indo-Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). In: Abu-Ibn-Sina, the Great Physician, Scientist and Encyclopedist (Russian), pp. 34-
35.  Tashkent 1980.
 Avicenna (981-1037) was a renowned Arabian physician. His "Medical Handbook" (last edition 
in the 17th century) has probably been the most widely studied medical book of all times. The 
authors draw attention to the necessity of a comparative study of Avicenna's scientific 
heritage. This work consists of the two following stages: 1) historical connections and 
synthesis of Western and Oriental scientific achievements; 2) connections with the Ayurvedic 
and Indo-Tibetan (Buddhist) medical systems.

[105] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B, Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Dashiyev, M(unko) 
D(ashiyevich), Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), and Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): Glang 
thabs (Acute Diseases of the Organs of the Abdominal Cavity) and their Correction in Tibetan 
Medicine. [Translation into Russian from chapter 49 of the third volume from the Commentary 
to the rGyud-bzhi, entitled the Vaidurya sngon-po]. Chief editor B. V. Semichov (Russian). 
141 p. Buryat Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1976.
 For contents and commentary see following entry, which is an English translation of this 

[106] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B, Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Dashiyev, M(unko) 
D(ashiyevich), Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), and Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna):  Glang 
thabs (Acute Diseases of the Organs of the Abdominal Cavity) and their Correction in Tibetan 
Medicine: Translation into Russian from the third section [i.e. volume] of the rGyud-bzhi (sic!) 
and the Vaidurya sngon-po. [Acad. of Sciences of the USSR, Siberian Division. Buryat Branch, 
Institute of Social Sciences. Ulan-Ude 1976]. Chief Editor B.V. Semichov. Translated from the 
Russian by Dr. Stanley Frye. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
(Dharamsala) Series No. 4 (1981), pp. 1-116.
 "The present work is an initial attempt to translate into Russian and now from Russian into 
English, and to introduce to the world of science, several chapters from the third section of the 
Vaidurya sngon-po entitled Man-ngag-gi rGyud (section on individual pathology).. . .  The Man-
ngag-gi rGyud in the system of the four bases of the rGyud-bzhi and its commentary, the 
Vaidurya sngon-po, comprise a general teaching on diseases of a complex-synthetic nature and 
include problems of the etiology of nosological forms, pathogenesis, clinical studies, diagnosis, 
and methods of treatment. 
The present translation necessitated the joint efforts of various specialists which included 
medical personnel, i.e. Candidate of Medical Sciences E. G. Bazaron; Botanists: T. A. Aseyeva, 
S. M. Batorova; a representative of Traditional Medicine and Theory: Munko Dashiyev; a 
scholar of Japanese and a Sinologist: K. V. Sydenov; and a Tibetologist and Mongolist: 
Candidate of Philological Science B. Badarayev.- 
Many researchers and publishers of the original sources of Indo-Tibetan Medicine of an earlier 
generation (P. A. Badmayev, D. Ulyanov, A. M. Pozdneyev, and others) either were orientalists 
who had had no special medical training, or they had been doctors, pharmacologists, clinicians, 
or botanists with no knowledge of the language, literature, or history and practice of Indo-
Tibetan Medicine. Their publications were of certain importance at the time. However, due to 
the fact that there was no cooperative approach to the interpretation of the structural 
contents, they could not present the reader with a correct and scientific idea of the subject or 
the true nature of the theory and system of Indo-Tibetan Medicine. This fact prompted the 
eminent Soviet Tibetologist, M. I. Tubyansky [see Belenky and Tubyansky 1935], to state in his 
basic work 'On the Problem of Studying Tibetan Medicine', that 'it must be admitted that the 
study of Tibetan Medicine in the full sense of the word has actually not yet been done by 
anyone, because we cannot consider a mere translation of an original text into one or another 
language to be a study.' Any translation, especially the translation of a medical treatise which 
is unusual in content, can only present the material for the study of the subject of medicine 
itself and a basis for orientation in the study of the problems as a whole."

[107] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B, Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE, Batuyev, BB, and Zhabon, Yu Zh: The 
Structure of the Tibetan Medical Treatise "Shel-'phreng" (Russian). In: Source Researches and 
Textology of the Monuments of the Medical Sciences in Central Asian Countries. In Honour of 
the Late Mongolian Academician Ts. Damdinsuren (1908-1986). Chief Editor R. E. Pubayev. pp. 
141-150. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1989.

[108] Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B and Zhambaldagbayev, NTs: Structural Peculiarities of Tibetan 
Medical Texts and Methods of their Analysis (Russian). In: Methodological Aspects of Studies 
in the History of Spiritual Culture of the Orient (Russian), pp. 69-79.  Ulan-Ude 1988.
 The structures of Tibetan medical texts with their functions are studied. The authors show 
that the knowledge systems contained in the texts may be regarded as systems which 
structurally and functionally form a knowledge base adopted in artificial intelligence systems.

[109] Badashkeyeva, TT: The History of Tibetan Medicine in Mongolia (Russian). In: Medicinal 
Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific Conference 
(Russian), pp. 11-13. Ulan-Ude 1987.
 Tibetan Medicine is a part of the spiritual culture of Mongolia, fundamentally connected with 
traditional medicine. Numerous sources in Tibetan and Mongolian represent the richest heritage 
of Tibetan Medicine. Adaptation of Tibetan Medicine in Mongolia enriched it with the wide 
arsenal of new plant, animal and mineral drugs and traditional methods of treatment. The 
recent studies make it possible to distinguish certain periods in the development of Tibetan 
Medicine. The discovery of Tibetan Medicine by European scientists was mediated by the 
ethnological studies on Mongolian culture.

[110] Badashkeyeva, TT and Garmayeva, TsGh: Ideas of Oriental Physicians about Health 
(Russian). In: Vklad Molodykh Biologov Sibiri v Reskenie Voprosov Prodovol'stvennoi 
Programmy i Okhrany Okruzhayushehey Sredy (= The Contribution of Young Biologists of 
Siberia to the Solution of Questions of the Food Programme and Preservation of Environment). 
Abstracts of the Conference (Russian), pp. 135-136.  Ulan-Ude 1984.
 According to Tibetan medical treatises, diet and rational eating are of great importance for 
health; Tibetan doctors have recommended to avoid over-eating and over-indulgence in heavy 
food, as well as to keep to seasonal principles in daily food. Much attention has been paid to 
the right way of life, work and rest routine.

[111] Bader, Gerd (1960- ):  Arzneipflanzen der Mongolei. Traditionelle Anwendung und 
moderne Erforschung. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung 134, Nr. 42 (1994), pp. 102-106.
 Die Gebirgssteppen bzw. Gebirgswaldsteppen der nördlichen Mongolei stellen ein bisher nur 
wenig untersuchtes Reservoir zahlreicher Arzneipflanzen dar, die insbesondere von Lama-
Heilkundigen seit Jahrhunderten im Rahmen einer modifizierten tibetischen Medizin verwendet 
werden. Im Rahmen eines von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) geförderten 
Projektes zur Isolierung, Strukturaufklärung, partialsynthetischen Modifizierung und 
pharmakologischen Studien von Triterpenglykosiden bereiste der Autor dieses Gebiet und 
sammelte vorrangig Pflanzen der Gattungen Heteropappus und Saussurea für projektbezogene 

[112] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: (1883-1961) Bibliographisches zur Familie Badmajeff 
(Badmayev) vide Feliks Brodowski, Warschau 1932. Siehe zudem J. C. de Tymowski, Paris 
1966, sodann K. Kowalewski 1973, vor allem aber auch Richard Kaufmann, München/Zürich 
1985 - letzterer mit ausführlichen biographischen Angaben zur Familie Badmayev (= 

[113] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: Chi Szara Badahan [Wind-Galle-Schleim]. Zasady Medycyny 
Tybetanskiej. 197 p. Lazarskiego Zlota, Warszawa 1929.
 Für eine überarbeitete deutsche Ausgabe vide "Lung Tripa Bäkän", Fabri Verlag, Ulm 1994.

[114] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: Tajemnica Zdrowia [Das Geheimnis der Gesundheit]. 123 p. 
Gebethner I Wolff, Warszawa 1931.

[115] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz:  Lekarz Tybetanski [Der tibetische Arzt]. Miesiecznik, 
poswiecony szetzeniu zasad zdrownia i medycyny tybetanskiej, pod redakcja Dr. med. W. 
Badmajeffa. Revue trimestrielle (Warszawa, 1932-1936).

[116] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: Medycyna Tibetanska. Jej istota, cele i sposoby dzilania [Die 
tibetische Medizin, ihr Wesen, Ziele und Methoden der Betätigung]. 23 p. Wydawnictwo T-Wa 
Zwolennikow Medycyny Tibetanskiej, Warszawa 1933.

[117] Badmajeff, Wladimir (=Wlodzimierz): Chi Schara Badahan. Grundzüge der Tibetanischen 
Medizin. (Bücher der Weißen Fahne. 93.). Autorisierte Übersetzung aus dem Polnischen von Dr. 
Anna Koffler-Harth. 47 S., Johannes Baum, Pfullingen/Württ. 1934.
 Deutsche Übersetzung der gleichnamigen polnischen Originalpublikation von 1929. Für eine 
überarbeitete Neuausgabe (Lung - Tripa - Bäkän) siehe Fabri Verlag, Ulm 1994.- "Die Kenntnis 
der fernöstlichen Medizin ist sehr gering, fast null. Ich hoffe deshalb, daß dieser erste Versuch, 
die Grundsätze der Tibetanischen Medizin in populärer und jedermann zugänglicher Form 
darzustellen, für den Anfang eine empfindliche Lücke in der westlichen Medizin ausfüllen, ein 
größeres Interesse hervorrufen und vielleicht zu eingehenderem Studium dieses Gebietes 
anregen wird", schreibt Badmajeff in der Einleitung und fährt u. a. fort: "Die Struktur und 
Architektur des Weltalls, der ganzen uns umgebenden Natur auf der einen Seite, und auf der 
anderen der innere und äußere Bau des menschlichen Organismus - das sind zwei Spiegelbilder 
derselben Naturgesetze - Makrokosmos und Mikrokosmos."

[118] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: Na drogach zycia i zdrowia czlowièka [Auf den Wegen des 
Lebens und der Gesundheit des Menschen]. ?? p., Warszawa 1935.
[119] Badmajeff, Wladimir (=Wlodzimierz):  Tibetanische Medizin. Autorisierte Übersetzung 
von Dr. Anna Koffler-Harth. Atlantis. Länder/Völker/Reisen (Zürich) 7 (1935), pp. 45-46.
 "Die tibetische Medizin hat sich im Laufe einiger tausend Jahre entwickelt. Europa wird zum 
ersten Male mit ihr im Jahre 1857 bekannt, als der tibetische Arzt Sul-Tim-Badma nach 
Petersburg kommt, der sich nach Annahme des griechisch-orthodoxen Glaubens Alexander 
Badmajeff nennt. Sein Hauptwerk war die Gründung einer tibetischen Apotheke, der ersten 
dieser Art in Europa. Mit Hilfe von Heilmitteln aus dieser Apotheke heilte er die schwersten 
Krankheiten mit ungewöhnlicher Wirksamkeit und machte so die östliche medizinische Lehre 
weithin bekannt.- Nach dem Tode Alexander Badmajeffs im Jahre 1882 wurde sein Werk in 
Rußland und im Ausland von seinem Bruder Peter fortgesetzt. Er starb im Jahr 1923, 112 Jahre 
alt, in Petersburg.- 
Nach dem Tode Peter Badmajeffs sind die einzigen Vertreter der tibetischen Medizin in Europa 
seine beiden Neffen: Nikolaus und Wladimir Badmajeff. Nikolaus Badmajeff, der die 
Militärärztliche Akademie in Petersburg beendet hat, führt das Werk seines Oheims dort selbst 
fort. Wladimir Badmajeff, Dr. med. der Universität in Moskau und Verfasser dieser Arbeit, nahm 
die polnische Staatsbürgerschaft an und lebt ständig in Warschau. Er übt seine Praxis als 
europäischer Arzt aus, doch wendet er die Methoden der tibetischen Medizin an."

[120] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: Medycyna syntetyczna [Synthetic Medicine], a quarterly journal 
edited by Wlodzimierz Badmajeff, Warszawa 1937-??
 This is the follow-up journal of "Lekarz Tybetanski", but I have no knowledge over which 
period it was published.- All in Polish except Nr. 3/4 (1938, vide "Synthetische Medizin"), 
which contains contributions in German, English and French, including a bibliography of 107 
titles (pp. 4-11), mainly on Indian Medicine.

[121] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: Die Synthetische Medizin. Vierteljahresschrift, gewidmet der 
Verbreitung der Grundsätze der Orientalische Medizin unter Redaktion des Dr. med. Wlodzimierz 
Badmajeff [i.e. einzig auch deutschsprachige Nummer (Titel sic!) von: Medycyna syntetyczna 
Nr. 3-4, 1938]. 54 p., Warszawa 1938.
 Von den 14 Artikeln sind lediglich zwei deutschsprachig, nämlich "Das Laboratorium", S. 26-
29, und "Unsere Methode", S. 30-33.

[122] Badmajeff, Wladimir (=Wlodzimierz): Lung - Tripa - Bäkän. Grundzüge der tibetischen 
Medizin. Neuausgabe der deutschen Übersetzung "Chi Schara Badahan", Pfullingen (1934), in 
überarbeiteter Form, jedoch in weitgehender Anlehnung an die Übersetzung von Anna Koffler-
Harth. Mit einer neuen Einführung von Dietrich von Engelhardt. Um ein Vorwort, 
Inhaltsverzeichnis, einige Anmerkungen und eine Bibliographie zur tibetischen Medizin ergänzt 
durch den Herausgeber Jürgen C. Aschoff. 142 S. Fabri Verlag, Ulm 1994.
Wladimir Badmajeff arbeitete nahezu 40 Jahre als Arzt in Warschau. Er genoß hohes Ansehen 
bei seinen Patienten. Geboren im asiatischen Teil Rußlands wuchs er als Junge in einem 
tibetischen Kloster auf und erlernte dort die Grundzüge der tibetischen Medizin. Von seinem 
berühmten Onkel, dem tibetischen Arzt Petr Aleksandrovich Badmayev - für dessen 
Publikationen siehe dort -, nach St. Petersburg geholt, wurde er dort von diesem privat intensiv 
in die tibetische Medizin eingeführt, studierte jedoch parallel an der Militär-Akademie westliche 
Medizin. Wladimir Badmajeff fühlte sich sein Leben lang der tibetischen Medizin verpflichtet. Er 
behandelte seine Patienten überwiegend auf der Basis tibetisch-medizinischer Erkenntnisse, 
integrierte aber auch Wissen und Methoden der westlichen Medizin.
 Nach Zeitzeugen war er eine überragende Arzt-Persönlichkeit, der psychotherapeutisch, 
physiotherapeutisch und medikamentös nach einem ganzheitlichen Prinzip die Leiden seiner 
Patienten zu lindern versuchte. 
Sein Buch über die Grundzüge der tibetischen Medizin "Lung-Tripa-Bäkän (Äther-Galle-Schleim)" 
erschien 1929 in polnischer Sprache. Die hier wiederaufgegriffene Übersetzung von 1934, der 
modernen Terminologie der westlichen Medizin partiell angepaßt und um eine Einführung zur 
Geschichte der tibetischen Medizin ergänzt, ist auch heute noch mit Genuß zu lesen. Daß 
immer wieder der persönliche Erfahrungsschatz Badmajeffs und Anleihen aus der westlichen 
Medizin mit einfließen, ebenso wie die Ethik des christlichen Abendlandes (Badmajeff ließ sich 
auf den christlich-orthodoxen Glauben taufen), schmälert wohl den wissenschaftlichen Aspekt 
in Hinblick auf die tibetische Medizin, ergänzt diese aber andererseits zu einer "Ganzheitlichen 
Sicht", wie sie heute viel diskutiert und von Patienten erhofft wird. Ob an der tibetischen Kultur 
interessierte Laien, Ärzte oder Patienten oder einfach alle, die von der schillernden Verflechtung 
tibetischer und abendländischer Sichtweisen fasziniert sind, viele Leser werden sich von diesem 
kleinen Werk angesprochen fühlen.
[123] Badmajeff, Wlodzimierz: Vokabular zur tibetischen Heilpflanzenkunde (tibetisch-
mongolisch-lateinisch-russisch). 383 Nummern auf 25 Blättern. Kopie nach einem Manuskript. 
o. J.
[124] Badmayev, DD, Dargayeva, TD, and Naydakova, TsA: About the Preparation of some 
Drugs in Tibetan Medicine. In: Abstracts of the Jubilee Conference, dedicated to the 30th 
Anniversary of the Pharmaceutical Faculty of the Irkutsk State Medical Institute (Russian).
pp. 105-106, Irkutsk 1971.
[125] Badmayev, NN: Pharmacological Formulas in Indo-Tibetan Medicine, Selected According 
to the Climatical Conditions of Leningrad (Russian). (Manuscript), Leningrad 1936 [stored in the 
Biblioteka Akademyi Nauk SSSR (= Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences].

[126] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich) (1811-1923): O sisteme vrachebnoy nauki Tibeta 
[Vom System der ärztlichen Wissenschaft Tibets]. Fasc. I. xxxvi, 234, xxxvi, v p. - Nadezhda 
Skoropetschatnaja, St. Petersburg 1898.
Für eine deutsche Übersetzung siehe P. A. Badmayev, Padma AG, Zollikon/Schweiz 1994.- Die 
ersten Seiten (i-xxxvi) geben eine Charakteristik der lamaistischen Heilkunde. Die nächsten 35 
Seiten enthalten einen Abriß ihrer Geschichte und Notizen über ihre Erforschung. Die 
zahlreichen tibetischen Namen, Buchtitel und Termini sind nur phonetisch wiedergegeben, was 
in vielen Fällen die Zurückführung auf eine korrekte Schreibweise sehr erschwert. Die folgenden 
Seiten (bis Seite 234) enthalten dann eine Übersetzung der beiden ersten "Wurzeln" der rGyud-
bzhi, beschränken sich aber an mehreren Stellen auf eine gekürzte Inhaltsangabe. Die 
anschließenden xxxvi Seiten sind Tabellen, aus denen für die Jahre 1875-1897, Tag für Tag 
genau eingetragen, die Zahl der vom Autor behandelten Patienten und der Medizinen ersichtlich 
ist; den Schluß bildet eine detaillierte Inhaltsangabe.

[127] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich): Glavnoe rukovodstvo po vrachebnoy nauke Tibeta 
Zhud-shi v novom perevode P.A. Badmayeva s ego vvedeniem, raz'yasnyajuscim osnovy 
tibetskoy vracebnoy nauki [Das Lehrbuch für die ärztliche Wissenschaft Tibets, rGyud-bzhi, in 
neuer Übersetzung von P. A. Badmayev, mit seiner Einführung, die Grundlagen der tibetischen 
ärztlichen Wissenschaft erläuternd]. 159 p. Tip [Printing House]  A. S. Suvorina, St. Petersburg 
 Diese Publikation von 1903, zusammen mit dem polemischen Werk Badmayevs, St. Petersburg 
1911 (bzw. der Reprint, Petrograd 1915), erschien als gemeinsamer Reprint bei "Nauka", 
Moskau 1991, zusätzlich mit einer Kurzbiographie des Verfassers durch seinen Enkel B. S. 
Gusyev.- Das Werk von 1903 enthält im wesentlichen den gleichen Inhalt wie das zuvor 
gelistete Buch von 1898; die statistischen Tabellen fehlen jedoch. Erwähnung verdienen einige 
Illustrationen nach tibetischen und mongolischen Originalen. P. A. Badmayev, der sich streng an 
die Regeln lamaistischer Lebensführung hielt, erreichte das hohe Alter von 112 Jahren.- P. A. 
Badmayev hatte auch das schwierige 'Dritte Tantra' der rGyud-bzhi ins Russische übersetzt, 
doch wurde diese Arbeit nie publiziert. Das Manuskript befindet sich im Besitz seines Enkels, 
des Schriftstellers B. S. Gusyev (persönliche Mitteilung N. Bolsokhoyeva).

[128] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich):  On Occasion of the Publication of the New 
Translation of the Main Manual of the Medical Science of Tibet "rGyud-bzhi" (Russian).  
(1903), no pagina.
[129] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich): The Fundamentals of the Medical Science of Tibet 
(Russian). 271 p., St. Petersburg 1907.
[130] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich): Information concerning the Situation of Medical 
Science of Tibet in Russia (Russian). St. Petersburg 1909.
 Same Publication reprinted in 1911.

[131] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich): Answer to the Unfounded Assault of Members of the 
Medical Council Regarding Medical Science in Tibet (Russian). 72 p., St. Petersburg 1911.
 Second edition Petrograd 1915.- P. A. Badmayev was disturbed by the attitude of Russian 
physicians to Eastern medicine in general and to Tibetan medicine in particular. He wrote that, 
during the previous 50 years, Tibetan medicine in St. Petersburg had alleviated the suffering 
and cured diseases of several hundred thousand persons afflicted with various ailments. A 
thousand years ago, Tibetan medical science achieved fame for its analysis and synthesis. 
Essentially, it preserves health, prevents disease and shows people how to help themselves in 
cases of illness, as well as to appreciate the importance of a healthy style of life. The followers 
of this discipline also develop a conscious attitude toward the environment. Badmayev presents 
the main thesis of Tibetan medicine based on reports of patients who recovered from various 
diseases (cancer, syphilis, tuberculosis) with the help of Tibetan medical methods.

[132] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich):  The Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Izvestiya 
[Moscow] (Russian) issue 72, 24th March 1935.
 Even so P. A. Badmayev died in 1923, this article was to my knowledge published in 1935, 
but I have not seen the publication personally.

[133] Badmayev, P(etr) A(leksandrovich): Über das System der medizinischen Wissenschaft 
Tibets. Aus dem Russischen übersetzt von Grigori Agalzew.  228 S. Privatdruck, Studiengruppe 
für tibetische Medizin, Padma AG, Zollikon/Schweiz 1994.
 Für einen Kommentar siehe die russische Originalausgabe, St. Petersburg 1898.

[134] Badmayev, Peter (Junior), Badmayev, Vladimir (Junior), and Park, Lynn: Healing Herbs. 
The Heart of Tibetan Medicine. 84 p. Red Lotus Press, Berkeley 1982.
 "This book provides an explanation of the philosophy and practice of doctors of Tibetan 
Medicine, and shows its relevance to holistic health care. The authors (Badmayevs) are both 
Western medical doctors in New York State. They discuss the mechanisms of action that 
underlie Tibetan herbal remedies, which act as natural food supplements for the body's organs 
and systems. They report results demonstrating the effectiveness of these herbal products 
with disorders like atherosclerosis.- The human drama of the Badmayev family began in 1857 
when the Tibetan herbal physician Sul-Tim-Badma left his monastery to travel to the Russian 
capital of St. Petersburg. Their story is intertwined with the westward odyssey of Tibetan 
Medicine, which led them to Poland, Switzerland, and now to the United States, where Tibetan 
Medicine is finding a new home.- Peter Badmayev (Junior), son of Vladimir Badmayev (1883-
1961), is now a physician in family practice in Long Island, New York. He obtained his M.D. in 
1952 from the Medical Academy in Lodz, Poland, and has practiced medicine in that country 
and in Switzerland. He came to the United States in 1967. Vladimir Badmayev (Junior), 
grandson of Vladimir Badmayev, obtained his medical degree in 1975 and his doctorate in 
microbiology in 1978 from Bialystok Medical School in Bialystok, Poland. He came to the USA 
in 1981 and has been a research fellow in immunology at the Downstate Medical Center in 
Brooklyn, New York."

[135] Badmayev, Vladimir (Junior), Brzosko, Witold J, Dabrowski, M, and Dabrowska-
Bernstein, B:  Padma 28: An Immunoregulatory Substance in vitro. International Journal of 
Immunopharmacology (Oxford/New York) 4 (1982), p. 382 (only).
 (Abstract Nr. 71, The Second International Conference on Immunopharmacology, Washington 
5.-9. July 1982).- Padma 28, a pharmacognostically defined herbal remedy, produced by 
Padma AG in Switzerland, has been successfully used in the treatment of peripheral vascular 
disease, bronchial asthma and allergic dermatitis. In spite of the beneficial clinical findings, little 
is known about the mechanism of Padma 28 action. In vitro experiments were carried out to 
evaluate E-rosetting and Con-A induced T-cell suppression on human PbLeu, with and without 
Padma 28. For these in vitro studies, Padma 28, which originally is in the form of tablets, was 
used as an extract in apyrogenic water under standardized conditions. Blood lymphocyte 
donors were healthy adults and patients with confirmed T-cell deficient lymphocyte 
populations. Padma 28 selectively increased l-hour (early) rosettes while decreasing the 15 min 
(instant) rosettes. Late and total rosettes essentially remained unchanged. In parallel studies of 
cultured lymphocytes, Padma 28 was shown to increase Con-A induced suppressive activity of 
PbLeu. This action of Padma 28 was clearly expressed in lymphocyte populations from T-cell 
deficient patients. In other experiments, this plant-derived remedy was found to be a non-
mitogenic substance.

[136] Bärmark, Jan:  Tibetan Buddhist Medicine from the Perspective of the Anthropology of 
Knowledge. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) 
Series No. 13 (1991), pp. 3-37.
 "As in all other areas of Tibetan medicine, Buddha is a paradigm also in epistemological 
matters. Therefore it is said that all medical knowledge stems from the wisdom of the Buddhas. 
The very 'philosophical' basis of Tibetan medicine, its image of man and its cosmology is an 
outcome of Buddha's enlightenment. Tibetan medicine has its beginning in a practitioner's 
tradition woven into a prolonged religious tradition which has changed very slowly. Reading 
books on Tibetan medicine or listening to Tibetan physicians talking about medicine, one 
notices the richness of metaphors, mirroring a closeness to earth, to everyday life and to 
nature. At the same time, there is both a wealth of variation in observation and a taxonomic 
stringency as well. Tradition has carefully charted different conditions of the mind and of illness 
related to or thought to have their roots in them. According to Tibetan medicine physical 
diseases always have 'psychological' dimensions and vice versa.- Tibetan medicine can be 
characterized from considerations such as these as a craftmanship based on Buddhist 
philosophy and influences from a number of other cultures' traditional medicine, together with 
their own experiences".

[137] Bai Quan and Sun Qihua:  Research on Pharmacognosy of Populus Davidiane Dode - a 
Herb of Tibetan (sic!) (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy 
[Kunming] (Chinese). 5 (1993), pp. 13-14.
 "The purpose of this work was to study the plant Populus davidiana Dode - a herb used in 
Tibetan medicine - collected from Gan Zi of Sichuan Province. This paper deals with the plant 
in toto, its shape and properties, microscopic structure, powdered characteristics, and physical 
and chemical analyses. It provide(s) informations for accurate differentiation, safe use. Further 
research and exploitation is suggested (Cai Jingfeng)".

[138] Bal'burov, A: We live behind the Baikal (Russian). 144 p. Buryat Book Publishing House, 
Ulan-Ude 1976.
 On Tibetan or rather Buryat folk medicine.

[139] Bal, SN: Botanical Survey of India. Catalogue of Medicinal Plant Exhibits in the Industrial 
Section of the Indian Museum. 123 p. Government of India, Central Publication Branch, 
Calcutta 1932.
 Reprinted by Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun 1984.- "The preparation of this 
Catalogue was undertaken by Mr. S.N. Bal, Curator, Industrial Section, Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, in order to effect an arrangement in the medicinal plant exhibits of the Industrial 
Section of the Indian Museum. The arrangement is alphabetical according to the scientific 
names of the plants. Besides the scientific, the common and vernacular names are also given 
to aid identification; there are notes on habit and distribution throughout India, and the parts of 
the plant used are cited. The remarks column brings together in a concise manner some of the 
uses to which the plant parts are put, and references, under each number, to the main source 
of information, show where further details may be had. A bibliographical list shows the 
literature consulted for the preparation of the catalogue."

[140] Baldanzhapov, PB: The Study of Sources of Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Materials 
on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). pp. 
10-17, Novosibirsk 1982.
 The Indo-Tibetan medical system is reflected in numerous records written in Sanskrit, Tibetan, 
Chinese, Mongolian and other languages. The author describes in brief the most wellknown 
medical treatises and acquaints with works of European researchers in the field of Tibetan 

[141] Banerji, Sarada Prasad:  A Note on the Illustrations of the Surgical Instruments of Tibet. 
With  illustr. Journal of the Buddhist Text (and Anthropological) Society of India (Calcutta) II, 
part 3 (1894), pp. IX-X.
 Not much is known about surgery in Tibet, and certainly not too much surgery was done. In 
his paper from 1894 the author points out, that "Like the surgical instruments of the Hindus, of 
which some information can be gathered from Susruta, Charaka, and other works, the surgical 
instruments of Tibet are also named on account of their resemblance to certain objects, such 
as leaves, grains, millet, bills of birds, mouths of animals etc. I have tried to draw comparison 
of some of these with the instruments of Hindu surgery, as sketched and described by Dr. 
Wise in his book on Hindu Medicine. The Hindu instruments are poor in their description and 
detail, and in number. It is evident that the Tibetans acquired a higher knowledge of surgery, 
and the operations which they did with the help of these instruments, seem to have been 
rather elaborate.- The instruments for drawing out fluid from hydrocele and the peritonial 
cavity correspond with the European system of tapping and aspirating apparatuses. The 
speculum of the Tibetans is in no way behind that of the Europeans; with the help of these 
correct diagnosis of the diseases of closed cavities are easily arrived at, operations of piles and 
extra growths are done with nicety."

[142] Banzaraktsayeva, D and Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna): The Tibetan Medical Book 
"Vaidurya sgnon-po" and Comparative Studies of the Assortment of Medicinal Plants in 
Traditional Oriental Medicine. In: Abstracts of the Conference of Aspirants and Young Scholars 
(Russian), p. 156 (only).  Institute for Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the 
USSR, Moscow 1977.
 [143] Banzarov, Dorji (1822-1855): The Black Faith and Shamanism of the Mongols (Russian). 
xxxviii, 129 p., St. Petersburg 1891.
 This work is the doctorate thesis of the author, who was the first Buryat scholar. It was first 
published in "The Scientific Notes of the Imperial Kazan University, vol. III, p. 53-120, 1846.- 
The Black Faith is the ancient religious belief of the Mongols and the peoples related to them. It 
is known in Europe by the name "Shamanism". Following their conversion to Buddhism, the 
Mongols called their traditional religion the Black (i.e., crude, uneducated) Faith, as opposed to 
Buddhism, the Yellow Faith. According to the author, the basis of the Mongols' Black Faith was 
the same as that of many other ancient religious systems: the phenomena of the outer world 
(nature, the universe, the spirit world) and the inner world (man's soul) and their interaction 
served as sources for the Black Faith. 
The outer world influences the infantile person to a greater degree than the inner world. For 
this reason, Heaven, as the highest representative of the outer world, assumed a dominant 
position over the other deities and subordinated those deities which represented the spirit 
world. According to the Mongols, Heaven is the highest deity, the source of live, which the 
Earth (the second deity) supports and maintains. The workship of the Sun, Moon, stars, 
mountains, rivers etc. grew out of an original worship of the Heaven and the Earth. Some 
secondary deities (tengarins in Buryatian) are connected with these objects of reverence. These 
deities represent human emotions, affections, actions and abilities. The conception of the 
immortality of the soul gave rise to the ongons, the souls of the beloved deceased. Banzarov 
describes in detail how the system of shamanism developed among the people and speaks 
about both the origin of shamanism and its fate. - 
N.B. Der schwarze Glauben oder Shamanism entwickelte sich bei den altaischen Völkern auf 
der Basis der sog. Tängri-Religion (s. oben, Tegriner < Tängri = Himmel, herrschende Gottheit 
des Himmels usw., später alle Götter oder auch mächtige Dämonen oder Personen konnten 
tängri sein. Über die ongons, s. Zelenin, D. K., Die Verehrung der Ongonen in Siberien, in: 
Abhandlulngen des Instituts für Anthropologie, Archäologie und Enthnographie der Akademie 
der Wissenschaften der UdSSR (Moskau-Leningrad, 1936), Bd. 14.

[144] Baradiyn, Bazar Bazarovich (1878-1938):  Essays of Mongolia [The Way of Life and the 
Folk Public Health in Mongolia] (Russian). Zhizn' Buryatii (= The Life of Buryatia) 
[Verkhneudinsk = from 1934 Ulan-Ude] (Russian) Nr. 1-2 (1925), pp. 5-9.
[145] Barbarossa, Carlo and Bartolomei, Giovanni di:  Gozzo endemico e trattamento della 
sifilide nel Tibet e nel Butan, alla fine del XVIII seculo [title also in English, German and French]. 
Pagine di Storia della Medicina (Roma) 14, 2 (1970), pp. 30-37.
 The authors report some data on endemic goiter in Tibet as well as on the preparation and use 
of mercury as an antiluetic drug by the inhabitants of Tibet and the borderlands at the end of 
the 18th century. The data referred to are taken from a travel book published in Milan in 1817. 
(Die Verfasser berichten Einzelheiten über den endemischen Kropf sowie über Aufbereitung und 
Gebrauch des Quecksilbers als eines Mittels gegen die Lues bei den Einwohnern Tibets und der 
benachbarten Himalayaländer gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts. Die Einzelheiten sind einer im 
Jahre 1817 in Mailand erschienenen Reisebeschreibung entnommen).

[146] Barthold, W(ilhelm) (1869-1930): Die geographische und historische Erforschung des 
Orients mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der russischen Arbeiten. (Quellen und Forschungen zur 
Erd- und Kulturkunde. 8.). Aus dem Russischen übersetzt von E. Ramberg-Figulla. Mit 
Geleitwort von Martin Hartmann. 239 S. Otto Wigand, Leipzig 1913.
 Eine hervorragende Übersicht über die Erforschung und die Kenntnisse Zentralasiens aus der 
Sicht der russischen Forschungsreisenden und Gelehrten. Mit umfangreichem 
Literaturverzeichnis, speziell der Primärliteratur, auch zu Tibet, das aber gegenüber den 
angrenzenden zentralasiatischen Regionen eher in den Hintergrund tritt. Bearbeitete Autoren u. 
a. Pozdneyev, Cybikov, Roborowsky, Prschewalskiy, Hilarion, Oldenburg, Radloff, Pevtsov, 
Kozlov und Veselowskiy, von denen einige sich auch mit der tibetischen (burjatischen) Medizin 
beschäftigt haben.

[147] Barukoff, GJ: L'antica medicina  Tibetana al Servizio dell'uomo Moderno. La 
Rinopsicodietetica. Centro Sperimentale di Studi Orientali e Tibetani. 238 p. illustr.  
Torino (1963).

[147a] Barukoff, GJ: The Natural Way to Long Life. xx, 67 p. Asian Congress of Religion & 
Health, Colombo (?) (1967).
 Summary of title [147].

[148] Barykov, I: The Tibetan Method of Healing the Cholera (Russian). In: Materialy 
Svobodnogo Ekonomicheskogo Obtschestra (= The Materials of the Free Economic Society), 
issue 2, No. 3., pp. 91-95, Kazan 1849.
[149] Bateson, V:  Some Observations on Tibetan Medical Methods. Medical Magazine (Tel 
Aviv) 13 (new series) (1904), pp. 690 ff.
 Citation in [915], but I was not able to locate this article.
[150] Batorov, PP:  The Popular Calendar of the Alar Buryats (Russian). Proceedings of the 
East-Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society (Ethnographic Collection) No. 3 
pp. ?
 The Buryat New Year falls in the autumn. The names of the months are Khu (September), 
Ulara (October), Uri (November), Guran (December), Bura (January),  Ulan-Zudan (February), 
Eheh-buran (March), Baga Burgan (April), Yani (June), Horhi (July), Uol'zhin (August). The 
months are divided into three parts according to the phases of the moon. The system of 
chronology describes a 12-year cycle. This calendar is of special importance for the medical 
astrology, i. e.  for the system of traditional Tibetan medicine.

[151] Batorov, PP: Materials on Folk Medicine of the Alar Buryats (Russian). In: 
Buryarovedcheskiy Sbornik (= Buryat Studies Collection), vol. I., pp. 33-41. The Buryat-
Mongolian Branch of the East-Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society,
Irkutsk 1926.
 The author provides brief descriptions and the methods of treatment for the following 51 
diseases: 1) amarun - the ulcers on the smokers' lips, 2) arhida durho - hard drinking, 3) arhin 
mangar - hang-over, 4) akkagdaha - tiredness from hard work or riding, 5) badagan - cancer, 6) 
bomo - siberian ulcer (oder "sore" - vgl. "Oriental sore" = kut. Leishmaniasis), 7) batha - open 
comedones (blackheads), 8) balay - blindness, 9) bazhergeh - measles, 10) Bol'geheh - 
vomiting, 11) gam - thrush, 12) galzy - rabies (hydrophobia), 13) gudheny uboshen - diarrhoea, 
14) dalan-turgoto - carbuncle, 15) dul'eh - deafness, 16) zanga-burutha - to be insane, 17) 
zohotho -  singultus (hiccup), 18) khirosgon - hermaphrodite, 19) khuyan - rheumatism, 20) 
kuhoni-habadar - mastitis, 21) khulgyhyn - chill, 22) khuzuni, or goy-e-uboshen - neck-ache, 23) 
kurensek - freckles, 24) kuyton-uboshen - gonorrhoea, 25) mu uboshen-yaza - syphilis, 26) 
mogoyi n'uden - whitlow (peringual ulceration), 27) olegk - internal gastric (upper abdominal) 
diseases, 28) nuthalda - to be putrid or putrescent, 29) sagan-sesek - smallpox, 30) sezhieh-
duroho - heartburn, 31) sanha-sanhattha - gastritis, 32) sat'ha - herpes, 33) un - warts, 34) 
uheni unahada halsarhada - shedding, 35) uhethezheh unaha - syncope, 36) hamun-uboshen - 
typhus, 37) humkak - malaria, 38) hamun-mazhur - scab, 39) han'yadan - cough, 40) hulgana-
uboshen hagaldarha - scrofula (tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis), 41) shara-uboshen - icterus, 
42)shihan - furuncle, 43) shimsherheh - pleurisy, 44) Shurmoho-tataldaha - cramps, 45) shonen 
kulbodehen - nettle-rash, 46) shudeni-uboshen - toothache, 47) elden - tinea (ringworm), 48) 
ubdok - stye, 49) eberheh - ache from beating, 50) n'uduni-uboshen - eye disease, 51) sheheni-
uboshen - ear disease.

[152] Batorov, PP: Materials on the Oratorical Creation of the Buryats. About a Special 
Buryatian Shamanistic Ceremony (Russian). In: Buryat Studies Collection, vol. I., pp.  25-29. 
The Buryat-Mongolian Branch of the East-Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society, 
Irkutsk 1926.
[153] Batorov, PP and Khoroshikh, PP: Materials on Folk Vetenary Medicine of the Irkutsk 
Buryats (Russian). In: Buryat Studies Collection, vol. II., pp. 51-60. The Buryat-Mongolian 
Branch of the East-Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society, Irkutsk 1926.

[154] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) (1944- ): Tibetan Botanical Names. In: Abstracts of the 
Vth Conference of Young Scholars, dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the Establishment of 
the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 24./25. April 1973 in Ulan-Ude (Russian). p. 
43, Ulan-Ude 1973.
[155] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): The Problem of Plant Drug Classification in Tibetan 
Medicine (Russian). In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya 
(= Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin). Abstracts of the Reports of the All-
Union Conference (Russian). pp. 75-76, Tomsk 1978.
 Information is given on medical plant drug classifiation according to the parts used. This 
information is based on the Tibetan treatises Shel-'phreng and mDzes mtshar mig rgyan.

[156] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): Some Data on Rules of Gathering Medicinal Plants of 
Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Abstracts of the Reports of the Conference of the Institute for 
Oriental Studies (Russian). pp. 134-135, Moscow 1980.
 Description of some peculiarities on gathering medicinal plants used in Tibetan Medicine.

[157] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): On Some Prescriptions Used for Liver Diseases in 
Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego 
Vostoka (= Problems of the Assimilation of the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). 
Abstracts of the Reports of the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian). pp. 176-177, 
Novosibirsk 1983.
 The 3rd and 26th chapters of the third volume of the rGyud-bzhi and the 59th chapter of the 
lHan thabs contain 60 prescriptions for the treatment of liver diseases. The relevant 
information about medicinal properties of each ingredient of those complex preparations has 
been translated from Tibetan for a possible future scientific and rational use of Tibetan 
preparations for the treatment of liver diseases. At the same time the available information 
about chemical analysis and pharmacological properties of medicinal plants included in these 
prescriptions have been analysed.

[158] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): The Search for Medicinal Plants with Choleretic and 
Antiinflammatory Effects (Russian). In: The Materials of the Republican Conference of the 
Pharmacists of Buryatia (Russian). pp. 47-48, Ulan-Ude 1983.
 The comparison of information from Tibetan treatises about plants used for treatment of liver 
diseases with modern data has shown that the use of Berberis sp. and Rosaceae is analogous. 
The choleretic action of Lomatogonium carinthiscum, Gentiana barbata Froel. (Nikolayev, 
Khundanova et al., 1981), Odontites serotina L. (Nikolayev & Garmayev, 1982) is 
experimentally shown. On the basis of data from Tibetan treatises Saxifraga punctata L., 
Saxifraga sibirica L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. are recommended to be tested for 
choleretic and antiinflammatory effects. Galium verum L., Rumex crispus L., Artemisia scoparia 
Waldst. et kit. and some other plants are proposed for tests on their choleretic action.

[159] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): The Pharmacognostical Study of Drug Plants Mentioned 
in the Tibetan Treatise mDzes mtshar mig rgyan. Autoreferat of the Candidate's Dissertation in 
Pharmaceutical Sciences (Russian). 23 p., Leningrad 1986.
 Information about the history and the study of Tibetan Medicine is given. The work is 
dedicated to decipherment and ethnofloristic analysis of drug plants described in the treatise  
mDzes mtshar mig rgyan. Some prescriptions from this treatise for treatment of digestive 
organs have been analysed. The work contains data on the study of pharmacological action of 
preparations from 16 species of plants included in prescriptions for treating liver diseases.

[160] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): The Use of Medicinal Plants in Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). In: New Medicaments from Plants of Siberia and the Far East. Abstracts of the 
Reports of the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian). pp. 17-18, Tomsk 1986.
 According to the data from sources of Tibetan Medicine the following plants have been used 
for treatment of cardiovascular diseases: Ephedra chinensis Bunge., Hippophaø rhamnoides L., 
Scabiosa comosa Fisch., etc.; for treatment of infectious diseases: Hypecoum erectum L., Iris 
spp., etc.- The information about curative properties of plants from Tibetan medical treatises is 
of great interest and is to be used for pharmacological researches.

[161] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): Tibetan Medicine in Mongolia (Russian). In: Materialy 
Vsesoyuznoi Buddogicheskoy Konferentsii (= The Materials of the All-Union Buddhological 
Conference) (Russian). pp. 89-91. "Science", Publishing House for Oriental Literature, Moscow 
 Tibetan Medicine has an ancient history in Mongolia. Since the 13th century the Mongols have 
been using drugs of Tibetan Medicine but only in the 17th century it spread widely in Mongolia. 
Many works of Mongolian authors were written in the form of commentaries and glossaries to 
the rGyud-bzhi and lHan thabs, the main sources of Tibetan Medicine. The authors of these 
commentaries not only explained the Tibetan original text, but they tried to express their own 
point of view. Therefore, the study of Mongolian commentaries as compared with Indian and 
Tibetan originals makes it possible to show their contribution to the formation of the traditional 
medical system in Mongolia.

[162] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): The Influence of Ayurveda on Formation of the 
Traditional Medicine in Mongolia (Russian). In: Interaction and Interinfluence of the Civilizations 
and Cultures in the East. Abstracts of the Reports and Information of the Third All-Union 
Conference of Orientalists (Russian). pp. 6-7, Moscow 1988.
 The medical system of the Mongols has inherited many traditions of Ayurveda: theoretical 
concepts about the entirety of the body and environment, principles of diagnosis, treatment 
and pharmacotherapy. According to the traditional medicine of the Mongols the main cause of 
different illnesses is the disturbance of the equilibrium of three physiological elements named 
rlung, mkhris and bad-kan which correspond to the three dosas in Ayurveda - vata, kapha and 

[163] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna):  The Use of Plants 
of Transbaikalia in Tibetan Medicine for Liver Disease Treatment (Russian). Bulletin of the 
Siberian Division of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR [Novosibirsk] (Russian). 
No. 2 (1984), pp. 69-71.
 The analysis of Tibetan prescriptions shows that for treatment of liver diseases 67 complex 
preparations have been used including more than 100 plants of Transbaikalia. The article 
contains information about the present state of pharmacological study of plants growing in 
Transbaikalia and their use in Tibetan Medicine. According to the information from the Vai du 
rya snon po and the mDzes mtshar mig rgyan, a few plants have promising pharmacological 
effects on liver and biliary tract diseases.

[164] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Bukhasheyeva, TG (1964- ): Gla-rtsi [Deer Musk, 
Moschus moschiferus] as Raw Material in Tibetan Medicine. In: Abstracts of the Conference of 
Aspirants and Young Scholars (Russian).  p. 158. Institute for Oriental Studies of the Academy 
of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow 1977.
[165] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Dashiyev, M(unko) D(ashiyevich): About the Medical 
Treatise "mDzes mtshar mig rgyan". In: Abstracts of the All-Union Conference of Aspirants and 
Young Scholars, Part 1 (Russian). pp. 11-13. Institute for Oriental Studies of the Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR, Moscow 1975.
[166] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Dashiyev, M(unko) D(ashiyevich): Description of 
Plants in the Medical Treatise "mDzes mtshar mig rgyan". In: Abstracts of the All-Union 
Conference, 10th-12th March 1975, on "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izuheniya Narodnoy 
Meditsiny (= Ethnographical Aspects on Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian), pp. 83-84. 
"Science", Leningrad 1975.
[167] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Naydakova, TsA: Officinal Plants Used in Tibetan 
Medicine (Russian). In: Resul'taty i Perspektivy Nauchnykh Issledovaniy v Oblasti Sozdaniya 
Lekarstvennykh Sredstv iz Rastitel'nogo Syr'ya (= Results and Perspectives of Investigations 
in Creating Medicinal Remedies from Raw Drug Materials). Abstracts of the Reports of All-
Union Scientific Conference (Russian). pp. 135-136, Moscow 1985.
 Among more than 300 species of drug plants described in the Mongolian treatise mDzes 
mtshar mig rgyan (18th-19th century) 115 species are officinal. The comparative analysis of 
their medicinal properties and prescriptions have shown the identity of 12 species of plants 
used in modern Western as well as in Tibetan Medicine.

[168] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Rakshain, KV: About Identification of Medicinal 
Plants in Tibetan Medicine. In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo 
Proiskhozhdeniya (= Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian). 
pp. 85-86, Tomsk 1978.

 [169] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Rakshain, KV: On a Few Mongolian Plants as 
Substitutes of Original Raw Material of Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Materialy po 
Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny (= Materials on 
Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) (Russian).
pp. 61-66. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1982.
 A few plants mentioned in the Mongolian medical treatise mDzes mtshar mig rgyan are 
described, and their Tibetan names are deciphered. Mongolian drugs are described together 
with Indian and Tibetan plants, included as substitutes of the original raw material into the 
practice of Tibetan Medicine. The substitution of Indian and Tibetan plants by Mongolian ones 
is shown on a few plants (for example dug-mo nyung, star bu, kan-ta-ka-ri).

[170] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Rakshain, KV, Bogdanova, TB, and Shantanova, LN:  
The Pharmacological Test of the Decoction from Roots of Echinops latifolia Tausch. (Russian). 
"Rastitel'nye Resursy" = Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian). XVI (1980), pp. 134-136.
 In the Transbaikalian practice of Tibetan Medicine the roots of Echinops latifolia Tausch., syn. 
E. dahuricus Fisch. have been used for treatment of liver diseases, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, 
etc., as the substitutes of Saussurea lappa Clarke under Tibetan name ru-rta. According to the 
information about the use of ru-rta from Oriental medical sources the pharmacological study of 
Echinops latifolia Tausch. seems to be expedient. The obtained data corroborate the 
information from Tibetan treatises about the medicinal properties of ru-rta and expediency of 
substitution of E. latifolia by Saussurea lappa Clarke.

[171] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Rakshain, KV, Shantanova, LN, and Bogdanova, TB: The 
Experimental Study of Some Drug Plants of Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Materials of 
the Pacific Ocean XIVth Scientific Congress "Public Health and Medical Sciences" (Russian). 
pp. 185-186, Moscow 1979.
 The results are reported of scientific tests in albino rats for diuretic effects of decoctions from 
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh., Echinops latifolia Tausch., Cynoglossum divaricatum Steph.

[172] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Rakshain, KV, Shantanova, LN, and Bogdanova, TB:  
Pharmacological Evaluation of the Decoction of the Roots of Echinops latifolia Tausch. 
(Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" = Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 16, 1 (1980),
pp. 134-136.
[173] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Sambuyeva, ZG, and Naydakova, TsA:  The Choleretic 
Action of Decoctions from Some Plants of Transbaikalia (Russian). Rastitel'nye Resursy = 
Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian). 19 (1983), pp. 134-136.
 The pharmacological study of decoctions from 16 species of plants used in Tibetan Medicine 
for the treatment of liver and biliary tract diseases has demonstrated that 8 decoctions from 
Crepis tectorum L., Parnassia palustris L., and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. possess 
choleretic effects.

[174] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Tsybenov, ZhTs:  Decipherment of some Tibetan 
Plants from the Mongolian Treatise "mDzes mtshar mig rGyan" (Russian). "Rastitel'nye 
Resursy" = Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 14, 1 (1978), pp. 106-109.
[175] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Yakovlyev, GP: The Catalogue of Tibetan-Chinese-
Mongolian-Latin Drug Plant Names with Indication of their Medicinal Properties Mentioned in 
the Treatise mDzes mtshar mig rgyan: Appendix to the Book mDzes mtshar mig rgyan: 
Monument of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 65 p. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 
[176] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna) and Yakovlyev, GP: Tibetan Drug Plants in Mongolia 
(Russian). In: Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the 
Scientific Conference (Russian), pp. 17-18.  Ulan-Ude 1987.
 The analysis of the treatise mDzes mtshar mig rgyan shows that the problem of substitution of 
Indian and Tibetan plants by local ones appeared in Mongolia in the 18th-19th century. The 
main rule for plant substitution was the rule of resemblance although it was loosely interpreted. 
The concurrence of taste, form and colour was essential for determination of resemblance.

[177] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Yakovlyev, GP, Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), 
Rakshain, KV, and Khundanova, Lydia L: "mDzes mtshar mig rgyan": Monument of Tibetan 
Medicine. Translation from Tibetan into Russian, and the Commentaries done by S. M. 
Batorova and G. P. Yakovlyev. Annotations to chapter 3 are by E. G. Bazaron, K. V. Rakshain 
and L. L. Khundanova. Chief editor Bal-Dorje B. Badarayev (Russian). 88 p., with illustr.  The 
USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division. Buryat Scientific Center. The Institute of 
Biology. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1985.
 This Tibetan title has also been translated literally as: "Clearly Seen Beautiful Wonders".- On 
the basis of the Mongolian treatise mDzes mtshar mig rgyan (written in Tibetan) a variety of 
medicinal plants used in the practice of the Mongolian branch of Tibetan medicine has been 
analysed. The authors show that at the time the treatise has been written and printed (18/19th 
century) the Tibetan medicine adopted the plants from the Mongolian flora. The plants of India, 
China and Tibet were used as well. Bibliography pp. 81-82.

[178] Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Yakovlyev, GP, Nikolayev, SM, and Sambuyeva, ZG: 
Plants of Tibetan Medicine: Experience of Pharmacognostical Investigation (Russian). Chief Editor 
T. P. Antsupova. 159 p., with ill. 14 plates. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1989.
 Pharmacolinguistic- and system-analysis is given for medicinal plants described in the Tibetan 
medical treatise mDzes mtshar mig rgyan. Data are pesented of tests for pharmacological 
action of natural drugs used for treatment of diseases of the hepato-biliary system.- 
Bibliography with 197 titles p. 137-148.

[179] Batuyev, BB: The Problems of Pharmacognosy of Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: 
Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny 
(= Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) 
(Russian). pp. 47-52. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1982.
 The rich arsenal of plant, mineral and animal drugs described in the rGyud-bzhi is pure 
empirical material collected by Tibetan medical doctors during more than 2000 (?!) years. It has 
been still little studied. The author expounds the Tibetan pharmacognosy in the traditional form 
as it is represented in the second volume of the rGyud-bzhi.

[180] Batuyev, BB, Dashiyev, M(unko) D(ashiyevich), Bukhasheyeva, TG, Aseyeva, T(amara) 
A(natol'evna), and Badmayeva, LD:  The Description of Prescriptions Books (Sbyors). The 
Study of Tibetan Complex Drugs. Report 1 (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources 
[Leningrad] (Russian). 20, No. 4 (1984), pp. 479-481.
 "Prescription Books" have emerged as specific genre of the Tibetan medical literature. The 
comparative study of the structure of prescriptions and of prescription-books show that these 
books have local and regional peculiarities due to the specific character of the local drug flora. 
According to the structure of the text these collections of prescriptions are of two types: 1. 
Books composed on the basis of classical prescriptions from the third volume of the rGyud-bzhi 
and the corresponding chapters of the Vai du rya snon po containing the descriptions of 
diseases and their treatment - recommendations for diet and life routine, prescriptions for 
acupuncture and cauterisation and a list of preparations. The rGyi dui nin nor by the Mongolian 
author Lobsang Chompel (19th century) is an example of this type of a collection of 
prescriptions. 2. Collection of prescriptions composed on the basis of the four volumes of the 
rGyud-bzhi and Vai du rya snon po; prescriptions are grouped into eight chapters according to 
drug forms: decoctions, powders, pills, degu, oily drugs, extracts (khanda), medicinal wines and 
preparations from jewels. The list reflects the hierarchy of drug forms in Tibetan Medicine: the 
simplest form is a decoction.- One of the eminent texts of this kind is the Bolshoy Aginsky 
Sbyor (the end of the 19th century) written by Geshe Sumati Prajna in Aginsk (Chita region).- 
The authors have concentrated their work on this source, containing more than a 1000 
prescriptions, and they describe drug mixtures from this text. They conclude that this collection 
of prescriptions require careful scrutiny to find possible rational combinations of Transbaikalian 
medicinal plants.

[181] Bawden, Charles Roskelly (1924- ):  Written and printed Sources for the Study of 
Mongolian Medicine. In: Aspects of Classical Tibetan Medicine. Special Volume of 1993. 
Bulletin of Tibetology (Gangtok/Sikkim)  (1993), pp. 97-125.
"A survey of sources can most conveniently begin with a survey of library holdings, so as to 
establish the number of items held in different collections, and, as far as possible, the type of 
book concerned. . . . Their holdings tend to include a disproportionate number of copies or parts 
- less often of the whole - of such works as the Mongolian versions of the Tibetan classic of 
medicine, known usually in Tibetan as the rGyud-bzhi, and in Mongolian as the Dörben 
Ündüsün, the 'Four Tantras', and of its sequel, the book generally known, even in Mongolian, 
as the lHan-thabs, the addition or appendix. . . .  First of all, the Dörben Ündüsün, the 'Four 
Tantras'. This book was re-translated in the 1950's and published in 1959 in two volumes in an 
edition of 7000 copies. On the title page, editing and translating are ascribed to the Chinese 
and Mongol Medical Research Institute of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. Besides the 
'Four Tantras' itself, the book contains a number of selected chapters from the lHan-thabs. The 
book is traced back to Indian origins via Tibet. It is said to have reached the Mongols originally 
during the Yüan Dynasty, since when it has continued to be studied by Mongolian doctors and 
to have enriched Mongolian medicine. It was translated into Mongolian during the Manchu 
Dynasty, and also printed. Other Tibetan works, whose names are given in Mongolian 
transcription, also helped to form the basis of Mongolian medicine, as did Chinese medical 
science, together with that of other countries, with the result that Mongolian medicine has now 
developed into a particular system. . . . 
Secondly, in 1982, there appeared a Tibetan-Mongolian medical dictionary, compiled by an 
author named Galsang, in an edition of 6,300 copies and just under 800 pages. The book has a 
preface by the Silingol Medical Research Institute. It contains some 15,000 Tibetan headwords. 
One stated aim is to standardise the terminology of modern Mongolian medicine. The 
headwords have been taken from the 'Four Tantras' and from a number of other works, 
including not only classical texts from Tibet, but also native Mongolian works. . . . Texts 
provide several different methods of deliberately consulting oracles, with variations on some. 
Scapulomantry we have mentioned. Dice may be thrown, either one dice, usually inscribed with 
the six syllables of the mani prayer or three dice, giving a series of combinations. Coins may be 
tossed, using groups of 5, 6, 9, 10 or 12. Here it seems likely that some processes, especially 
that using six coins, which are associated with the hexagrams of the I Ching, are to be 
identified as of Chinese origin, while nine coins divination may be of Tibetan origin."

[182] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) (1931- ): About Ancient Tibetan Surgical 
Instruments. In: Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 10th-12th  March 1975, on 
"Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects on 
Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian), pp. 37-39.  "Science", Leningrad 1975.
[183] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): On the Technique of Decipherment and the Study 
of the Tibetan Medical Treatises. In: Materials of the Third Republican Conference of the 
Physicians of Buryatia (Russian), pp. 204-210. The Buryat Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1975.

[184] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): The Tibetan Classification of Plant Drugs according 
to their Medical Properties and its Significance. In: Materials of the Third Republican Practical 
Conference of the Physicians of Buryatia (Russian). pp. 211-218. Buryat Book Publishing 
House, Ulan-Ude 1975.
[185] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Physiological Systems in Traditional Indo-Tibetan 
Medicine (Russian). In: Results and Perspectives of Studies in the History of Medicine 
(Russian), pp. 147-150.  Tashkent 1980.
 In this article the author explains the meaning of the terms rlung, mkhris and bad-kan 
considering that all main functions of the body depend on the normal equilibrium of these three 

[186] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Time Factor in Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: 
Chronobiology and Chronopathology (Russian), p. 33.  Moscow 1981.
 The main principles of diagnosis and treatment in Indo-Tibetan Medicine are intimately 
connected with the time factor. Periods of hyper- or hypo-functional activity during the day, 
month and year have been defined for every regulating system. Time parameters have been 
used by Tibetan physicians for diagnosis and for treatment. The author considers this 
information to be of great importance for the further studies of the ancient experience of Indo-
Tibetan Medicine.

[187] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Tibetan Medicine and Religion (Russian). In: 
Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny
(= Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan 
Medicine)(Russian), pp. 5-10.  "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1982.
 The development of Indo-Tibetan traditions and accumulation of knowledge have been 
influenced by Buddhist religious philosophy, but in spite of it the medical doctrine remains 
materialistic. A scientific approach is necessary for a critical comprehension of this concept.

[188] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): The Methodology of the Study of the Fundamentals 
of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: The Development of Theoretical Fundamentals of Medicine 
(Russian). pp. 73-76, Moscow 1986.
 For studying the information contained in ancient treatises it is necessary to understand the 
logical structure of the texts. In the process of decipherment and comprehension of theoretical 
fundamentals and of the whole conceptual system, the author has used system- and structural 
analysis and abstracting. The hierarchic complex structure of informational blocks of 
knowledge connected by inner logical and conceptual nets has been shown.

[189] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Essays on Tibetan Medicine. 2nd edition (Russian). 
224 p. Buryat Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1987.
 Reprinted by Eco-Art Agency, Ulan-Ude 1992.- Information is given regarding the development 
of Tibetan Medicine as well as brief characteristic of Tibeto-Mongolian sources where ancient 
Asian medical experience is recorded. The author acquaints us with the methodological aspects 
of decipherment and identification of diseases described in these medical sources. He 
emphasizes the necessity of using systems and structural analysis in studying the theoretical 
and practical fundamentals of Tibetan Medicine.

[190] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich):  Tibetan Medicine: History, Research and Outlook 
(English sic!). Buddhists for Peace. Journal of the Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace (Ulan 
Bator) 11, No. 3 (1989), pp. 19-23.
[191] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Biospherical Factors in the Explanation of Transient 
Parameters of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: 250th Anniversary of the Official Recognition of 
Buddhism in Russia. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference, 16-17th July 1991. pp. 11-14, 
Institute of Social Sciences of the Buryat Scientific Center of the Siberian Division of the 
Russian Academy of Sciences and the Buddhological Association, Ulan-Ude 1991.

[192] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna): The Vai du rya 
snon po: A Treatise of Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Chief Editors B. D. Badarayev and V. E. 
Nazarov-Rygdylon. 117 p., illustr.  The USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, Buryat 
Scientific Center, the Institute of Biology, Novosibirsk 1984.
 (Appendix published by "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1985).- The century-old 
experience of Tibetan physicians is recorded in the classical works rGyud-bzhi (12th century) 
and the Vai du rya snon po (17th century) as the most famous commentary to this source. In 
this monograph the authors try to give some ideas about the contents of the Vai du rya snon 
po and to appreciate scientifically this treatise distinguishing directions useful for showing the 
most valuable methods and medicaments. The book consists of two chapters. In the first 
chapter the contents of four volumes of the Vaidurya snon po is given. The structure of the 
commentary is equivalent to the compound of the treatise rGyud-bzhi, i.e. the Vai du rya snon 
po consists also of 4 volumes including 156 chapters. In the Vai du rya snon po theoretical 
concepts of Tibetan Medicine are stated, the meaning of special terms and ideas are explained, 
numerous additions to the chapters on general and particular pathology and pharmacotherapy 
are made. Giving a short content of each chapter, the scientists pay attention to those 
conceptions which have not been shown in European literature. As an example some 
comments on the decipherment of the Tibetan terms rlung, mkhris, bad-kan and interpretations 
of a number of Tibetan names of diseases are given.
 The second chapter of this book contains detailed explanations about Tibetan pharmacy, based 
on the twentieth chapter of the second volume of the Vai du rya snon po. Taking into account 
the interest of pharmacologists in the drug arsenal of Tibetan Medicine, the authors offer the 
complete list of the main drug plants which are described in this treatise.- With appendix of 
Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese names, which contains a list of the medicinal plants with brief 
descriptions of their medicinal properties. Bibliography: 80 titles on pp. 112-116.

[194] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B: About the Rational in 
Indo-Tibetan Medicine and the Method of its Study. In: Results and Perspectives of Studies on 
the History of Medicine (Russian), pp. 465-466.  Shtiincha-Publishing House, Kishinev 1973.
[195] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Bagdayeva, GB: Diet in Tibetan Medicine as One 
of the Regulators of Homoeostasis in the Organism (Russian). In: Homoeostat and 
Homoeostatic Nets in Management and their Use of Biological, Natural and Technical Systems. 
Abstracts of the Conference (Russian), p. 74.  Irkutsk 1986.
 Diet is of great importance in Tibetan medicine, both as a source of life and as a therapeutical 
method of regulating the dynamic constancy in the body (homoeostasis or balance).

[196] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Malakshinova, MM, 
and Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE: The Study of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Tibetan Medicine 
against Blood Diseases (Russian). In: The Second Republican Conference on Medical Botany. 
Abstracts of the Reports (Russian), pp. 333-334.  Kiev 1988.
 The effect of Gentiana barbata Froel. and Odontites rubra L. on the blood coagulating system 
has been studied in rats. The experiments have demonstrated a procoagulation action of these 

[197] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Bryansky, MG, Baldanzhapov, PB, Bolsokhoyeva, 
N(atalia) D, Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE, and Pinuyeva, EO: The Bibliographical Index of the Russian 
Publications on Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Brief introduction by E. G. Bazaron. In: 
Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny
(= Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) 
(Russian), pp. 76-97. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1982.
 The index comprises 433 scientific works of Russian scientists since the beginning of the 19th 
century till 1979. All these titles are listed in the current bibliography, with translation of titles 
and sources into English by Dr. Natalia Bolsokhoyeva. I would like to thank her here especially 
for her great help in compiling the English translations of this enormous Russian scientific work 
accomplished in the 19th and 20th century (J. C. Aschoff).

[198] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Dashiyev, M(unko) D(ashiyevich): About the 
Origin of "mumiyah" brag-zhun in the rGyud-bzhi and its Commentaries. In: Biologicheskie 
Resursy Vostochnoi i Yugo-Vostochnoi Asii i ikh ispol'sovanie (= Biological Resources of East 
and South-East Asia, and their Use) (Russian), pp. 31-35.  Vladivostok 1978.

[199] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Dashiyev, M(unko) D(ashiyevich): Some Features 
of Collecting and Storage of Medicinal Plants in Indo-Tibetan Medicine. In: Biologicheskie 
Resursy Vostochnoi i Yugo-Vostochnoi Asii i ikh ispol'sovanie (= Biological Resources of East 
and South-East Asia, and their Use) (Russian). pp. 65-68, Vladivostok 1978.

[200] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE: Some Information on 
Diabetes Mellitus in Indo-Tibetan Medicine Books. In: Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 
10th-12th March 1975, on "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" 
(= Ethnographical Aspects on Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian). pp. 48-50. Science, 
Leningrad 1975.

[201] Bazaron, E(lbert) 
In: Resul'taty i Perspektivy Nauchnykh Issledovaniy v Oblasti 
Sozdaniya Lekarstvennykh Sredstv iz Rastitel'nogo Syr'ya (= Results and Perspective of 
Investigations in the Field of Creating Medicinal Remedies from Raw Drug Materials). Abstracts 
of the Reports  of All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian). pp. 108-109, Moscow 1985.

[203] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Nikolayev, SM, and Tsyrenzhapova, OD:  The 
rGyud-bzhi and Other Manuals for Healing (Russian). Science in the USSR [Moscow] (Russian) 
No. 2 (50-51), 1982.
 Data are presented about the source research of the rGyud-bzhi and other treatises of Tibetan 

[204] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Rezanova, OI, Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), and 
Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): Medicinal Plants in Indo-Tibetan Medicine used for Treatment 
of Liver Diseases. In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya 
(= Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian).
pp. 77-78, Tomsk 1978.

[205] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Silvestrov, VP: Acupuncture as the Regulator of 
Homoeostasis of the Body (Russian). In: Homoeostat and Homoeostatic Nets in the 
Management and Use in Biological, Natural and Technical Systems. Abstracts of the Reports of 
the Conference (Russian), p. 73.  Irkutsk 1986.
 In Tibetan Medicine the constitutional and age peculiarities, time parameters, the functional 
state of the three regulating systems (rlung, mkhris, bad-kan) and the concrete pathological 
form are taken into consideration in acupuncture therapy. Therefore acupuncture and 
moxibustion are methods applied for recovery of the disturbed homoeostasis in the body.

[206] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) and Tsybikova, DTs:  Hippophaø rhamnoides L. is the 
Best Medicinal Plant in Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" = Plant 
Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 14,1 (1978), pp. 67-69.

[207] Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich), Tsybikova, DTs, and Nagaslayeva, LA: Hippophaø 
rhamnoides L. in Treatment of Inflammatory Processes in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 
Estimation of Biological Actions of Plants of Transbaikalia (A Collection of Articles) (Russian). 
pp. 10-14, Ulan-Ude 1985.
 Information about the use of Hippophaø rhamnoides L. in Tibetan Medicine is presented. For 
experimental and pharmacological testing, simple preparations of 4 to 7 drug-components were 
tested; also extracts from its fruit, leaves and bark have been recommended.

[208] Beckwith, Christopher I:  The Introduction of Greek Medicine into Tibet in the Seventh and 
Eighth Centuries. Journal of the American Oriental Society (New Haven) 99 (1979), 
pp. 297-313.
 "The introduction of foreign medical science into Tibet has hitherto not been the subject of any 
detailed study, although Tibetan histories of medicine contain much information on the early 
development of medical science in the Tibetan Empire. In the present paper, an attempt is 
made to interpret all of the relevant passages from available Tibetan sources concerning the 
Greek school, the most important of the foreign systems of medicine introduced into early 
Tibet. First, the three foreign doctors supposedly invited to Tibet have very showing names. 
'Bharadhvadza', the name of 'the Indian physician', is the name of the legendary founder of 
Indian medicine, the Úsi Bharadhvaja, who received teachings on the science of medicine from 
the God Indra and passed them on to other rsis. 'Hen-wen Han-de' is a somewhat deceptive 
transcription of the name Hsüan-yüan Huang-ti, which is one of the names of the legendary 
'Yellow Emperor' who is often credited with the creation of medical science in China, and who 
was supposedly the author of the Nei ching, or 'Internal Classic', the most important book in 
Chinese medicine. 'Galenos', as is immediately apparent, is a transcription of the name of the 
historical Galenos, our Galen, the Greek who was considered to be the greatest of all 
physicians throughout the European and Muslim Middle Ages. Thus, it is obvious that the three 
names are actually the names of authors, two legendary and one historical, to whom are 
ascribed the most famous ancient medical works of their respective civilizations. Therefore, the 
sources should be interpreted as indicating simply that the works of these writers or of their 
schools were introduced into Tibet at the time of Sron btsan sgam-po (d. 649 A.D.)."

[209] Beckwith, Christopher I:  Tibetan Treacle. A Note on Theriac in Tibet. The Tibet Society 
Bulletin (Bloomington/Indiana)  (1980), pp. 49-51.
 "In the list of works said to have been translated by Biji Tsanpaæilaha, the great eighth 
century Greek-school Tibetan court physician apparently of Sogdian origin, occurs the title 
Bdud-rtsi dar-yakan lhun-bzedkyi 'phrul'khor, said to have been authored by Sprulpa'i khye'u. 
The work is also said to have been supplied with a commentary, written by the ho shang 
(Chinese monk) Krinda, called the Mdo byan che chun.- The word daryakan is patently non-
Tibetan in origin, and it is in fact said by 'Jam-dpal rDo-rje to be a Zan-zun term. His etymology 
is rendered most probable in the light of the form taryak, the name of a 'Persian' remedy for 
snake-bite in Swat, land of ancient Zan-zun and Tibetan cultural contacts. Since there can be 
no doubt but that taryak is identical to teryak or deryak, i.e., Arabic tiryaq(un) or diryaq(un), 
Islamic forms of the word theriac, then (regardless of the actual pathways followed by the 
drug's name on its way to Tibet) it is undoubtedly also true that daryakan was originally the 
compound drug theriac, a very ancient Greek medicinal concoction (theriakon pharmakon, or 
theriake), prepared with snake's flesh, honey, and numerous other ingredients. 
Theriac proper was ordinarily a cure-all, but was supposed to be especially good against snake-
bite. It was known and used in the West from Antiquity until the last century, was (and still is) 
known in the Islamic world, and is first recorded in Chinese records as ti-yeh-chia as tribute 
brought to China by the Byzantine Greek in 667 A.D.- Theriac was supposed to be dark red, or 
reddish brown, in color, according to both the Western and the Chinese traditions, and was 
made up into troches or pills. In the Islamic tradition numerous drugs, many of them simple 
herbs, were known as 'theriacs'. Such a one is tiryaq-i harawi, an herb found in Herat which is 
described by al-Biruni as 'a theriac for snake-bite'. Another is tiryak, the juice of 'a plant', 
mentioned in the Êudud al-'Alam as an 'antidote . . . against the venom of snakes and 
scorpions'. In England theriac, a popular dark-brown sweet tasting cure-all, ultimately became 
treacle, a sort of candy. In Tibet, the color and shape of the berries of a particular medicinal 
plant - which is very probably not identical to the plants used in Buryatia, China, and elsewhere 
- were apparently reminiscent of theriac troches, and via a name such as 'treacle-berries' have 
become today's daryakan smug-po, 'dark-red theriac'."

[210] Begley, Shirley Spear:  Tibetan Buddhist Medicine. A Transcultural Nursing Experience. 
Journal of Holistic Nursing (Newbury Park/Calif.) 12, 3 (1994), pp. 323-342.
 "Tibetan medicine, at 2,500 years old, is considered the oldest surviving medical tradition. A 
combination of logical healing practices, spiritual methods, and mystical practice, this tradition 
has a holistic basis as one of its foundational theories. It is known as the earliest form of mind-
body medicine and can lend much of its wisdom to holistic and psychosomatic medicine and 
nursing, as well as the emerging field of psychoneuroimmunology. A basic review of Tibetan 
medicine, coupled with a Western-educated nurse's experience during the care of a Tibetan 
Buddhist monk, provided an expanded view of the riches inherent in transcultural holistic 

[211] Beigel, Hermann:  Ein Beitrag zur Medizin des Tibetanischen Buddhaismus. Wiener 
medizinische Wochenschrift (Wien) 18 (1863), pp. 507-508, 523-524.
 Auszüge aus "Results of a scientific mission to India and High Asia" der Gebrüder 
Schlagintweit, F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, und Trübner, London, 1861-1966, zum Thema 
"Tibetische Medizin". Einige Passagen im Wortlaut: "Die Gebrüder Hermann, Adolph und Robert 
Schlagintweit haben bekanntlich Indien von 1854 bis 1858 durchforscht, und leider aber auch 
aus ihrer Mitte ein Opfer für die Wissenschaft im fremden, wilden Lande zurücklassen müssen, 
indem ihr Bruder Adolph auf der Rückreise schon nur etwa zwei Tagereisen von der russischen 
Grenze von einem wilden Volksstamme gefangen genommen und enthauptet worden ist. Seine 
wissenschaftlichen Materialien sind durch die Anstrengung der englischen Regierung 
glücklicherweise in die Hände der Brüder gekommen. Die Materialien, welche die Schlagintweits 
gesammelt, sind außerordentlich zahlreich, 40 dicke Foliobände Notizen. 
Das hauptsächlichste Tibetanische Buch über Medizin ist das von Csoma publizierte 'Gyut zhi' 
(sic). Dieses zählt drei vorzügliche Veranlassungen zur Erkrankung auf: 1. Die Wollust oder 
Begierde; 2. Leidenschaft oder Ärger; 3. Langweile oder Unwissenheit. Die erste verursacht 
Gasentwicklung, die zweite gallige Sekretion, die dritte Phlegma. Die Gebrüder Schlagintweit, 
welche dem Gegenstande eine besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet, haben niemals gesehen 
oder gehört, daß eine Arznei wäre gebraucht oder eine chirurgische Hilfsleistung ausgeübt 
worden, wenn nicht vor oder nachher die Buddhas der Medizin, welche in tibetischer Sprache 
Manlas "die obersten Ärzte" heißen, wären angerufen worden.- 
Die Anrufung geschieht durch gewisse Ceremonien, von denen man glaubt, daß sie die 
Wirksamkeit der Arzneien um Vieles erhöhe. Die Manlas sind acht an der Zahl und werden für 
diejenigen Buddhas gehalten, welche die heilkräftigen Pflanzen geschaffen haben. Wer 
hinausgeht, um solche Pflanzen zu sammeln, ruft daher zuvor die Manlas an, ebenso wird ihr 
Name, während der Bereitung der Arznei ausgesprochen. Medizinische Bücher beginnen 
gewöhnlich mit dem Namen oder der Abbildung derselben. Die meisten Gebete werden zu ihnen 
gesandt, wenn diejenigen Pillen bereitet werden, die 'Mani' heißen und nur in sehr schweren 
Krankheiten Anwendung finden. 
Die Ceremonien der Bereitung dieser Pillen heißen: Mani rilbu grub thab 'Bereitung der Mani-
Pillen'. Die Manis werden aus einem eigenen Brotteig gefertigt, welchem vorher Theile von 
heiligen Reliquien als Staub oder Asche beigemengt waren. Dieser Teig wird in geweihtes 
Wasser getaucht, sodann mit gewöhnlichem Brotteig geknetet, woraus nunmehr die von den 
Kranken zu nehmenden Pillen bereitet werden. Das Gefäß mit dem Wasser aus dem Teige wird 
auf einen größeren, in sechs Theile getheilten Kreis, in welchem sich ein kleinerer, centraler 
befindet, gestellt. In dem kleinen Kreise steht die Sylbe 'hri', eine mystische aber höchst 
kräftige Anrufung des Gottes Chenresi. In jeder der sechs Abtheilungen des großen Kreises 
steht eine Sylbe des Gebetes 'Om mani padme hum', das etwa dem 'Ehre sei Gott in der Höhe' 
gleich ist. Ist dieses Gebet roth anstatt schwarz geschrieben, dann is es um vier- oder sechzig 
Mal kräftiger. So lange der Teig im Wasser verbleibt (die vorgeschriebene Zeit hängt von der 
Woche ab) rezitiren einige Lamas, denen der Fleischgenuß während dieses Zeitraums untersagt 
ist, den ganzen Tag hindurch besondere Gebete zu Ehren der Manlas."

[212] Belenky, SYu:  The Mongolian Peoples Republic Essay (Russian). Ogonyok [=Small Light] 
(Moscow) 15 (1936), pp. 8-10.

[213] Belenky, SYu and Tubyansky, MI:  On the Problem of Studying Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). Sovremennaya Mongoliya [Modern Mongolia (later 'Mongolia'), Ulan Bator] 3 (10) 
(1935), pp. 59-84.

[214] Belyavsky, AK:  Peoples Health and Medical Aid in Transbaikalia (Russian). Medichinskiy 
Zhurnal Zabaikal'skago Meditsinskogo Obshchestva (= Medical Journal of the Transbaikalian 
Medical Society) No. 4/5 (1833), pp. (4) 284-297, (5) 368-379.

[215] Benson, Herbert, Lehman, John W, Malhotra, MS, Goldman, Ralph F, Hopkins, Jeffrey, 
and Epstein, Mark D:  Body temperature changes during the practice of gTum-mo yoga. Nature 
(London) 295, No. 5846 (1982), pp. 234-236.
 The authors prove that at least the skin temperature of meditators who practise concentration 
on the cakras rises objectively and not only in the consciousness of the subject (M. Winder).

[216] Benson, Herbert, Malhotra, MS, Goldman, Ralph F, Jacobs, Gregg D, and Hopkins, 
Jeffrey:  Three case reports of the metabolic and electroencephalographic changes during 
advanced Buddhist meditation techniques. Behavioral Medicine (Washington)  (1990), 
pp. 90-95.

[217] Bergemann, Hugo: Gelegentlich auch Hans-Hugo Bergemann. Hier der Einheitlichkeit 
zuliebe immer als (Dr. med. Dr. med. dent.) Hugo Bergemann gelistet. Seine Arbeiten sind 
durchaus interessante, jedoch stets auf Sekundärliteratur aufbauende Tertiärliteratur.

[218] Bergemann, Hugo:  Manramba [= korrekt: sMan rams pa = ausgebildeter Arzt] - Der 
tibetische Arzt, seine Ausbildung und seine Praxis. Zahnärztliche Mitteilungen (Köln) 34 (1943), 
pp. 200-202 (2 Abb.), 219-221 (3 Abb.).

[219] Bergemann, Hugo:  Die Dentition im Lichte lamaistischer Naturauffassung. Zahnärztliche 
Mitteilungen (Lövenich) 46, Heft 18 (1958), pp. 698-699.
 Alle im folgenden aufgeführten Arbeiten H. Bergemanns beruhen auf den Veröffentlichungen 
von Korvin-Krasinski und Burang (=Illion). Hier jedoch bezieht sich der Autor auf W. A. Unkrig 
und schreibt: "Den Zahnerkrankungen ist kein besonderer Abschnitt vorbehalten. Sie sind, wie 
ich einer persönlichen Mitteilung des Tibetologen W. A. Unkrig entnehme, dem Kapitel 'Heilung 
der Mundleiden' (k'a nad gso bai le'u) angegliedert. Aber im Rahmen der achtgliedrigen 
Seinsbezogenheit spielen die Zähne eine wichtige Rolle: Genau so, wie die acht Abschnitte der 
Extremitätenknochen mit den acht Seinsstufen verglichen werden, verbinden sich auch die acht 
Zähne jeder Kieferhälfte in symbolhafter Bedeutung mit den acht Seinsstufen. Der mittlere 
Schneidezahn entspricht der I. Seinsstufe und der Weisheitszahn der VIII. Stufe. Der Eckzahn 
symbolisiert im Rahmen der 'straffen Zahngemeinschaft' die III. Pflanzenstufe und wird, wie 
auch andere nach Art der Pflanzen immer wachsende und 'nach außen abgebogene Hauer' als 
'weich' bezeichnet. Dagegen sind die für die heutige Tierwelt so charakteristischen 'nach innen 
gerichteten Zähne' hart und entsprechen den verholzten Baumwurzeln der aus der Erde Nahrung 
ziehenden Bäume. Der Umstand aber, daß der Mensch seine in enger Beziehung zur Vorwelt 
stehenden Zähne wechselt und daß er zuerst nur 20 Milchzähne besitzt, zeigt dem 
lamaistischen Naturphilosophen, daß der jetzige achtstufige reale Kosmos früher ein anderes 
Aussehen gehabt haben muß und erst nach einem dramatischen Wechsel seiner Oberfläche zu 
seiner jetzigen Gestalt gelangt ist. Der Zahnwechsel ist also die Bestätigung einer mythischen 
Überlieferung, die von einem Kampf zwischen Göttern und Titanen berichtet, wobei die 
gesamte Schöpfung negativ beeinflußt und die vorzeitliche Welt in die leidvolle Existenz der 
jetzigen Welt überführt wurde."

[220] Bergemann, Hugo: Die philosophischen Grundlagen der lamaistischen Medizin in der 
Schau des Zahnarztes. (Abhandl. und Aufsätze aus dem Institut für Menschen- und 
Menschheitskunde, Hrsg. H. Findeisen, 54). pp. 161-173 [1-13]. Institut für Menschen und 
Menschheitskunde, Augsburg 1958.
 Erschien auch als Sonderausgabe in Heftform, daher Doppelpaginierung.- Die Abhandlung 
stellt nicht das Ergebnis eigener Untersuchungen dar, sondern ist eine von Dr. Bergemann 
ansprechend geschriebene Zusammenfassung des tibetischen Medizinsystems. Besonders 
berücksichtigt werden die von H. Harrer oder Th. Burang (i.e. Prof. Illion) berichteten 
Einzelheiten zu zahnärztlichen Problemen, die jedoch gegenüber der Gesamtdarstellung des 
Medizinsystems in den Hintergrund treten.

[221] Bergemann, Hugo:  Heilender Geschmack. Mit 1 Abb. Zahnärztliche Praxis - Die Zeitung 
des praktischen Zahnarztes (München-Gräfelfing) 14, Nr. 16 (1963), p. 192.
 "Für die Bestimmung der einzelnen Bestandteile ärztlicher Verordnung ist in vielen Fällen der 
Geschmack von entscheidender Bedeutung, da manche Geschmacksrichtungen einem der drei 
physiologischen Prinzipien beigegeben sind und sich auf deren Verhalten verschieden auswirken. 
Ein Kranker, bei dem das 'luftige' Prinzip in den Vordergrund getreten ist, bevorzugt den salzarti-
gen Geschmack. Diese Gewohnheit beherrscht nun gleichzeitig das Gesamtbild des Patienten: Er 
ist reizbar, neigt zum Sarkasmus - er ist eben 'salzig'! Das Ziel der ärztlichen Bemühungen muß 
nun sein, die 'Salzeslust' auf allen Gebieten der Lebensführung, wie Arbeit, Ernährung, Wohnung, 
Eheleben usw. einzudämmen. Ein Patient dagegen, der an einer Disharmonie des 'galligen' 
Prinzips leidet, neigt zu Affekthandlungen, übersteigerter Regsamkeit und Eßlust. Er schätzt den 
bitteren Geschmack, ist stets 'hungrig', unbefriedigt, leidet an Minderwertigkeitsgefühlen oder 
Angstzuständen - er ist eben ein 'verbitterter' Mensch. Auch hier muß die seelische Beeinflus-
sung durch Diät und Arzneimittel unterstützt werden. Der an einer Überfunktion des 'schleimigen' 
Prinzips Leidende neigt zur Indolenz, Trägheit, Naschsucht und zieht die Qualität der 
vorzugsweise süßen Speisen der Quantität vor. Diese Patienten werden durch Suggestion, Abma-
gerungs-Kuren und besondere Diät einer Überwindung ihrer Charakterschwäche und einer 
ausgeglichenen Lebensweise zugeführt."

[222] Bergemann, Hugo:  Zahnärztliche Anschauungen und Maßnahmen des Lama-Arztes. 
Zahnärztliche Mitteilungen (Köln) 54, 1 (1964), pp. 25-28.
 "In der Medizin des Lamaismus spiegeln sich altindische Lehren wider, die im Lande des Schnees 
durch Erkenntnisse tibetischer Mönche, von denen die ersten noch in indischen Klosterschulen 
studierten, ihre Erweiterung und Anpassung an die eigenen Verhältnisse erfuhren. Im alten Indien 
war die Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde ein Teil der Medizin und nicht wie heute Grundlage für 
die Ausübung eines selbständigen und unabhängigen Berufes. Die Zahl der damals bekannten 
Krankheiten im Gebiete der Mundhöhle belief sich auf 65 und verteilte sich nach Choksey [i.e. K. 
M. Choksey, Dentistry in Ancient India, Bombay 1953] auf acht Lippen-, acht Zahn-, 15 
Zahnwurzel-, fünf Zungen-, neun Gaumen-, drei Mund- und 17 Halskrankheiten. Ätiologisch 
wurden eine abnorme Verteilung oder Aufwallung der drei physiologischen Faktoren vayu, pitta 
und kapha (Wind, Galle und Schleim), Veränderungen des Blutes oder traumatische Einwirkungen 
angenommen . . .. Die tibetisch-lamaistische Heilkunde hat nun die Lehre von den drei humores 
zur höchsten spekulativen Vervollkommnung gebracht und sieht in der Zahnfäule die 
Manifestation einer auf ganz subtilen Ebenen, den ganzen Körper in Mitleidenschaft ziehenden 
Disharmonie (Burang). Das im 3. Teil des Vier-Wurzel-Buches befindliche Kapitel: Heilung von 
Erkrankungen des Mundes (Kha-nad-gso-ba'i- le'u), welches näheren Aufschluß über die 
therapeutischen Maßnahmen der Priesterärzte geben könnte, ist bisher noch nicht übersetzt 
worden. Doch dürfte feststehen, daß die Mehrzahl der heutigen Lama-Ärzte die philosophischen 
Grundlagen ihres Berufes in nur bescheidenem Maße berücksichtigen und ihre Hauptaufgabe im 
einfachen Verabreichen von Arzneien und in der Anwendung physikalischer Heilmethoden sehen . 
. .. Über eine Eingliederung zahnärztlicher Prothesen durch Lama-Ärzte ist kaum etwas bekannt 
geworden. Zwar behauptete Landor 'silberne Hülsen als Schutz für abgebrochene Zähne' gesehen 
zu haben, da jedoch diese Beobachtung keine Bestätigung von irgendeiner anderen Seite gefun-
den hat, ist sie mit aller gebotenen Zurückhaltung aufzunehmen. Dagegen scheint es üblich zu 
sein, die sich im Verlaufe einer Quecksilberkur lockernden Zähne durch einen hölzernen Knebel im 
Sinne einer Schienung vor dem Ausfallen zu bewahren (Laufer)."

[223] Bergemann, Hugo:  Aus der Geschichte der tibetischen Heilkunde. Mit 6 Abb. 
Erfahrungsheilkunde (Karl  F. Haug-Verlag, Heidelberg) Heft 14 (1966), pp. 935-940.

[224] Bergemann, Hugo:  Das Gebiß als symbolisches Ausdrucksmittel in der lamaistischen 
Ikonographie. Mit 3 Abb. Zahnärztliche Mitteilungen (Köln) 16 (1966), pp. 761-762.
 "Wohlgesinnte Götter haben ein ovales Gesicht und ein harmonisches Aussehen, die dämoni-
schen Gottheiten dagegen besitzen ein rundes oder quadratisches, grausam verzerrtes Gesicht, 
Flammenhaare, einen weitaufgerissenen Mund und ein Gebiß, das das zerstörerische Wesen ihrer 
Träger zu besonderer Geltung bringt. Die starke Betonung des Tieres oder des Tierhaften ist eine 
Besonderheit in der bildenden Kunst des Lamaismus. Hierdurch wird die Mächtigkeit des darge-
stellten Wesens ausgedrückt. Die gewaltigen Eckzähne des Fürsten der Hölle sind das Symbol 
der ihm innewohnenden raubenden und vernichtenden Kräfte, der Ausdruck der inneren Welt des 
Dämon und die Sichtbarmachung des Prinzips des Bösen. Bei dem Todesgott und Herrscher der 
Unterwelt, dessen riesiger Stierkopf zu den ältesten Darstellungen der Erde zählt, besteht das 
Gebiß aus einer endlos erscheinenden Reihe gleichmäßig geformter Zähne. Sie erinnern daran, 
daß der Tod auch die Pforte zu neuem Leben, d.h. zu Wiedergeburten in endlos erscheinender 
Folge sein kann. So ist hier das Gebiß als Ausdruck einer lebensspendenden, aber in Verbindung 
mit der ausgestreckten Zunge, die Zorn und Haß ausdrückt, auch einer lebenvernichtenden 
Mächtigkeit aufzufassen."
[225] Bergemann, Hugo:  Die Mutter des Arztes weilt im Paradies. Ärtzliche Berufsethik in 
Ländern lamaistischen Glaubens. Mit 4 Abb. Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Köln) 63, Heft 41 (1966), 
pp. 2383-2385.
 "Die praktische Tätigkeit des Lama-Arztes teilt sich in eine allgemeine und eine spezielle. Zur 
allgemeinen Ausübung der Praxis gehört die Beschaffung von Arzneien, Instrumenten und die 
Versorgung der Kranken, denen man selbst bei ernsten Erkrankungen die Hoffnung auf 
Genesung nicht nehmen darf. Die spezielle Betätigung erstreckt sich auf eine Abkehr von Zorn, 
Achtlosigkeit, Unaufmerksamkeit, frevelhaftem Tun und fordert einen tugendhaften Wandel im 
Almosengeben, in Gelübden, Geduld und Eifer. Als Grundeigenschaften jedes Arztes werden 
verlangt: aufrichtiges Wesen, Pflichtbewußtsein, gewandtes äußeres Verhalten, Eifer in der 
Praxis, Erfahrenheit in menschlichen Dingen."- Der Artikel beruht auf Ausführungen Theodor 

[226] Bergemann, Hugo:  Die Anatomie des Kopfes und der Mundhöhle in der tibetischen 
Heilkunde des 17. Jahrhunderts. Mit 5 Abb. und 1 Tabelle. Blätter für Zahnheilkunde (Zürich) 
28 (1967), pp. 135-142.
 Auf Sekundärquellen gut aufgebaute Übersichtsarbeit zu einem sehr speziellen medizinischen 
Bericht. Einzelne Passagen daher im Wortlaut: "Die tibetische Anatomie unterscheidet drei 
Hauptteile des Schädels: 1. Die Schädeldecke, welche aus fünf Schädelbeinen besteht. Eine 
nicht sichtbare, aber in der Vorstellung der Lamas bestehende Öffnung in der Schädeldecke, der 
Lage der Hinterhauptfontanelle entsprechend, wird als 'Brahmas Pforte' bezeichnet. An dieser 
Stelle verläßt die geistige Substanz (Seele) bei Eintritt des Todes den Leib. 2. Die 
Gesichtsknochen, welche die Gegend des Geruchsorganes, der Augen und des Gehörorgans 
bilden. 3. Die beiden Kieferknochen mit je 16 Zähnen. Die Zahl der Milchzähne ist ebenfalls 
bekannt, und der Umstand, daß der Mensch als Mikrokosmos - die vollkommenste materiell-
geistige Zusammenfassung des Alls - seine Zähne wechselt, weist den seinem Glauben tief 
verbundenen Lama-Arzt darauf hin, daß der jetzige Kosmos früher ein anderes Aussehen gehabt 
haben muß (v. Korvin-Krasinski). Die Anschauung, daß unser Planet ein organisches Gebilde 
darstellt, dessen Teile voneinander abhängig sind, und daß Boden, Wasser, Minerale, Luft, 
Pflanzen und Tiere, Bakterien und Menschen in einem Gewebe ausgeglichener, gegenseitiger 
Abhängigkeit miteinander verbunden sind, führt zu medizinisch-philosophischen Analogien 
zwischen Mensch, Tier- und Pflanzenwelt. Die Stelle, die ein Organ oder Körperteil in der 
Seinsganzheit einnimmt, ist dabei wichtiger als die unendlich differenzierbare Analyse seiner 
isoliert betrachteten Struktur. Denn diese Stelle im Ganzen gibt jedem Ding seinen Sinn, der ihm 
von 'der Seele des Ganzen' eingeprägt wird. So haben auch die Zähne, die Zunge und 
Mundhöhle ihren festen Platz in dem Theorem der acht kosmologischen Seinsstufen, die im 
Menschen, dem Mikrokosmos, und in der Welt, dem Makrokosmos, analog verwirklicht sind."

[227] Bergemann, Hugo:  Die Bedeutung der Lamaistischen Heilkunde. Mit 2 Abb. 
Erfahrungsheilkunde (Heidelberg) 16, Heft 10 (1967), pp. 321-328.
[228] Bergemann, Hugo:  Die Medizinschule auf dem Eisenberg zu Lhasa. Mit 4 Abb. Deutsches 
Ärzteblatt (Köln) 64, Heft 44 (1967), pp. 2357-2361.
 Allgemein gehaltene Ausführungen zur tibetischen Medizin (reine Sekundärliteratur, 
vorwiegend Wladimir Badmajeff). Zum "Eisenberg [tib. lCags pori]" gibt der Autor lediglich das 
folgende an (Jahreszahlen z.T. von mir korrigiert): "Der berühmte bTsong-kha-pa (1357 bis 
1419), der das zügellose Treiben seiner Brüder und den abschreckenden Kult in den Tempeln 
kennengelernt hatte, trat als Reformator der lamaistischen Kirche auf. Die Zeiten seiner 
Lehrtätigkeit führten ihn auch auf den Eisenberg nach Lhasa, wo er Wunschgebete gegen 
Krankheiten vortrug (Schulemann). Da er außer Theologie, Logik, Mathematik und Poesie auch 
Medizin studiert hatte, verfaßte er neben theologischen und philosophischen Werken einen 
Leitfaden, der Anrufungen für jede irdische Not und Formeln zur Heilung von Krankheiten 
enthielt. Den Tempel des Medizinbuddhas ließ er zum Kastell ausbauen, wo den Lamapriestern 
und Gelbmützen-Missionaren, die im ganzen Land wirken sollten, das Wissen von der Heilung 
der Krankheiten vermittelt wurde. Zu einem weiteren Ausbau der Medizinschule auf dem 
Eisenberg kam es aber erst unter dem Berater des fünften Dalai-Lamas, dem Regenten Sangs-
rgyas rGya-mtsho (1653-1705, Regent von 1679-1703), der es als Bauherr und Schriftsteller 
zu Ruhm und Ehren brachte. Er verfaßte außer anderen gelehrten Büchern das medizinische 
Werk: 'Der Blaue Lasurstein' [= vielmehr Beryll] (Vai-du-rya-sngon-po), ein vierbändiges 
Handbuch, das bis in unsere Zeit maßgebend blieb, und ein für die tägliche Praxis bestimmtes 
Werk: 'Die Vielfältigkeits-Methode' (Lhan-thabs) von 133 Kapiteln mit bildlichen Darstellungen 
und Rezeptangaben. Das medizinische Interesse des Regenten fand außerdem seinen sichtbaren 
Ausdruck in einer von ihm diktierten Neuordnung der Medizinschule und in einer Aufzählung 
von 700 heilkräftigen Arzneien pflanzlichen Ursprungs und deren Eigenschaften."

[229] Bergemann, Hugo:  Haben die Tibetkinder gesunde Gebisse? Mit 1 Abb. ABK 
Gesundheits-Dienst 77 (1967), p. (3).
 Diese Zeitschrift-Nr. ist nicht(!) paginiert. Es ist aber die 3. Seite des nicht-paginierten Heftes.

[230] Bergemann, Hugo:  A tibeti gyógyitó tudomány történetéböl [From the history of 
medicine in Tibet]. Orvosi hetilap [Hungarian Medical Weekly Journal] (Budapest) 109 (1968), 
pp. 1885-1887.
 Übersetzung eines Artikels (1967) aus dem Deutschen Ärzteblatt (Köln).

[231] Bergemann, Hugo:  Der Krankheitsbegriff in der Lehre des tibetischen Buddhismus. Mit 2 
Abb. Erfahrungsheilkunde (Heidelberg) 11 (1968), pp. 418-421.
 "Der Priesterarzt im tibetischen Buddhismus sieht sich häufig Patienten gegenübergestellt, 
deren Leiden, durch karmisches Geschehen bestimmt, dem ärztlichen Handeln unzugänglich ist 
und nur durch religiöse Belehrung und Lenkung der Lebensführung des Kranken gebessert 
werden kann - sofern er die nötige Einsicht und Willenskraft aufbringt. Karma bezeichnet das 
die Wiedergeburt erzeugende und die Geschicke der Wesen beeinflussende heilsame oder 
unheilsame Wirken in Worten, Werken oder Gedanken. Diese Auswirkungen sind 6facher Art, 
und im Zusammenhang mit unserer Betrachtung ist gerade die 'vierte Folge' einer jeden Tat, die 
Beeinflussung der vegetativen Vorgänge und der dahinterstehenden Lebenskraft von besonderer 
Bedeutung. Der Gesundheitszustand eines Menschen ist abhängig von dem harmonischen 
Ablauf der gesamten vegetativen Vorgänge, die den Körper erhalten, das Zusammenwirken 
seiner Organe steuern und die Regeneration nach Ermüdung und die Anpassung an veränderte 
Umweltverhältnisse betreiben. Von ihnen ist es letztlich abhängig, ob der Organismus kraftvoll 
arbeitet oder durch örtliche und allgemeine Störungen belastet ist. Jede Tat, die in dem Geiste 
geschieht, die Mitwesen zu erfreuen, zu bereichern, ihnen wohlzutun, übt auf den vegetativen 
Grundimpuls des Täters einen wohltuenden Einfluß aus. Jede Gesinnung des Verweigerns, des 
Entreißens, jede Geistesverfassung in Ärger, Wut, Zorn oder Geiz wirkt sich in einem 
schädigenden, kraftverzehrenden Sinne auf das Vegetativum aus. Es wird verkrampft, 
geschwächt, und diese Veränderung zieht gesundheitsstörende, lebensverkürzende Folgen nach 

[232] Bergemann, Hugo:  Die Psychiatrie des Lama-Arztes. Mit 4 Abb. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 
(Köln) 11 (1969), pp. 732-738.
 Ausschließlich Sekundärquellen: "Zusammenfassend kann gesagt werden, daß die tibetisch-
lamaistische Psychiatrie als Ursache von Geisteskrankheiten zwar Verletzungen, Vergiftungen 
und sündhaften Lebenswandel kennt, die weitaus größte Zahl der Erkrankungen beruht jedoch 
nach Ansicht der Lamas auf dem Wirken von Geistwesen (psychischen Kraftfeldern), die in fünf 
Kategorien eingeteilt eine Zahl von dreihundert 'schädlichen Einflüssen' ausmachen. Die 
Therapie besteht sowohl aus metaphysischen Handlungen wie Dämonenvertreibung, 
Zaubersprüchen und Anrufung der Heilgötter als auch aus rationellen Maßnahmen. Hierzu 
gehören Belehrung des Kranken und Korrektur seiner Lebensführung, Schock- und 
Arbeitstherapie, Aderlaß und medikamentöse Behandlung. So hat der Priesterarzt eine ganze 
Reihe von Möglichkeiten, seinen Patienten zu helfen und sie von ihren Leiden zu befreien - 
sofern es das einer höheren Gerechtigkeit unterstellte Geschick des Kranken erlaubt."

[233] Bergemann, Hugo:  Aus der tibetischen Heilkunde: Maligne Tumoren. Mit 4 Abb. 
Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Köln) 49 (1972), pp. 3239-3242.
 "Die tibetisch-lamaistische Heilkunde geht bei der Beurteilung von Krankheiten, deren Ursachen 
und Heilung, von naturphilosophischen Vorstellungen aus. Daher werden Malignome nicht als 
Folgen des durch Reizung entarteten Zellwachstums betrachtet, sondern als sowohl 
psychogene als auch schicksalhafte Erkrankungen, die sich als die Nachwirkungen von 
Übeltaten zeigen. Die therapeutischen Maßnahmen versuchen die Einflußnahme auf die 
Lebensführung und Ernährung des Patienten. Es werden aber auch Medikamente verabreicht, in 
Form einer sehr differenzierten Bauchmassage bestimmte Grenzstrangganglien des 
Sympathikus gepreßt und Kauterisationen durchgeführt . . ..  Die Krebskrankheit wird als ein 
vielschichtiges Geschehen betrachtet und gehört - wie oben erwähnt - zur Gruppe der 
psychischen und schicksalhaften Krankheiten. Als auslösende Ursachen werden dann 
mangelnde Kontaktfähigkeit mit der Natur, vernunftwidrige Lebensweise, Abkehr von den 
ethischen Werten des Lebens, Einwirkung materialisierter Gedanken übler Menschen oder 
Störungen in der Zusammensetzung und Funktion der drei Essenzen angesehen."

[234] Bergemann, Hugo:  Kostenlos das bringt Glück. Lama-Ärzte werden freigebig honoriert. 
Mit 1 Abb. Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Köln) 71, 17 (1974), p. 1274.
 "Eine ärztliche Gebührenordnung ist in den Ländern lamaistischen Glaubens unbekannt. Der 
Arzt ist auf den freiwilligen 'Ehrensold' angewiesen, der häufig in Form von Naturalien geleistet 
wird. Dennoch ist die Ärzteschaft nicht ganz vom Wohlwollen ihrer Patienten abhängig. Die 
allgemeine Wertschätzung ihrer Leistungen ist recht hoch, und der Glaube, daß eine ärztliche 
Leistung, die umsonst angenommen wird, kein Glück bringt, ist fest in weiten Kreisen der 
Bevölkerung verankert."

[235] Bergemann, Hugo:  Der blaue Lapislazuli-Spiegel, Entwicklungsstadien der tibetischen 
Heilkunde. Mit 1 Abb. Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Köln) 80, Heft 49 (1983), pp. 75-77.

[236] Bergemann, Hugo:  Die Behandlung von Mundkrankheiten im alten Tibet. Mit 5 Abb. 
Blätter für Zahnheilkunde (Zürich) ?? (??), pp. 151-158.

[237] Berglie, Per-Arne:  Preliminary remarks on some Tibetan "Spirit-Mediums" in Nepal. 
Kailash. A Journal of Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) 4, No. 1 (1976), pp. 85-108.
 "I think that the activities of the Tibetan spirit medium (dpa'bo) may be seen as examples of 
apotropaic Buddhism. By this I do not mean to indicate that their practices are 'magical' as 
opposed to the 'religious' practices of the lamas or of the pious laymen. I simply want to stress 
the central theme in their work: the curing of the sick and the counteraction of harmful forces. 
In this paper I intend to make a preliminary summary of material collected in Nepal during 1970 
and 1971. It concerns four dpa'bo living in a settlement for Tibetan refugees. The word dpa'bo 
(literally 'hero'; pronounced 'pa-wo') has been interpreted to mean 'medium' or 'sorcerer'. 
Some words must also be said of the bla'khug, the 'calling of the bla, the soul'. This ceremony, 
according to my informants, might be performed in a way differing from those described by 
earlier authors. One diagnosis of illness is that the bla, the 'soul', has left the body. This may 
be due to the fact that the patient has been frightened by a wild animal or that a demon has 
stolen the bla. Loss of the bla makes a person weak and apathetic to recover. The patient has 
to get his 'soul' back. This ceremony is called bla 'khug, i.e. 'soul-calling', and may be 
performed by a dpa' bo or a lama. During my stay in the village I met one case of 'soul-loss' in 
a young girl who was the sister of Nyima. She had no appetite, did not talk and most of the 
time she was found lying on the ground in her family's house. The healing ceremony arranged 
for her took the following form. When possessed, the dpa'bo took three objects, one small 
turquoise, one coral bead and one small shell which he put in a ball of spags [i.e. barley pap]. 
The ball was then thrown away with a sling. A bowl was now filled with water mixed with 
milk, and a scarf (Tib. kha btags) was stretched over the bowl as a cover. The girl suffering 
from 'soul-loss' had to put her hands into the bowl in order to find the thrown-away objects. I 
was told that if she could find all of them, her bla would return, but if she could only find one 
or two of them, the dpa'bo would be possessed by a very wrathful deity who would help to 
locate the missing object or objects. During the séance the three objects were obviously 
thought to be identical with her bla. The séance was successful, I was told, and after a few 
days the girl seemed to have recovered completely."

[238] Berglie, Per-Arne: On the Question of Tibetan Shamanism. In: Tibetan Studies presented 
at the Seminar of Young Tibetologists (ed. M. Brauen and P. Kvaerne), Zürich, June 26th to 
July 1st, 1977. pp. 39-51. Völkerkunde-Museum der Universität Zürich, Zürich 1978.
 Tibetan spirit-mediums during possession by a deity provide diagnosis and prognosis and cure 
of diseases by sucking them or the substance or object that caused them out of the body. Field 
work on Tibetans living in Nepal (M. Winder).

[239] Berlin, AL:  About Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Sovremennaya Mongoliya (= Modern 
Mongolia, later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 4 (7) (1934), pp. 47-58.

[240] Berlin, AL:  Once Again About Studies on Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Sovremennaya 
Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 6 (19) (1939), pp. 80-

[241] Berlin, AL:  Tibetan Medicine and Plague. An Experimental Investigation (Russian). 
Vestnik Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Parasitologii (= Herald of Microbiology, Epidemiology and 
Parasitology) (Russian) 19 (3-4) (1941), pp. 367-423.
 A brief German summary is included in this quite interesting article.- There are many historical 
facts to consider Central Asia to be the motherland of the plague. The author provides a 
translation of the Tibetan text "Information about the plague", written by a famous Tibetan 
doctor (bka'-bcu sMan-rams-pa), who successfully treated plague patients. The clinical 
description of the plague in this Tibetan text is rather brief, the text is rather devoted to the 
treatment of the plague. Medicinal prescriptions are given, together with short theoretical 
explanations, and the secret of an "additional remedy", perceived by him orally from his 
teachers. At last, the practice of the treatment, which he personally observed, as well as his 
own experience in the treatment of the plague are described.- The second part of the article is 
devoted to experimental studies of medicinal substances used in Tibetan medicine, their 
bactericidal action on the plague bacillus in vitro.- A. L. Berlin makes conclusions about the 
concepts of Tibetan doctors on origin and treatment of the plague as well as on the toxicity of 
Tibetan medicinal preparations. There are five tables which show the medicinal substances, 
used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of the plague, the effect of these substances on the 
growth of Bact. Pestis, the toxicity of the tested medicinal substances, experiences with 
combined treatment with "Brug-nug 29", "Man-ser-chen-mo" and "Gu-gul gu 9", and finally 
results of this treatment performed by the Tibetan doctor bka'-bcu sMan-rams-pa.

[242] Berthenson, Leo:  About Russian Buddhists and the so-called Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 
Russkiy Vrach (= Russian Physician) [St. Petersburg] (Russian) 14 (1906), pp. 418-421.
 Published also as separate off-print (13 p.).

[243] Berthenson, Leo:  Über russische Buddhisten und die sogenannte tibetische Medizin. St. 
Petersburger Medicinische Wochenschrift (St. Petersburg) XXXI; Neue Folge XXIII, Nr. 24 
(1906), pp. 253-257.
 Kulturhistorisch, auch politisch (!) interessante Publikation! Erwähnt wird auch Lama Sultim-
Badmajev. Einzelne Passagen der Arbeit folgen hier im Wortlaut: "Zu Ende Februar dieses 
Jahres kam im Reichs-Medizinalrat die Frage zur Verhandlung, betreffend die gesetzliche 
Einführung der Tibetanischen Medizin im Gouvernement Irkutsk und Transbaikalien, welche von 
buddhistischen Volksstämmen bewohnt sind, sowie die Genehmigung der Eröffnung von 
Spezialschulen zur Ausübung von Ärzten in der Tibetanischen Medizin. Für die Krankheiten 
existiert eine überaus umfangreiche Klassifikation, in der Gestalt eines Baumes mit zahlreichen 
Verzweigungen. Die wichtigsten pathologischen Prozesse gruppieren sich um folgende 
Bestandteile des Körpers: Blut, Chylus, Muskeln, Fettgewebe, Knochen, Knochenmark, Nerven, 
Samen und Menstrualblut, endlich im Körper enthaltene Luft, Galle und Schleim. Es finden sich 
Beschreibungen einzelner Krankheiten, wie Podagra, Cholera, Pocken u.a. Ich will mich nicht bei 
der Tibetanischen medikamentösen Behandlung aufhalten, welche von einer Wissenschaft weit 
entfernt ist, sondern nur erwähnen, daß der Lebensweise und der Diät in der Therapie der 
Ehrenplatz angewiesen ist. Dieses erklärt sich aus der buddhistischen Ethik, welche 
Enthaltsamkeit in Speise und Trank, Keuschheit und Sauberkeit des Körpers predigt. Ein 
'vernünftiges Leben' wird von der Tibetanischen Wissenschaft allen Menschen, insbesondere 
Kranken, angeraten. 
Was aber ist ein 'vernünftiges Leben'? Nach dem 'Schud-Schi' [rGyud-bzhi] das Verhältnis, 
Geist und Körper in Sauberkeit zu erhalten und sich vor jeglichem Übermaß zu hüten, da 
dasselbe das Wohlbefinden des Geistes und Körpers stört. Die Tibetanische medizinische 
Wissenschaft empfiehlt physische Arbeit, körperliche Übungen, welche dann zweckmäßig sind, 
wenn sie im Freien vorgenommen werden, daher wird unter allen Arten der physischen Arbeit 
der erste Platz der Landwirtschaft eingeräumt. Um mit dem Buch 'Schud-Schi' abzuschließen, 
muß ich noch erwähnen, daß der interessanteste, vielleicht sogar lehrreichste Teil desselben 
der Abschnitt über die Ärzte, Therapeuten und Chirurgen ist.

 Der tibetischen Medizin, welche nichts anderes ist als ein Gemisch von einer rudimentären, 
archaischen Wissenschaft und Unwissenheit samt Aberglauben, staatliche Rechte zu verleihen, 
ist natürlich nicht möglich; aus demselben Grunde geziemt es der Regierung nicht, die 
Organisation von Tibetanisch-medizinischen Schulen zu legalisieren . . .. Aber abgesehen davon 
bedarf die ärztliche Tätigkeit der Lamas schon deshalb keiner gesetzlichen Bestimmung, weil 
der buddhistischen Lehre gemäß die ärztliche Hilfe eine unentgeltliche sein muß und in diesem 
Umstande ihre Existenzberechtigung liegt, da es ja nach unserem Gesetz jedermann, auch wenn 
er nicht Arzt ist, frei steht, unentgeltlich zu kurieren."

[244] Berzin, Alexander:  An Introduction to Tibetan Astronomy and Astrology. The Tibet 
Journal (Dharamsala) 12 (1987), pp. 17-28.
 One of the very few articles on astrology, which (theoretically) is so closely linked with 
Tibetan Medicine. Splendid review article!- "There are two divisions of this astro-material. One 
is called literally 'white' calculations (dkar-rtsis) and the other 'black' (nag-rtsis). 'White' and 
'Black', however, are abbreviations for 'Indian' and 'Chinese' calculations because the Tibetan 
names for India and China were given in terms of the predominant colors of the clothing that 
the people in those countries traditionally wore. India and China are known, therefore, as the 
expansive lands in which people wear mostly white or black clothing respectively. These two 
divisions of Tibetan astro studies, then, should be understood as referring to the Indian and 
Chinese side of the material."

[245] Berzin, Alexander: Tibetan Astro Sciences. 18 illustr. In: Chö Yang. The Voice of Tibetan 
Religion and Culture. Year of Tibet Edition. pp. 181-192. Council for Religious and Cultural 
Affairs, Dharamsala 1991.

[246] Beskrovny, AM, Bobylev, and Khudensky, YuK:  Mumiyah in Nature and in Retort. The 
Formation of a New Class of Biologically Active Substances in Natural and Artificial Conditions 
(Russian). Khimiya i Zhizn (= Chemistry and Life) (Russian) 1 (1975), pp. 72-74.
 "Mumiyah" is bitumen. It is often used in Tibetan Medicine as part of multicomponent drugs, 
mainly against fever (Aschoff, according to Dr. Tashigang, Delhi, but see also comment to the 
publication of Syrovezhko and Dobromyslov, Moscow 1971; also Ubasheyev et. Dobromyslov, 
Novosibirsk 1989).

[247] Bichikhanov, MP:  The Anatomy of the Stem and Leaf of Gentianopsis barbata (Froel.) 
(Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" = Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian). No. 2 (1982),
pp. 232-234.
 Data of the anatomy of the aerial part (leaf, stem) of Gentianopsis barbata (Froel.) used in 
Tibetan Medicine have been given according to the requirenments of identification of plant 
[248] Bichikhanov, MP: The Anatomy of the Stem and Leaf of Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum. 
(Russian). In: Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= 
Problems of the Assimilation of the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of 
the Reports of the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian), p. 6.  "Science", Siberian Division, 
Novosibirsk 1983.
 Diagnostic characteristic features of raw material (the aerial part) of Odontites serotina (Lam.) 
Dum. used for diseases of digestive organs in Tibetan Medicine have been reported.

[249] Bichikhanov, MP: The Search for Plant Drugs from Transbaikalia Flora for Treatment of 
Rheumatoid Arthritis (Russian), N 12 (158), 9 p. All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical 
Information, Moscow 1984.
 Medicinal plants used against rheumatoid arthritis in Tibetan and folk medicine have been 
listed in this article. The relationship between chemical compound and medical use as well as 
effects of the plants on metabolism have been analysed.

[250] Bichikhanov, MP and Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B: The Tibetan Prescription Manu bzhi-thang 
(Russian). In: The Materials of the All-Union Buddhological Conference. Abstracts of the 
Reports of the Conference (Russian), pp. 225-226.  "Science", Moscow 1987.
 The four-component prescription "Manu bzhi-thang" (decoction with four ingredients) has been 
investigated. The authors show interrelation between original plant material of Tibetan Medicine 
and its substitutes according to the pharmacological effect of species or of species belonging 
to the same family.

[251] Bichikhanov, MP, Dargayeva, TD, and Tolkachyov, ON: On Phytochemistry of 
Leocanthemum sib. In: Abstracts of the  Vth Conference of Young Scholars, dedicated to the 
50th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 
24./25. April 1973 in Ulan-Ude (Russian), pp. 38-39.  Ulan-Ude 1973.

[252] Institute of Biology Ulan-Ude: Testing for Biological Action of Transbaikalian Plants. A 
Collection of Articles (Russian). 144 p. Institute of Biology, Buryat Branch, Siberian Division of 
the USSR Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude 1985.
 Results of recent researches for biologically active substances are presented. These 
investigations have been performed in the Institute of Biology, the Buryat Branch, Siberian 
Division of the USSR Adademy of Sciences. Information about the chemical analysis of plants 
widely used in folk medicine of Siberia and Transbaikalia as well as results of pharmacognostic 
studies have been given. The effect of different preparations from Transbaikalian flora - also 
used in Tibetan Medicine - on laboratory animals with pancreatitis, hepatitis and stomach ulcer 
are discussed. Articles dealing with the morphological aspects in testing activity of plant 
preparations are of interest. The volume is meant for physicians and biologists.
[253] Institute of Biology Ulan-Ude: Drug Plants in Traditional and Folk Medicine: Proceedings 
of the Conference. A Collection of Articles (Russian). 166 p. Institute of Biology, Buryat 
Branch, Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude 1987.
 The actual state, prospects for further studies and the use of drug plants are reviewed. 
Information about the use of plant raw material in traditional and folk medicine has been given. 
The results of research on the biology of a few species, the areas of valuable plants, chemical 
analysis, pharmacological and toxicological studies of biologically active substances and plant 
preparations are presented. These investigations were done within the framework of the 
programme "Medicinal Plants of Siberia and the Far East".

[254] Birnbaum, Raoul: The Lapis Lazuli Radiance Buddha, Master of Healing: A Study in 
Iconography and Meaning. Ph.D. Dissertation. Columbia University, New York 1976.

[255] Birnbaum, Raoul: The Healing Buddha. Foreword by John Blofeld. xviii, 253 p., 6 plates. 
Shambhala Publications, Boulder 1979.
 Another edition Rider Publ., London 1980. Italian edition: "Il Buddha della Guarigione." Ubaldini 
Editore, 140 p., Roma 1981.- A history of Buddhist medicine is presented with 4 translations 
from the Chinese Buddhist canon. The author delineates the relationship between the Medicine 
Buddha (Sangye Menla) and the Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapundarika Sutra): "Indian images tend 
to confirm the impression that the place of origin of the cult is most likely Central Asia.- None 
of the Chinese pilgrims mentions Bhaiæajya-Guru worship in the records of their travels to 
India."- From the foreword by John Blofeld: "In Part One, Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan 
sources are drawn upon to provide a well-documented account of traditional Buddhist remedies 
for physical maladies and, much more important, for spiritual ills. Part Two comprises 
translations from the Chinese of several complete Sutras pertaining to the Healing Tathagatas 
that were not, until now, available in any Western language."

[256] Birnbaum, Raoul: Il Buddha della Guarigione. 140 p. Astrolabio, Ubaldini, Roma 1981.

[257] Birnbaum, Raoul: Der Heilende Buddha. Heilung und Selbstheilung - eine Einführung in 
das altbewährte, psychosomatische Heilsystem des Buddhismus. Mit einem Vorwort von John 
Blofeld. Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von Rosemarie Fuchs. Mit 10 Abb. 320 S. O. W. 
Barth, München 1982.
 (The Healing Buddha. Shambhala Public., Boulder 1979).- Deutsche Sonderausgabe 1985; 
erneut bei Gondrom, Bindlach 1990, sowie Goldmann TB (Esoterik und Lebenshilfeprogramm), 
München 1990.- John Blofeld bemerkt einleitend zutreffend, "daß dieses Buch sowohl 
wissenschaftlich fundiert für den Akademiker geschrieben ist, sich aber zugleich auch bemüht, 
den praktizierenden Mahayana-Buddhisten zufriedenzustellen. Die chinesischen und tibetischen 
Vorstellungen vom 'Heilenden Buddha', die Bedeutung von Bildnissen, Symbolik und ritueller 
Verehrung werden im ersten Teil, die Übersetzung von vier Sutras im zweiten Teil vorgestellt.- 
Der erste Teil gibt mit Hilfe von Pali und Sanskrit sowie von chinesischen und tibetischen 
Quellen einen gut belegten Überblick über die traditionellen buddhistischen Heilmittel gegen 
körperliche und, was noch wichtiger ist, geistige Krankheiten. Die Darstellung der von den 
Chinesen und Tibetern vollzogenen Heilrituale - zu diesen gehören u. a. Mantras, Bittgebete, 
Visualisationen und der Gebrauch besonderer Mandalas - wird den Ansprüchen beider 
Lesergruppen durchaus genügen. Der zweite Teil des Buches enthält, in vollständiger 
Übersetzung aus dem Chinesischen, mehrere bisher in keiner westlichen Sprache vorliegende 
Sutras, die von den Heilenden Tathagatas (Buddhas) handeln. Vertreter der tibetischen 
tantrischen Praxis und der chinesisch-japanischen Varianten der Schulrichtung des Reinen 
Landes werden eine enge Verwandtschaft des von ihnen selbst praktizierten Buddhismus mit 
denjenigen Inhalten erkennen, die in diesen Sutras der Heilenden Buddhas dargestellt werden. 
Diejenigen, die mit Werken über Kuan Yin (Avalokiteævara, Chenrezig) vertraut sind, werden 
feststellen, daß die den Heilenden Buddhas zugeschriebenen Kräfte und deren Ursachen ihrem 
Wesen nach denjenigen Kräften sehr ähnlich sind, die diesen Bodhisattvas zugeschrieben 
werden. Drei Hauptwerke über die Heilenden Buddhas und Bodhisattvas, Schriften, welche 
beinahe zwei Jahrtausende lang unter den asiatischen Buddhisten weitverbreitet und 
einflußreich waren, habe ich hier in vollständiger Übersetzung wiedergegeben. Ihre Titel lauten: 
Das Sutra über die Betrachtung der beiden Bodhisattvas 'Der König des Heilens' und 'Der 
Höchste Heiler' (aus dem Chinesischen), das Sutra über die Früchte der grundlegenden Gelübde 
des Meisters des Heilens, des Tathagata im Lapislazuli-Glanz (aus dem Chinesischen unter 
Bezugnahme auf die Sanskrit-Version) und das Sutra über die Früchte der grundlegenden 
Gelübde der Sieben Meister des Heilens, der Buddhas im Lapislazuli-Glanz (aus dem 

[258] Biswas, Kalipada (1899- ): Common Medical Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim 
Himalayas. With a Foreword by R. N. Chopra. 50 illustr. VI, 157 p. Superintendent Government 
Printing, West Bengal Press, Alipore (WB), India 1956.
 Reprint by Soni Reprints Agency, Delhi 1982.

[259] Bitter, Wilhelm (Hrsg): Abendländische Therapie und östliche Weisheit. Ein 
Tagungsbericht. 287 S. Ernst Klett, Stuttgart 1968.
 Es sind dies die Vorträge der Tagung der Stuttgarter Gemeinschaft "Arzt und Seelsorger" vom 
Sommer 1967 auf Schloß Elmau. In 17 Vorträgen wird von bekannten Autoren aus Ost und 
West (u. a. Graf Karlfried v. Dürckheim, Pater Cyrill v. Korvin-Krasinski, Pater Enomiya-Lasalle, 
Frau Dr. med. E. Finckh, Prof. Vasavada) viel zum Verständnis östlicher, dabei auch tibetischer 
Medizinsysteme vermittelt.

[260] Bjorkhem, Örjan:  Tibetan Medicine (Swedish, with English abstract). Sydsvenska med.-
hist. Sällsk. Arsskr. 25, 1 (1988), pp. 103-128.
 [261] Blanc, Philippe: La médecine Tibétaine. In: Tibet d'hier et d'aujourd'hui. pp. 145-156. 
Guy Le Prat, Paris 1985.

[262] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Expedition to Eastern Siberia in order to collect plants 
used in Tibetan Medicine. In: Scientific Conference dedicated to the 250th Anniversary of 
Leningrad. Abstracts of Scientific Publications of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical 
Institute (Russian). pp. 20-21, Leningrad 1957.

[263] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Drug Plants of Indo-Tibetan Medicine. In: Biologicheski 
Aktivnye Vetschestva Flory Dal'nego Vostoka i Tikhogo Okeana (= Biologically Active 
Substances of Flora and Fauna of the Far East and the Pacific Ocean) (Russian), pp. 10-11. 
Vladivostok 1972.

[264] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Results of Studies on Resources of Drug Plants in 
Transbaikalia. In: Resources of Wild Growing Drug Plants of the USSR (Russian), pp. 82-84. 
Moscow 1972.

[265] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): The Tibetan Medicine and its Plant Drugs. In: Abstracts 
of the All-Union Conference, 10th-12th March 1975, on "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya 
Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects of Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian), 
pp. 35-36.  "Science", Leningrad 1975.

[266] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): The Medicinal Plants of Tibetan Medicine growing in 
Transbaikalia. In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya
(= Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian), p. 29.  Tomsk 1978.

[267] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Principles for the use of Drug Plants in Indo-Tibetan 
Medicine. In: Biologicheskie Resursy Vostochnoi i Yugo-Vostochnoi Asii i ikh ispol'sovanie
(= Biological Resources  of East and South-East Asia, and their Use) (Russian), p. 16.  
Vladivostok 1978.

[268] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Badmayev, AndreyNikolaevich, and Matveevsky, IN: 
Medicinal Plants in Tibetan Medicine and their Biological Action (Russian). In: Proceedings of 
the Scientific Conference, dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist 
Revolution (Russian), pp. 147-148. Leningrad 1967.

[269] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Be Tkhi Tkhuan:  Diglikozidy kvertsetina iz Oxytropis 
Myriophylla (Pall.). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" = Plant Resources (Leningrad) 13 (part 3) (1977), 
pp. 466-472.

[270] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Be Tkhi Tkhuan, Iriste, VA, Komarova, MN, Testov, LS, 
and Shatokhina, RK: Search for Physiologically Active Substances among Plants of Tibetan 
Medicine in Transbaikalia. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of Pharmacists, Riga, 17th-20th 
September 1974 (Russian), pp. 232-233.  Riga 1975.

[271] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Karpovich, VN, and Stukkey, KL: Pharmacognostical 
Investigation of Medicinal Plants, used in Tibetan Medicine. In: Proceedings of the 2nd All-
Union Conference of Pharmacists (Russian), pp. 74-79.  Moscow 1961.

[272] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Kuvayev, VB: Medicinal Plants in Transbaikalia, used 
in Tibetan Medicine. In: Problemy Farmakognozii  (= Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 3 
(Publications of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 19) (Russian),  p. 163.  
Leningrad 1965.

[273] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Musayeva, LD:  Phytochemical Investigation of 
Transbaikalian Plants used in Tibetan Medicine (Ukrainian). Pharmaceutical Journal (Ukrainian) 2 
(1964), pp. 44-47.

[274] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Pimenova, RE: The Resources of Wild Growing Plants 
in Transbaikalia. In: Resources of Wild Growing Drug Plants of the USSR (Russian),
pp. 59-66.  Moscow 1972.

[275] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Pimenova, RE, and Pimenov, MG: Search for 
Physiologically Active Substances in the Flora of Transbaikalia [used in Tibetan Medicine]. In: 
Problemy Farmakognozii (= Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 4 (Publications of the 
Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 4) (Russian), pp. 109-119.  Leningrad 1967.

[276] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Stukkey, KL: Qualitative Phytochemical Investigation 
of some Plants of the Tibetan Medicine in Transbaikalia on the Contents of Flavonoide 
Substances. In: Problemy Farmakognozii (= Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 1 (Publications 
of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 12) (Russian), pp. 157-163. Leningrad 
[277] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Stukkey, KL: Qualitative Phytochemical Investigation 
of some Plants of the Tibetan Medicine in Transbaikalia. Report No. 1. In: Problemy 
Farmakognozii (= Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 1 (Publications of the Leningrad 
Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 12) (Russian), pp. 135-155.  Leningrad 1961.

[278] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Stukkey, KL: Pharmacognostical Investigation of 
some Plants, used in Tibetan Medicine. Report Nr. 2. In: Problemy Farmakognozii (= Problems 
of Pharmacognosy), issue 2 (Publications of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, 
Vol. 17) (Russian), pp. 173-190.  Leningrad 1964.

[279] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Syrovezhko, NV: On the Use of "mumiyah" [in 
Tibetan Medicine]. In: Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 10th-12th March 1975, on 
"Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects of 
Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian), pp. 50-51.  "Science", Leningrad 1975.

[280] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna) and Syrovezhko, NV: The Steroid Compound of the 
Natural "mumiyah". In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya 
(= Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian),
pp. 134-135.  Tomsk 1978.

[281] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Syrovezhko, NV, and Shokhman, YaD: The Chemical 
Compound of "mumiyah-brag zhun" and its Use for the Treatment of Bone Fractures. In: 
Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= Studies of 
Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian), pp. 71-72.  Tomsk 1978.

[282] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Syrovezhko, NV, and Yakovlyev, GP:  Mumiyah: Legends 
and Facts (Russian). Priroda (= The Nature) (Russian) 3 (1972), pp. 82-85.

[283] Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), Yakovlyev, V, Yakovlyev, GP, and Syrovezhko, NV:  
Brag zhun is Transbaikalian mumiyah (Russian). Science and Life (Russian) 5 (1968), 
pp. 116-117.

[284] bLo-bzang Chos-phel: Selected Collections of Tibetan Medicine (Chinese modern version). 
Translated by Li Duomei. 335 p. Peoples Publishing House of Qinghai (Xining), Qinghai 1982.
 The original is written in Tibetan by bLo-bzang Chos-phel in the 18th century. It is a book of 
Tibetan medicine compiled mainly for clinical practitioners (Cai Jingfeng).
[285] Blofeld, John (1912-1987): Gateway to Wisdom. Taoist and Buddhist Contemplative and 
Healing Yogas Adapted for Western Students of the Way. x, 214 p. George Allen & Unwin, 
London 1980.
Reprint Unwin Paperback, 1990.

[286] Blofeld, John: Selbstheilung durch die Kraft der Stille. Einführung in Techniken des 
kontemplativen Yoga. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Ulli Olvedi. 304 S. O. W. Barth, 
München 1981.
 (Gateway to Wisdom. George Allen & Unwin, London 1980).- Neuauflage mit geändertem 
Untertitel: "Übungsanleitungen zur Wiedergewinnung des inneren Gleichgewichts mit 
altbewährten Meditationsmethoden", München 1983; 1991.

[287] Blondeau, Anne-Marie: Matériaux pour l'étude de l'hippologie et de l'hippiatrie tibétaines 
(à partir des manuscrits de Touen-houang). (Centre de Recherches d'Histoire et de Philologie de 
la IV. Section de l'Ecole pratique des Hautes Études. II. Hautes Études Orientales, 2.). IV, 428 
+ 34 p. Facsimilé p. Librairie Droz, Genève/Paris 1972.
 Das Buch enthält im Anhang die photographische Reproduktion der tibetischen Manuskripte 
Pelliot 1061-1066, dazu 8 Seiten Xylograph Bacot.

[288] Bösch-Billing, Hildegard:  Tibetische Heilmittel. Natur & Heilen (Amorbach) 66 (3) (1989), 
pp. 144-147.
 "Um die Grundsätze zu verstehen oder auch nur zu erahnen, nach denen tibetische Ärzte ihre 
Medikamente zusammenstellen, muß man sich etwas näher mit dem lamaistischen 
Menschenbild befassen. Ein Vermittlungsversuch zwischen tibetischen und westlichen 
Heilkundigen fand 1983 in Form eines Kongresses in Venedig statt. Daß wichtiges Kulturgut 
aber nicht so einfach übertragen werden kann, zeigte sich nicht nur an den 
Sprachschwierigkeiten - selbst erfahrene Dolmetscher rangen oft um die korrekte Wiedergabe 
symbolbefrachteter tibetischer Ausdrücke -, sondern auch daran, daß tibetische und westliche 
Mediziner eine sehr unterschiedliche Auffassung von Beziehungen wie Mensch - Umwelt, oder 
gesund - krank haben, und auch die Zusammenhänge verschiedener Organsysteme anders 
sehen. Auch unser analytisches Denken bei der Beurteilung von Medikamenten ist den Tibetern 

[289] Bogdanov, MN (1878-1920): Essays on the History of the Buryat-Mongolian People 
(Russian). 230 p., Verkhneudinsk [from 1934 Ulan-Ude] 1926.
 The author was interested not in ethnographical and historical materials but in Buryat nation as 
it was. He admired the bygone faiths of Buryats who had stood the great struggle for the 
distinctive existence and had saved their own language and economic structure. The author 
retold historical legends of Buryats about their origin and settling and also historical legends 
about Buryats created by their neighbours.- The problem of the time of the Buryats' migration 
to Transbaikalia is considered, with the conclusion that Buryats separated from the Mongolian 
root only when they settled on the shores of lake Baikal: at that time they formed a distinct 
nation. Beides other topics the author describes the Buddhist monasteries and the medicine 
carried out there.- Unfortunately this work was not completed due to the tragic death of the 

[290] Bogoyavlensky, NA: The Indian Medicine in Ancient Russian Medical Practice (Russian). 
83 p., ill. and maps. Medgiz (The Medical State Publishing-House), Leningrad 1956.

[291] Bogoyavlensky, NA and Novinsky, GD: The History of Russian-Chinese Relations in the 
Field of Medicine (Russian). In: Abstracts of First All-Union Scientific Historico-Medical 
Conference, 3rd to 9th Febr. 1959 in Leningrad, pp. 91-92.  Leningrad 1959.

[292] Bokar Rinpoche: Death and the Art of Dying in Tibetan Buddhism. 160 p. Clear Point 
Press, obtainable from Wisdom Books, London 1993.
 Bokar Rinpoche answers two main questions: how can we ensure that death turns out to be a 
positive passage, and how can we help those who are leaving us? More practical than 
philosophical, this book may help us to live our death as the fullest moment of our life (from the 
book cover).

[293] Boldaruyeva, GV: The Wound Closing Effect of Some Plant Preparations (Russian). In: 
Vklad Molodykh Biologov Sibiri v Reskenie Voprosov Prodovol'stvennoi Programmy i Okhrany 
Okruzhayushehey Sredy (= The Contribution of Young Biologists of Siberia to the Solution of 
Questions of the Food Programme and Preservation of Environment). Abstracts of the 
Conference (Russian). pp. 136-137, Ulan-Ude 1984.
 Data of the experimental study of some plant drugs used in Tibetan Medicine as wound 
closing drugs have been reported.

[294] Bolshakov, VN, Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), and Gurevich, IYa: Phytochemical 
Investigation of the Oxytropis murica of Varlakov. In: Biologicheski Aktivnye Vetschestva Flory 
Dal'nego Vostoka i Tikhogo Okeana (= Biologically Active Substances of Flora and Fauna of 
the Far East and the Pacific Ocean) (Russian).  Vladivostok 1971.

[295] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D (1942- ):  Tibetological Studies in Buryatia (Russian). Peoples 
of Asia and Africa (now "Orient") [Moscow] (Russian) No. 2 (1983), pp. 142-146.
Tibetology is one of the main fields of Oriental Studies in Buryatia. Tibetologists of the Buryat 
Scientific Centre deal with the problems of history, literature, art, philosophy and medicine.- 
Dr. Natalia D. Bolsokhoyeva, born in Ulan-Ude (Buryatia, Russia), graduated from Leningrad 
(now St. Petersburg) University, specialising in Tibetan medieval literature. She works in the 
Institute of Social Sciences of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ulan-
Ude). Since 1982 Dr. Bolsokhoyeva is engaged in scientific study and research on the Tibetan 
culture in Nepal with special reference to Tibetan Medicine in Nepal.

[296] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  The Study of Tibetan Medicine in the USSR and Abroad 
(Russian). Peoples of Asia and Africa (now "Orient") [Moscow] (Russian) No. 4 (1984), pp. 131-

[297] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: Treatises of Tibetan Medicine in the Collection of the National 
Archives of Kathmandu (Russian). In: Society and State in China, Part II (Russian)
pp. 33-37. The Institute for Oriental Studies of the USSR, Academy of Sciences, Moscow 

[298] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  The History of the Study of the "Atlas of Tibetan Medicine" 
(Russian). Peoples of Asia and Africa (now "Orient") [Moscow] (Russian) 5 (1986), pp. 125-

[299] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: The Tibetan Medical Treatise "Essence of Medical Science". A 
Brief Description (Russian). In: Society and State in China, part II (Russian). pp. 133-137. 
Institute for Oriental Studies of the USSR, Academy of Sciences, Moscow 1987.
 "Society and State" are the proceedings of the annual conference, organized by the Institute 
for Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Science. Three parts are published every year.

[300] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: The List of the Contents of the "Atlas of Tibetan Medicine" 
according to the Tibetan Treatise "Khog-'bugs" of sDe-srid Sangs rGyas rGya mtsho (Russian). 
In: Interaction and Interinfluence of Civilizations and Cultures on the East. All-Union Conference 
of the Orientalists, Moscow. Part 1., pp. 75-76.  Moscow 1988.

[301] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  Tibetan Written Sources on Medicine in C.P.R. (Peoples 
Republic of China) (Russian). Peoples of Asia and Africa (now "Orient") [Moscow] (Russian) 
No. 6 (1988), pp. 155-157.

[302] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: The Medical Schools in Medieval Tibet (based on the Material 
of the Text on the History of Tibetan Medicine "Khog-'bugs") (Russian). In: Tibetan Medicine. 
History, Methodology of the Studies and the Perspective of its Use (Russian). pp. 63-68. The 
Institute of Biology of the Buryat Division of the Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of 
Sciences, Ulan-Ude 1989.

[303] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: sDe-srid Sangs rGyas rGya-mtsho - Scientist-Encyclopaedist 
of Medieval Tibet (Russian). In: Istotsnikovedinie i Tekstologiya Pamethikov Spednevekovykh 
Nauk v Stranakh Tsentral'noy Asii (= Source Researches and Textology of Monuments of 
Medieval Sciences in Central Asian Countries). In Honour of the Late Mongolian Academician 
Ts. Damdinsuren (1908-1986). Chief Editor R. E. Pubayev. pp. 182-194. "Science", Siberian 
Division, Novosibirsk 1989.

[304] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  The Mandala of the Medicine Buddha-Menla According to the 
"Atlas of Tibetan Medicine" from the Historical Museum of Ulan-Ude (English sic!). Buddhist 
Himalayas (Kathmandu) 4 (1992), pp. 22-25.
 Published by the Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Method (Buddhist Studies), chief editor Min 
Bahadur Sakya.

[305] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  The Eight Medicine Buddhas (English sic!). Buddhist 
Himalayas (Kathmandu) 5, No. 1 & 2 (1993), pp. 17-19.

[306] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: Introduction to the Studies of Tibetan Medical Sources 
(English sic!). 57 p. Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu 1993.
The present work is the result of many years of study and scientific research in Tibetan written 
sources forming part of Tibetan medical literature and has been compiled from original Tibetan 
sources. Bibliography pp. 50-51.

[307] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: Tibetan Medicine in Nepal (Russian). 109 p., 16 illustr. Palitra 
Publishing House, St. Petersburg 1994.
 This book is based on the materials of the original Tibetan written sources and oral 
information, obtained by the author from Tibetan traditional medical doctors, who live in Nepal 
and practise Tibetan medicine in various Tibetan medical centres. The author pays attention to 
the analysis of Tibetan Medical treatises, which are the basis for the studies of the theory and 
practice of the medical system of Tibet. The three humors (rlung = wind/air; mrkhris-pa = bile, 
and bad-kan = phlegm), which play an important role in the classification of the human 
constitution, are described. She gives a detailed description of the four principles of diagnosis: 
questioning, observation, urinanalysis, and feeling the pulse. A special chapter of the book 
contains the information concerned with Tibetan pharmacology, pharmacy and technology of 
the preparation of Tibetan medicines, as well as the references to their properties, tastes, and 
effects. Methods of treatment such as the therapeutic massage, moxibustion, cupping and 
blood-letting are given in the same chapter. Interesting information is given in the chapter 
entitled "Tibetan Medical Centres in Nepal". The full biographies of the Tibetan doctors, 
specific principles of their treatment and remedies used in their daily practice are given as well 
as a historical background and an survey of Tibetan Medicine.- Bibliography pp. 107-109.

[308] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: The Fundamentals of the Tibetan Medical Education [based on 
the materials of the Tibetan text "The Historical Survey of the Tibetan Medical Science" by 
Pasang Yon-tan] (Russian). In: The Tibetan Buddhism. Theory and Practice (A Collection of 
Articles), pp. 175-193.  Siberian Printing Company, Novosibirsk 1995.

[309] Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D et al: Introduction to the Study of Kanjur and Tanjur. Historico-
Biographical Essay. Chief Editor R. E. Pubayev (Russian). 197 p. "Science", Siberian Division, 
Novosibirsk 1989.
 On Tibetan medicine pp. 163-193.

[310] Bon-grong-pa: The Dispute Between Tea and Chang. Ja-chang lha-mo'i bstan-bcos. 
Translated by Dr. Alexander Fedotov and Acharya Sangye Tandar Naga. 61 p. Library of 
Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala 1993.

[311] Bon Medicine: vide A. H. Francke 1924; Tenzin Namdak, Dolanji 1972; Namkhai Norbu, 
Delhi 1980; Samten G. Karmay, Dharamsala 1989; Marie-Louise Mullis, München 1979; Anton 
Schiefner, St. Petersburg 1880; Berthold Laufer, Helsingfors 1898; Rene Nebesky-Wojkowitz, 
Wien 1948; Helmut Hoffmann, Wiesbaden 1950; David Snellgrove 1967; Mi-pham-rgya-mtsho, 
Dolanji 1985; G. Orofino, Dharamsala 1984; Georgette Meredith 1967; R. Schräder et al., Wien 
1997 (?); Namkhai Norbu, Dharamsala 1995.

[312] Boronoyev, VV: On Preparing the Instrument Set for Pulse Diagnosis Automatization 
(Russian). In: Pul'sovaya Diagnostika v Tibetskoy Meditsine (= Pulse Diagnosis in Tibetan 
Medicine: Problems of Automatisation). Chief Editor Ch. Ts. Tsydypov (Russian). pp. 45-46, 
Ulan-Ude 1985.
 Brief information about preparing analogous and digital instruments for obtaining pulsograms 
on the wrist radial artery and on computer-processing of the data.

[313] Boronoyev, VV, Dudin, SA, and Poplaukhin, VN: Measurement Techniques and 
Computer-Analysis of Pulsograms (Russian). In: Pul'sovaya Diagnostika v Tibetskoy Meditsine 
(= Pulse Diagnosis in Tibetan Medicine) (Russian), pp. 77-89. "Scince", Siberian Branch, 
Novosibirsk 1988.
 The measuring and computing complex on the base of the microcomputer "Electronica-60" for 
the prompt processing of biomedical information, particularly pulsograms, are described.

[314] Boronoyev, VV, Tashinimayev, VD, and Trubacheyev, EA: Pulse Sensors for Practical 
Diagnosis in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Pul'sovaya Diagnostika v Tibetskoy Meditsine 
(= Pulse Diagnosis in Tibetan Medicine) (Russian), pp. 64-77. "Science", Siberian Division, 
Novosibirsk 1988.
 Description of structures and principles of pulse sensors used for pulsogram studies in 3 zones 
of wrist radial artery according to Tibetan pulse diagnosis. Techniques for actual measurement 
of pulse curves are given.

[315] Bourke, John Gregory (1846-1896): The Ordure of the Grand Lama of Thibet. In: 
Scatologic Rites of all Nations. A Thesis upon Employment of Excrementitious Remedial Agents 
in Religion, Therapeutics, Divination, Witchcraft, Love-Philters, etc., in all Parts of the Globe. 
pp. 42-53. W. H. Lowdermilk & Co., Washington 1891.
 "References to 'amulets' among the peoples of Tartary and Thibet are made by nearly all 
travellers; but few seem to have considered it worth while to determine of what these amulets 
were composed. Fathers Grueber and Dorville say of the Kalmuck Tartar women, 'each with a 
charm about their necks to preserve them from dangers'. These may have been ordure amulets 
of the Grand Lama. Grueber assures us that the grandees of the kingdom are very anxious to 
procure the excrements of this divinity (i.e., the Grand Lama), which they usually wear about 
their necks as relics. In another place he says that the Lamas make a great advantage by the 
large presents they receive for helping the grandees to some of his excrements, or urine; for, 
by wearing the first about their necks, and mixing the latter with their victuals, they imagine 
themselves to be secure against all bodily infirmities. In confirmation of this, Gerbillon informs 
us that the Mongols wear his excrements, pulverized, in little bags about their necks, as 
precious relics, capable of preserving them from all misfortunes, and curing them of all sorts of 

[316] Bourke, John Gregory: Der Kot des Dalai Lama von Tibet. In: Der Unrat in Sitte, Brauch, 
Glauben und Gewohnheiten der Völker. Verdeutscht und neubearbeitet von Friedrich S. Kraus 
und H. Ihm. Mit einem Geleitwort von Prof. Dr. Sigmund Freud. (Beiwerke zum Studium der 
Anthropophyteia. 6.). pp. 36-45. Ethnologischer Verlag, Leipzig 1913.
 (Scatologic Rites of all Nations, Washington 1891). Deutsche Neuauflage bei Eichborn Verlag, 
Frankfurt/M. 1992.- "Die Verwendung des Dalai Lama-Kotes unterliegt heute keinem Zweifel 
mehr, wenn man auch vielleicht gegenwärtig die Pillen-Anfertigung eingestellt hat und sie durch 
Surrogate ersetzt. Ein so vorsichtiger Beobachter wie Pallas, dessen Werke heute ihre 
Bedeutung noch nicht verloren haben und der ein hervorragender Kenner der mongolischen 
Völkerschaften war, hat sich sicherlich nicht hinter das Licht führen lassen. Auch Georgi 
bestätigt die Angaben der Reisenden und berichtet noch Verschiedenes, was Bourke nicht 
erwähnt hat, obwohl es auch ins skatologische Gebiet gehört. So galten damals Leinentüchlein, 
die mit zauberischen Knoten versehen waren und von den Lamas entweder angehaucht oder 
bespuckt wurden, als besonders kräftige Amulette. Von den Pillen, die nach Georgi von allen 
Lamas, nicht allein vom Dalai Lama, herrühren, berichtet er noch, wenn auch mit innerem 
Widerstreben, daß sie vergoldet und mit Moschus wohlriechend gemacht waren. 
Man brachte die Kotpillen aber auch im Innern der Götzenbilder aus Erz, Messing oder Kupfer 
an, die man in Tibet in großen Mengen anfertigte und an die mongolischen Stämme bis weit 
nach Sibirien hinein verkaufte. Daß man dieselbe ekelhafte Verehrung der Person des Dalai 
Lama von Tibet zuteil werden ließe, nahm man früher allgemein an. Maltebrun behauptet es in 
ganz bestimmter Form: 'Es ist eine sichere Tatsache, daß man den Auswurf, den sein Leib 
ausscheidet, mit frommer Sorgfalt sammelt, um ihn als Amulett und umfehlbare Arznei bei allen 
Krankheiten zu verwenden'. Und nach einer Anführung von Pallas (I, S. 212) fügt er hinzu: "Es 
ist zweifellos, daß man den Inhalt seines Nachtstuhles andächtig sammelt; die festen Teile 
davon verteilt man als Amulette, die man am Halse trägt; die Flüssigkeit nimmt man innerlich 
als unfehlbare Medizin ein." Abbé Huc widerspricht diesen Angaben: 'Den Talé Lama verehren 
die Tibeter und die Mongolen wie eine Gottheit. Der Einfluß, den er auf die buddhistische 
Bevölkerung ausübt, ist wirklich erstaunlich; aber dennoch geht man zu weit, wenn man 
behauptet, sein Kot werde sorgfältig gesammelt und zu Amuletten verarbeitet, die von den 
Frommen in Beutelchen eingeschlossen und um den Hals getragen werden."-
 Der Autor vergleicht, untersucht und beschreibt zudem alle "skatologischen" Hinweise und 
Beschreibungen bei den frühen Tibet-Autoren wie Grueber und Dorville, Warren Hastings, 
Desideri, du Halde und zuletzt W. W. Rockhill.

[317] Brauer, Arlette:  Tibetan Medicine. The Karma of Healing. 7 illust. Medical Newsmagazine 
(New York) 26, 9 (1982), pp. 154-160, 163, 167-168.
 "Many specific aspects of the Tibetan system of healing - the power of meditation, natural 
methods of childbirth, native herbal remedies - have intrigued American physicians receptive to 
alternative therapies and curative substances, and several doctors have visited the Tibetan 
Medical Center in Dharamsala in search of new approaches. A Harvard-led research team has 
traveled there to observe treatments for hypertension and other diseases and to measure the 
thermal control powers of monks adept at meditation. The University of Virginia recently 
completed a research project testing the efficacy of Tibetan remedies on cancerous mice. The 
health-maintaining and curative process of meditation and relaxation has been studied for some 
time by physicians in the U.S. to assess its efficacy in relieving stress and lowering blood 
pressure. This aspect of the Tibetan system of healing was of particular interest to Dr. Herbert 
Benson, a long-time student of the interaction of mind and body. He adapted Eastern 
techniques for the West in his widely read 'The Relaxation Response'. Benson is associate 
professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and director of both the behavioral medicine 
division and the hypertension section of Beth-Israel Hospital."

[318] Brehmann, II: Folk Medicine in the Light of the Theory of Information. In: Abstracts of the 
All-Union Conference, 10th-12th  March 1975, on "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya 
Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects of Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian). pp. 4-5. 
"Science", Leningrad 1975.

[319] Briceno Maaz, Tulio: Comentarios sobre el libro "Medicina Tibetana" de Rechung 
Rinpoche. Caracas 1974.

[320] Brodowski, Feliks: Badmajeffowie - Medycyna Tybetu w zetknieciu z cywilizacja zachodu 
[Die Badmajeffs - Die Medizin Tibets in Berührung mit der Zivilization des Abendlandes]. Mit 
mehreren Tafeln. 250 p. Nakladem K. Siegarni F. Hoesicka, Warschau 1932.
 Enthält folgende Kapitel: I. Grundsätze der Wissenschaft in den rGyud-bzhi.- II. Peter 
Badmajeff als Mensch, Arzt und Politiker (mit Stammbaum der Familie Badmajeff).- III. Die 
Medizin Tibets im Kontakt mit der westlichen Zivilization. Dr. med. Wlodimierz Badmayev - 
Aussicht (Perspektive) der Zukunft.

[321] Bromage, Bernard: Tibetan Yoga. 244 p. Aquarian Press, London 1952.
 Further editions 1959, 1980.- The chapter on the relation between mind and body gives a 
detailed description of the brain and the nervous system and their anatomy and physiology, 
explaining their functions as the expression of forces symbolised by Hindu gods and 
goddesses. No chapter or verse from Hindu scriptures or parallels in Tibetan scriptures or any 
other original sources are quoted (M. Winder).

[322] Bryant, Barry: Cancer and Consciousness. xix, 277 p. Sigo Press, Boston 1990.
 Alternative treatments and psychological aspect, especially in Tibetan Medicine.

[323] Brzosko, Witold J, Badmayev, V, Plachcinska, J, Beraud, M, Golonko, L, Dabrowa, A, 
Krzysztofik, R, and Matacz, D:  Laboratory and Clinical Studies on Padma 28. Immunol. Polska 
8, No. 3 (1983).
 Paper presented at the 'First International Congress on Tibetan Medicine', Venice 1983.

[324] Brzosko, WitoldJ, Gladysz, Andrzej, and Juszczyk, Jacek:  Clinical Studies on Padma 28, 
as an Immunomodulator in Chronic Active Hepatitis B (CAH). Hepatology (New York) Suppl. 2 
(1985), Abstract 45.
 (Abstract of the 20th Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Espoo, 
Finland, 29-31 August, 1985).

[325] Brzosko, WitoldJ, Jankowski, A, Prusek, W, and Ollendiek, H:  Influence of Padma 28 
and Thymus Extract on Clinical and Laboratory Parameters of Children with Juvenile Chronic 
Arthritis. International Journal of Immunotherapy (Geneva) VII (3) (1991), pp. 143-147.
 "19 children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), divided into two groups of 12 and 7 children, 
were treated with Padma 28 and thymus extract, respectively. Padma 28 (P28), a herbal 
remedy prepared according to an old lamaistic formula, is a definitely immunocorrective remedy 
confirmed by in vivo and in vitro studies on animals and human subjects. Thymus extract (ThE), 
prepared as suppositories, was found to be a very effective immunoregulatory preparation 
when tested on different human chronic inflammatory diseases. The influence of Padma 28 and 
ThE  suppositories was evaluated after 6 weeks of treatment with P 28 and after 4 weeks of 
therapy with ThE. Padma 28 was given in a dose of two to four tablets daily, and ThE one 
suppository per day. It was found that the preparations positively influenced both clinical and 
laboratory parameters and thus may be used as an alternative (heterodox) to orthodox 
treatment. Besides their clinical efficacy, the preparations gave no side-effects, and this is an 
additional important parameter which should encourage doctors to use them for the treatment 
of patients with JCA."

[326] Bubb, Werner Ph:  Tibetische Medizin. Fernöstliche Heiltradition - ein Brückenschlag zur 
westlichen Medizin. Ganzheits-Medizin Schriftenreihe der Krankenkasse Helvetia (Zürich)  
(1991), pp. 54-63.

[327] Bubb, Werner Ph, Gladysz, Andrzej, and Juszczyk, Jacek:  Padma 28 in der Behandlung 
der chronisch aktiven Hepatitis. Biologische Medizin (Baden-Baden) 6 (1986), pp. 300-305.
 "Angesichts ernster Bedenken gegenüber der Wirksamkeit der herkömmlichen 
immunsuppressiven Behandlung der chronisch aktiven Hepatitis, wurden experimentelle 
klinische Untersuchungen des Präparates Padma 28 eingeleitet. Das Präparat ist eine Mischung 
aus 20 naturbelassenen Kräutern, hergestellt nach einer alten lamaistischen Rezeptur. Es wurde 
festgestellt, daß dieses Präparat immunregulierend wirkt (günstige Aktivitätsveränderungen der 
T-Lymphozyten verschiedener Systeme, Zunahme der Makrophagen-Aktivität, Zunahme der 
Interferon-Synthese und Hemmung der Blutplättchen-Aggregation). Bei einige Monate lang 
behandelten Kranken, die an aktiver Hepatitis litten, wurde eine deutliche klinische und 
biochemisch bestätigte Besserung erreicht, verbunden mit einer Verbesserung der 
immunologischen Reaktivitätslage."

[328] Budayev, ChB: About Floral Terminology (Materials of Buryatian, Mongolian and 
Kalmykian Languages). In: Publications of the Buryat Complex Scientific Research Institute of 
the Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian). Issue 3, Oriental Series. 
pp. 80-88. Buryat Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1960.

[329] Buffetrille, Katia: vide Gyatso, Yonten.

[330] Bukhasheyeva, TG (1946- ) and Khapkin, IS: Plant Combinations with Scutellaria 
baicalensis Georgi as Good Precondition for Composing New Phytopreparations (Russian). In: 
Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific 
Conference (Russian), pp. 32-33.  Ulan-Ude 1987.
 There are 42 prescriptions with Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi: 3-component combinations are 
often described in the Bolshoy Aginsky Sbyor, but also 4-component complexes - which are of 
interest as prospective prototypes for making new medicinal preparations - and these have 
been specially analysed in this work.

[331] Bukhasheyeva, TG, Masalimov, RSh, and Masalimova, DD: Animal and Mineral Raw 
Materials Used in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Biologicheskoe Deystvie Veshchestv 
Prirodnogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= Biological Effects of Substances of Natural Origin). Chief Editor 
O. D. Tsyrenzhapova (Russian), pp. 87-89, illustr.  The USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian 
Division, Buryat Branch, Institute of Biology, Ulan-Ude 1983.

[332] Bukhasheyeva, TG and Tankhayeva, LM: Introduction into the Culture of Scutellaria 
baicalensis Georgi. (Russian). In: Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego 
Vostoka (= Problems of the Assimilation of the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). 
Abstracts of the Reports of the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian), pp. 12-13. 
"Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1983.
 In Tibetan Medicine, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. has been used for blood diseases, fever of 
hollow organs and for treatment of the inflammatory processes in the organs and tissues. 4-
years observations have shown that Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. grows normally in Buryatia, 
gives good seeds and has promising prospects.

[333] Burang, Theodor (1898-1984): Der eigentliche Name des Autors lautet Theodor Illion 
(vide dort für einige biographische Hinweise). Neben dem Pseudonym Th. Burang 
veröffentlichte er auch unter dem weiteren Pseudonym Th. Nolling. For more publications vide 
Th. Illion.

[334] Burang, Theodor: Tibeter über das Abendland. Stimmen aus dem geheimnisvollen Tibet. 
213 S.  Igonta, Salzburg 1947.
 Bereits 1947 in der 3. Auflage erschienen. Es handelt sich ausschließlich um einen Text zur 
tibetischen Medizin, etwa mit Kapiteln wie "Wie heilt der Tibeter Krankheiten". Th. Burang 
behauptet, im Jahr 1933 als Tibeter verkleidet 'auf dem Dach der Welt' gewesen zu sein, nach 
langem Studium des Tibetischen nun dort sich mit Tibetern unterhalten zu haben (die meisten 
hätten in ihm einen Tibeter gesehen), doch das alles ohne genaue Angaben des Wann, Wo, 
Wielange usf. Man muß Vorsicht walten lassen, wenn man sich über die 'Echtheit' seiner 
Erlebnisse und das Fundament seines Wissens um die tibetische Medizin Gedanken macht.

[335] Burang, Theodor: Tibetische Heilkunde. 170 S. Origo, Zürich 1957.
 Dritte revidierte Auflage 1974; 4. revidierte Auflage o. J. In mehreren Kapiteln über 'Die 
kosmischen Essenzen', 'Der Doppelkörper', 'Tibetische Medizinwerke', 'Tibetische 
Heilmethoden' und ähnliches beschreibt der Autor sich selbst als einen des Tibetischen 
kundigen Gelehrten, doch bleiben alle seine Ausführungen extrem vage, sehr oberflächlich, 
stets ohne exakte Angaben zum Woher und Wieso. Bedenklich stimmt auch das Fehlen 
jeglicher Zitate und bibliographischer Hinweise bzw. Nachweise. Eher ein perfektes 
journalistisches Meisterstück der Verschleierung, das man problemlos aus vielfachen Quellen 
westlicher Bücher so zusammenschreiben kann.

[336] Burang, Theodor: The Tibetan Art of Healing. Translated from German by Susan 
Macintosh. 117 p. Robinson & Watkins Books, London 1974.
 Also printed in India by D. P. Taraporevald, Bombay 1983.- Revised and enlarged edition of his 
"Tibetische Heilkunde" 1957. Concerns medicine. The subjects range from cancer to cosmic 
humours. Very superficial.

[337] Burang, Theodor:  About cancer. Tibetan Review (Delhi) X, (5-6) (1975), pp. 19-21 
contd. 23b-c.
 ". . . to conclude I would like to add that the most profound Lamaist scholars are of the 
opinion that even if Western research were able to find, as it did in the case of leprosy, really 
effective, practical and universally applicable healing methods for cancer, this would only be a 
momentary success - even though a very impressive one - since the root malaise would 
sooner or later become active elsewhere, possibly in the form of other, even more terrible 
diseases. For the Tibetan healer, the effective remedy for this 'original evil' lies within the 
sphere of religion. A description of the nature of this original evil which comes very close to the 
Tibetan view, was supplied by Thomas Carlyle when he pointed out that throughout the course 
of many centuries, the sum total of godlessness, lies and oppression of one man by his fellows, 
has ever increased. And each century has seen this undischarged debt of transgressions 
increase with renewed potency and passed on those who followed."
[338] Burang, Theodor: Der Arzt in der tibetischen Kultur. 112 S. Robugen GmbH, Esslingen 
 Sonderausgabe von 'Tibetische Heilkunde', gedruckt nach der 3. revidierten Ausgabe von 

[339] Burang, Theodor: Die Kunst des Heilens im Fernen Osten. Heilverfahren und Heilmittel. 
168 S. Origo, Zürich 1975.
 Mehrere Auflagen, so etwa 1981. Kapitelweise Beschreibung der altchinesischen, der 
tibetischen und der altislamischen Heilsysteme und ihrer Heilmöglichkeiten. Der Autor glaubt, 
daß das zukünftige medizinische Weltbild diese Heilsysteme berücksichtigen muß. Wie stets bei 
seinen Veröffentlichungen sind die 'Fakten' nicht belegt, es finden sich zu seinen Behauptungen 
keine überprüfbaren Texte, sondern nur Hinweise auf ebenfalls nicht exakt zitierte 
Sekundärliteratur. Burang verweist allerdings zurecht im Rahmen der tibetischen Medizin auf die 
zu seiner Zeit noch unzureichenden Übersetzungen der großen medizinischen Standardwerke 
Tibets, behauptet zugleich aber - wieder unüberprüfbar und durch nichts belegt -, er selbst 
habe das Wesentliche dieser Werke übersetzt (aber nie publiziert!), und gibt dann aus seinen 
'Übersetzungen' eher banale Ratschläge.

[340] Burang, Theodore: L'arte di Guarire nella Medicina Tibetana. Traduzione dalla edizione 
inglese riveduta di Serena Cavallo. [Libri di varietà psicologica e parapsicologica]. 96 p. Casa 
Editrice Astrolabio, Ubaldini Editore, Roma 1976.

[341] Burang, Theodor: Tibetan Medicine on Cancer. In: Dawa Norbu, An Introduction to 
Tibetan Medicine, pp. 52-61. Tibetan Review Publishing House, Delhi 1976.
 One wonders about the epidemiological statement of Burang, and where he got this 
information from: "In the countries which border Tibet, the frequency of cancer falls 
considerably below the world average. And in Tibet itself it is almost certainly lower than that 
of a country like India." - But some of his remarks are quite interesting and are given below: 
"Various indications and symbolic representations concerning the onset of cancer suggest that 
a person tainted by his fate carries a cancerous disposition around in him for many years until 
one or more of the various cancer precipitating factors leads to the effective outbreak of the 
disease. This can take several decades depending on the circumstances. At the appearance of 
the final precipitating factor, a sort of 'vibratory infection' may occur: a morbid vibration due to 
'decompound' coming from the subtle level." - On the subject of healing substances and diet 
requirements in cancer, an express warning is given against administering 'sweet' and 'white' 
medicines or 'sweet' and 'white' food or drink. The worst possible 'poison' in cancer is 
apparently refined white sugar. -
 The Tibetan division of cancer into 'hot' and 'cold' types does not appear clear enough for me 
to be able to enumerate here the medicaments recommended for these categories, I list only 
those which in all probability are indicated for virtually every type of cancer: 1. Musk. Apart 
from its other curative effects, it encourages nose bleeding (in the correct dosage, which can 
vary considerably from person to person). This is thought to be beneficial in cancerous 
conditions. However, I would advise Western cancer researchers to beware of limitations [i. e. 
imitations]. Genuine musk was seldom found, even in Tibet where it originates. 2. Black 
sulphur. I have not as yet been able to identify this substance. It is either black mercury 
sulphide, which is mercury with sulphur rubbed into it - hence the black colour - or a black 
sulphur compound, possibly antimony sulphide. 3. Black incense (a substance similar to 
olibanum, which has not yet been identified).- These remedies are mentioned in the men-ngag 
yon-ten-dyu-dyi-len-tab [i. e. the Man-ngag yon-tan rGyud-ghy lhan-thabs] and various standard 
medical works. Others also recommend aconite (to be administered with caution, naturally, 
because of its poisonous properties). Whether the latter can be used in all forms of cancer, is 
as with many other recommended substances, not clearly ascertainable."

[342] Burang, Theodor:  Cancer Therapy of Tibetan Healers. American Journal of Chinese 
Medicine (Garden City, N.Y.) 7 (1979), pp. 294-296.
 "As Tibetan Medicine regards cancer as a 'projection' of many kinds of cancer from the 
invisible 'second body' into the dense material body, each cancer - although, in the dense body 
all cancers seem to be somewhat alike - requires the administration of a specific set of 
medicines. Moreover, their choice must accord with the specific constitution of the patient 
diagnosed in terms of Tibetan humoral pathology which takes into account the three 
constituents of 'life force'. Medicines, therefore, have to be chosen individually for every 
patient. It is unlikely, therefore, that it will be possible to produce 'cancer medicines' for 
general use which could compete with the current cancer medicines now administered in 
Western countries. The many substances used by Tibetan healers for fighting cancer by oral 
ingestion, medical baths, inhalations, enemas, etc. include genuine musk (which is very difficult 
to obtain even in Tibet where musk deer live), aconitum ferox (which is the most poisonous 
aconite among the 17 species of aconitum found in territories adjoining Tibet), gi-wang (a 
substance sometimes found in the inner organs of diseased animals), realgar, camphor and 
calamus. Bitumen (mineral pitch [which in fact is a product from animals dung]) and arsenic are 
used with great caution, as they are regarded as substances which both fight and stimulate 
cancer according to the doses which are administered."

[343] Burayeva, LB, Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE, and Malakshinova, MM: The Polyphytocholum 
effect on Erythropoiesis in acute Experimental Hepatitis (Russian). In: Medicinal Plants in 
Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific Conference (Russian), 
p. 165.  Ulan-Ude 1987.
 It has been shown that the complex phytopreparation "polyphytocholum" which exerts its 
pharmaceutical effect in the liver decreases the anemia process in animals. By increasing the 
resistance of the liver tissue against CCL4-injury, polyphytocholum stimulates erythropoiesis 
from the beginning of the acute toxic hepatitis development and thus promotes the 
preservation of erythrocyte functional action.

[344] Burrow, Gerard N, Hopkins, Jeffrey, Donden, Yeshe, and Dolma (Khangkar), Lobsang:  
Goiter in Tibetan Medicine. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 51 (4) (1978), pp. 441-447.
 "The visit of two Tibetan physicians provided a unique opportunity to gain insight into a 
practice of medicine very different from that of Western civilization. Initial discussions 
indicated that the practice of medicine and mysticism were inextricably interwoven in the 
Tibetan culture. Accordingly, the focus of the study was directed to goiter, which is both 
common in the Himalayas and easy to define. In Tibetan medical practice, illness is considered 
to be derived from both proximate and distant causes. Three humors, 'wind', 'bile' and 
'phlegm' are thought to be responsible for normal mental balance. Goiter was thought to be due 
to an imbalance of these humors. The Western discovery that endemic goiter in the Himalayas 
was due to iodine deficiency explained the proximate cause but did not explain why some 
individuals have goiter and others do not in the same iodine deficient village."

[345] Burrow, Gerard N, Hopkins, Jeffrey, Donden, Yeshe, and Dolma (Khangkar), Lobsang:  
Goiter in Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
(Dharamsala) Series No. 5 (1982), pp. 39-46.
 Reprint from The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine (1978).

[346] Buryat-Mongolian ASSR = Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic [now 
Republic of Buryatia]. In: Report about the Activities of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 
for 1920. Part 2: Report about the Scientific Mission (Russian). pp. 153-157, Leningrad 1930.
 Contains an analysis of the rGyud-bzhi by E. E. Obermiller.

[347] Buschan, Georg: Über Medizinzauber und Heilkunst im Leben der Völker. Geschichte der 
Urheilkunde, ihrer Entwicklung und Ausstrahlung bis in die Gegenwart. 816 S., mit 137 Abb. 
Oswald Arnold Verlag, Berlin 1941.
 Zur tibetischen Medizin Seite 325-329, aber reine Sekundär- bzw. Tertiärliteratur (vorwiegend 
basierend auf Arbeiten von W. A. Unkrig).

[348] Buskirk, James R:  Tibetan Medicine: Need for cautious research. Tibetan Review (Delhi) 
XIII, 7 (1978), pp. 7-8.
 "The 'Western Tour' in 1978 of Dr. Lobsang Dolma, chief physician of the Tibetan Medical 
Centre, Dharamsala, has been attracting much attention in the Tibetan art of healing. On a 
special assignment for Tibetan Review, James R. Buskirk of La Clinica de la Raza, Oakland, 
Ca., covered her lectures at Berkeley and San Francisco. Dr. Buskirk reports for instance: 
"Most striking of the points covered by Dr. Dolma was the attributing of breast cancer to 
dietary imbalances and to chronic constriction or 'abuse' of the breasts. To my knowledge, 
these factors have not been adequately studied by Western researchers, who probably do not 
consider the use of brassières to be constriction or 'abuse'. While the much-attacked American 
diet has been blamed for every physical, mental, and social ill known to modern man, the 
possibility that wearing brassières as well as sexual manipulation of the breasts may be 
carcinogenic merits greater attention and is not too implausible. This suggestion certainly 
deserves an objective investigation (unless studies have already been made of which I am 
Likewise, the discussion of the treatments for both types of breast cancer was fascinating and 
showing. Tibetan pharmacology demands the attention of Western research. This field, more so 
than the question of the causation of disease, would rather easily lend itself to objective 
research. Apparently, some studies are already being done on the East Coast regarding the 
purported Tibetan cure for diabetes mellitus. The assertion that medicines laboriously produced 
by traditional manual methods are superior to the medications mass-produced by modern 
technology was intriguing; however, for practical and economical reasons I cannot foresee 
much of a shift from using the latter to using the former in the Western world."

[349] Butkus, DJu (1939- ) and Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Some Prescriptions used in 
Tibetan Medicine of Transbaikalia. In: Problemy Farmakognozii  (= Problems of 
Pharmacognosy), issue 5 (Publications of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, 
Vol. 26) (Russian). pp. 247-263, Leningrad 1968.

[350] Butkus, DJu and Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Use of Roots of Stellaria dichotoma and 
Arenaria capellaris Poir. in the Tibetan Medicine of Transbaikalia. In: Abstracts of the All-Union 
Conference of Aspirants and Young Scholars, Part 1 (Russian). pp. 139-140. Institute for 
Oriental Studies, The USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow 1975.

[351] Byams-pa 'Phrin-las:  On the Formation and Development of Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). 
Chinese Journal of Medical History [Beijing] (Chinese) 17, No. 2 (1987), pp. 126-128.
 This is the Tibetan name for the famous Tibetan doctor Prof. Jampa Trinley, presently the 
head of the Lhasa Menzkhang.

[352] Byams-pa 'Phrin-las:  A brief Biography of mKhyen rab Norbu, the Great Master of 
Tibetan Medicine and mathematical Astrology (Chinese, with English abstract). Chinese Journal 
of Medical History [Beijing] (Chinese) 20, No. 1 (1990), pp. 65-67.

[353] Byams-pa 'Phrin-las: vide also Sangye Gyamtso.

[354] Cai Jingfeng (1927-  ): vide also Sangye Gyamtso & Byams-pa 'Phrin-las, Lhasa 1988.

[355] Cai Jingfeng:  Preliminary study of the early history of Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). 
Chinese Journal of Medical History [Beijing] (Chinese) 10, No. 1 (1980), pp. 49-55.
 So far the most elaborate article on Tibetan medical history published in the Peoples Republic 
of China since 1949. The author had made a six-month investigation on Tibetan literatures in 

[356] Cai Jingfeng:  Vorläufige Interpretation der tibetischen Medizin-Thangkas - Preliminary 
Interpretation of Tibetan Medical Thangkas (Chinese). Jiangsu Journal of Traditional Chinese 
Medicine [Nanjing] (Chinese) Nr. 3 (1980), pp. 47-49.
 Die bekannten Medizin-Thangkas werden von vier Seiten her analysiert: 1. Aus welchem 
Material oder auf welchem Material sind sie hergestellt, 2. medizinische Darstellungen und die 
Beschriftungen, der Zusammenhang dieser Thangkas als Ergänzungen zu den vier Tantras 
(Gyüschi) und die enge Beziehung zwischen tibetischer Medizin und traditioneller chinesischer 
Medizin, bezogen auf die auf den Thangkas dargestellte anatomische Physiologie, die 
Krankheitsbilder, therapeutischen Prinzipien, Prophylaxe und Materia Medica, 3. mit welchem 
Material wird gemalt und 4. die Bedeutung der Beschriftungen.

[357] Cai Jingfeng:  Besprechung von E. Finckh. - Review on E. Finckh's 'Foundations of 
Tibetan Medicine' (Chinese). Studies of Tibetology [Lhasa] (Chinese) No. 2 (1986), 
pp. 133-136.
 Sehr positive Besprechung von Elisabeth Finckhs Buch, wobei von chinesischer Seite vor allem 
die einfühlsame Denkweise der Autorin hervorgehoben wird, die sich in dieses fernöstliche 
Medizinsystem sehr gut hat eindenken können. Auf die Übersetzung zahlreicher tibetischer 
Fachausdrücke wird besonders hingewiesen.

[358] Cai Jingfeng:  Zur traditionellen tibetischen Medizin und von ihr integrierte 
Medizinsysteme -Integral Parts of Ancient Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). Series of History of 
Science & Technology of Chinese Minorities [Hohhot/Inner Mongolia] (Chinese) Nr. 1 (1987), 
pp. 85-97.
 Die traditionelle tibetische Medizin wird in ihrer Entwicklung analysiert und dabei festgestellt, 
daß sie Elemente der traditionellen chinesischen Medizin (Theorie vom Inneren Organ 'Samsen', 
die Akupunktur und den Aderlaß) übernommen hat, aber ebenso Ideen der alten indischen 
Medizin (Lung, Tripa, Bäkan). Zusätzlich hat sie aber auch ganz eigene Ideen entwickelt, die 
direkt in Tibet entstanden sind.

[359] Cai Jingfeng:  Some Medical Achievements in Chinese Medicine (English, sic!). Journal of 
Traditional Chinese Medicine (Beijing) 8, No. 3 (1988), pp. 217-220.
 "The art of sphygmology is another aspect of Chinese medicine with very ancient roots. The 
Chinese may be the earliest people to utilize pulse feeling for medical purposes. Legend has it 
that as early as the preliterate period, Chinese people had already used pulse taking in the 
diagnosis of disease. As recorded in the first monograph on history, the Historical Record 
written by Sima Quan, who was the Herodotus of China, the famous doctors Bian Que, of the 
Warring states Period in the 5th century B.C., and Chunyu Yi, of Western Han Dynasty in the 
2nd century B.C., both used pulse feeling in diagnosis.- In the 7th century A.D., this classic 
was taken to Tibet. It is not surprising to note that the sphygmology (=pulsology) of Tibetan 
medicine is basically the same as that of the Han traditional medicine."- The renowned French 
specialist on Chinese science and medical history, Professor Pierre Huard, at an International 
Symposium, 'Culture and Medicine', held in London in 1966, pointed out that Mo Ching, the 
famous classic on the pulse written in the 3rd century B.C. then was translated and well 
received by the Tibetans. It likewise found its way to India and then reached the Moslem 
countries. Evidently the Mo Ching influenced Arabian sphygmology (=pulsology)".

[360] Cai Jingfeng:  Einige bedeutende medizinische Entwicklungen während der Tubo Dynastie 
- Some Major Medical Issues in Tubo Dynasty (Chinese). Tibetological Research Series [Lhasa] 
(Chinese) Nr. 3 (1991), pp. 89-108.
 Die Arbeit geht auf die Ursprünge der tibetischen Medizin ein. Diskussion über Hen-Wen-Hang-
De, d.h. den chinesischen Arzt, der von Srong-btsan sGampo (619-650 Regierungszeit) 
eingeladen, zusammen mit Ärzten anderer Länder (Indien, Römisches Reich), das Buch "Der 
furchtlose Kämpfer" geschrieben hat. Der Autor ist der Meinung, daß sowohl der chinesische 
Arzt Hen-Wen-Hang-De als auch der indische Arzt Bharadhvaja oder der römische Arzt Galenos 
nicht die Namen von individuellen Ärzten sind, sondern daß diese Namen nur pars pro toto die 
Länder China (Han Dynastie), Indien und das Römische Reich repräsentieren, als Ideen der 
damaligen medizinischen Systeme.

[361] Cai Jingfeng: Kurzgefaßte Geschichte der Medizin der tibetischen Tubo Dynastie - A 
Brief History of Medicine of the Tubo Dynasty (Chinese). In: Yearbook of Traditional Chinese 
Medicine (Chinese). pp. 484-485. Chinese Publishing House of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 
Beijing 1991.
 Die Entstehung der tibetischen Medizin fällt in die Tubo Dynastie (581-850 n.Chr.). Es wird im 
wesentlichen auf die chinesische Prinzessin Wencheng hingewiesen, die Medikamente gegen 
404 Krankheitsbilder, mehrere hundert Rezepte und fünf verschiedene Arten von Akupunktur 
mit nach Tibet brachte, aber auch vier verschiedene Methoden für die Arzneimittelherstellung. 
Die von der Prinzessin mitgebrachte "Medizin-Enzyklopädie" wurde in die tibetische Sprache 
übersetzt, wie aber auch zu dieser Zeit indische medizinische Bücher übersetzt wurden, die bis 
heute die Grundlage der tibetischen Medizin bilden.- Es wird auf die chinesische Prinzessin 
Jinchen aus der Tang Dynastie hingewiesen, die mit einem tibetischen Prinzen verheiratet 
wurde. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt wurde das früheste tibetische medizinische Buch aus dem 
chinesischen übersetzt, das Yue Wang Yao Zehn. Erst danach schrieb Yuthog Yontan Gonpo 
die vier Tantras (rGyud-bzhi, gespr. Gyüschi).

[362] Cai Jingfeng: Einführung in die traditionelle tibetische Medizin - An Introduction to 
Traditional Medicine of Tibet (Chinese). 143 p. Chinese Tibetology Press, Beijing 1992.
 This is the first systematic description of Tibetan medicine published in Chinese language. It 
includes almost all aspects concerning this art of healing. The book has been widely distributed 
in China.

[363] Cai Jingfeng: Towards the Early Developmental History of Tibetan Medicine. In: 
Proceedings of the XXXII International Congress for Asian and North African Studies. Hamburg 
25th-30th August 1986. Edited by Albrecht Wezler and Ernst Hammerschmidt. pp. 565 ff. 
Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 1992.

[364] Cai Jingfeng:  Über die Verbreitung der tibetischen Medizin-Thangkas außerhalb Chinas - 
Dissemination of Tibetan Medical Thangkas Outside China (Chinese). Series of History of 
Science & Technology of Chinese Minorities [Hohhot/Inner Mongolia] (Chinese) Nr. 7 (1992), 
pp. 98-105.
 Außerhalb Chinas [Tibets] wurden die Medizin-Thangkas am frühesten in Rußland beschrieben, 
nachdem ein russischer Arzt sie in einem osttibetischen Tempel aufgefunden hatte. In Rußland 
[Ulan-Ude] sind 76 der 77 (sic! An anderer Stelle 79) Thangkas vorhanden (Nr. 62 fehlt) in der 
Größe 54 x 62 cm, mit zeremonialem Rahmen 65 x 68 cm. Auf den einzelnen Thangkas sind 
192 bis 274 Einzeldarstellungen wiedergegeben, wobei es sich bei dem Thangkasatz in Rußland 
um wertvolle frühe Originale handelt. Weitere originale Medizin-Thangkas (einzelne Kopien, kein 
voller Satz?) existieren noch in Schweden, in Indien und in Frankreich, teils in Museen, teils in 

[365] Cai Jingfeng: The Magical Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). In: Memorial Gateway, Tibetan 
Medicine, Anesthetics and Others. Edited by Tao Shilong. pp. 34-42. Central China University 
Press, Wuhan 1993.

[366] Cai Jingfeng: Tibetische Medizin - Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). In: Volume of Traditional 
Medicine, The Great Chinese Encyclopedia (Chinese). pp. 598-603. The Great Chinese 
Encyclopedia Press, Beijing 1993.
 Das System der traditionellen tibetischen Medizin wird von drei Seiten her analysiert: Wie es 
sich entwickelt hat, die theoretischen Grundlagen der tibetischen Medizin und letztlich die 
ärztliche Praxis.

[367] Cai Jingfeng:  Über ein Juwel im Schatz der tibetischen Medizin - A Gem in the 
Thesaurus of Traditional Medicine (Chinese). Science [Shanghai] (Chinese) 45, No. 2 (1993), 
pp. 48-52.
 Bericht über die in verschiedenen tibetischen medizinischen Institutionen vorhandenen Serien 
von Medizin-Thangkas. Diskussion über die Geschichte dieser Bildtafeln und aus welcher Zeit 
sie stammen. Auch die materiellen Grundlagen dieser Kunst, d. h. von wem und mit welchen 
Materialien auf was für Materialien die medizinischen Inhalte wiedergegeben wurden, werden 

[368] Cai Jingfeng: The sMan-'Tsho-ba mDo (The Buddha's Canon Explaining the Cultivation of 
Vitality) and the Arts of Keeping Healthy in Early Tibetan Medicine (English sic!). In: East Asian 
Science: Tradition and Beyond, K. Hashimoto et al. (eds.). pp. 329-337. Kansai University 
Press, Osaka 1995.
 This paper discusses the art of keeping healthy according to early Tibetan medicine, based 
mainly on two Tibetan classical texts, the sMan-'Tsho-ba mDo and the rGyud-bzhi. It contains 
seven parts, viz. 1) The theoretical background, 2) Variable measures according to the 
individual, 3) Variable measures according to different places, 4) Variable measures over 
seasons, times and diet, 5) Mental health, 6) Daily life, and 7) The influence and historical 
significance of the sMan-'tsho-ba mDo.

[369] Cai Jingfeng and Hong Wuli:  Review of Rechung Rinpoche's 'Tibetan Medicine' 
(Chinese). Studies of Tibetology [Lhasa] (Chinese) Nr. 3 (1982), pp. 53-61.

[370] Cai Jingfeng and Hong Wuli Über die Ethik in der Medizin des alten Tibets - On Medical 
Ethics of Ancient Tibet (Chinese). In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Tibetology (Chinese). 
pp. 516-531. Peoples Publishing House of Tibet, Lhasa 1984.
 Es wird auf das Kapitel 31 des 2. Tantra der Gyüschi eingegangen, in dem die ethisch-
moralischen Bedingtheiten von Krankheiten erläutert werden. Der Autor kommentiert die 
strenge Beschränkung in der traditionellen tibetischen Medizin im alten Tibet auf das religiöse 
Fundament, d.h. daß nur Lamas Ärzte werden konnten.

[371] Cai Jingfeng and Hong Wuli: Über Moxibustion in der tibetischen Medizin während der 
Tubo Dynastie - A Study on Moxibustion of Tibetan Medicine in the Tubo Dynasty (Chinese). 
In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Chinese Medical History (Beijing), 
pp. 23-27.  Beijing 1992.
 Während der Tubo Dynastie wurden die Grundlagen der traditionellen tibetischen Medizin 
gelegt. Das Resultat waren die Gyüschi. Die Moxibustion spielte bereits eine wichtige Rolle in 
der Behandlung verschiedenartiger Krankheiten. In den Dun-Huang Felsenhöhlen fand man zwei 
"Rezepte zur Moxibustion in der tibetischen Medizin" (Nr. P.T. 127 und P.T. 1044). Es sind dies 
die frühesten schriftlichen Funde, die Moxibustion in Tibet beschreiben. Die Manuskripte 
zeichnen sich durch einen altertümlichen, andererseits sehr prägnanten Stil aus und geben 
gegenüber den Gyüschi eine genauere Beschreibung über die Moxibustion. Sie werden als 
zeitlich früher als die Gyüschi angesetzt.- Im Vergleich zur traditionellen chinesischen Medizin 
verwendet man bei der tibetischen Moxibustion auch Moxa und behandelt sehr verschiedene 
Partien des Körpers. Chirurgische, gynäkologische, pädiatrische, aber auch orthopädische oder 
HNO-Patienten wurden mit Moxibustion behandelt. Die Punkte zur Moxibustion sind für die 
traditionelle tibetische wie die traditionelle chinesische Medizin sehr ähnlich, so an der 
Wirbelsäule, an konkaven Körperstellen und so fort. Die tibetische Medizin kennt aber keine 
Kanäle. Es wird nur die "Höhle" als Moxibustionspunkt betont. Die Zahl der Moxibustionpunkte 
beschränkt sich auf weniger als 10, aber ist stets eine ungerade Zahl (und beträgt selten mehr 
als 20); in der traditionellen chinesischen Medizin sind es dagegen mehr als 100.

[372] Calendar: The Tibetan Medicinal Plant. Calendar for 1995. 4 plates. Paljor Publications, 
Delhi 1995.
 Beautifully colored reproduction of Bombax ceiba Linn.; Phytolacca acinosa Roxb; Adhatoda 
vasica Nees; and Meconopsis sp.

[373] Caraka Samhita (The): explained by the worshipful Atreya Punarvasu, compiled by the 
great Sage Agniveæa and redacted by Caraka & Drdhabala. Edited and published in 6 Volumes 
with translations in Hindi, Gujarati and English by Shree Gulabkunverba. Ayurvedic Society, 
Jamnagar/Indien 1949.
 Part of it similar in rGyud-bzhi (part of the 2nd Tantra of the rGyud-bzhi = Caraka Samhita).

[374] Caraka Samhita (The): Agniveæa's treatise refined and annotated by Caraka and redacted 
by Drdhabala (Text with English translation). Editor-Translator Prof. Priyavrat Sharma. 
(Jaikrishnadas Ayurveda Series 36). 3 volumes. vol. I: LI, 544 (1981); vol. II: XXXII, 879 
(1983); vol. III: VIII, 406 (1985) p. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi/Indien 1981-1985.
 Part of it similar in rGyud-bzhi (part of the 2nd Tantra of the rGyud-bzhi = Caraka Samhita).

[375] Cernovsky, Zdenek:  Psychoanalysis and Tibetan Buddhism as psychological techniques 
of liberation. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis 48(1) (1988), pp. 56-71.

[376] Chagmed Rinpoche: Hymn in Praise of the Medicine Buddha. Translated by Thrangu 
Rinpoche and Sister Palmo. Karma Rigdol Publications, Seattle 1974.

[377] Chagpori News: A Publication of Chagpori Tibetan Medical Institute. 22 p. Chagpori 
Medical Institute, Darjeeling 1993.
 Founder and President is Dr. Trogawa Rinpoche. Vol I, No. 1 of this publication started in 
February 1993.

[378] Chajdav, C: vide Ts. Khaydav. 

[379] Chandra, Lokesh: vide Lokesh Chandra.

[380] Changbhar, SW: Brief Introduction of Tibetan Traditional Medicine. In: International Semi-
nar on Traditional Medicine: A Challenge of the Twenty-first Century (Ed. B. Mukherjee), Calcutta, 
November 7th-9th, 1992. pp. 274-278. International Science Publisher, New York 1993.

[381] Chen, BZ and Fang, QC:  Chemical Study of the Traditional Tibetan Drug Hypecoum 
leptocarpum (Chinese). Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao (Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica) 20 (1985), pp. 658-
 English abstract.

[382] Cherkasov, YuM, Mityushina, TL, and Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna): The Creation of 
the Automatised Data Base "Tibetan Medicine" (Russian). In: The Second Republican 
Conference on Medical Botany. Abstracts of the Reports (Russian). pp. 32-33, Kiev 1988.
 In 1987 under sponsorship of NPO ASU "Moskwa" and the "Institute of Biology, the Buryat 
Scientific Centre of the Siberian Division of the USSR, Academy of Sciences" the work on 
creation of an automatized data base "Tibetan Medicine" was started. This data base will allow 
researchers to develop a qualitatively new method of scientific knowledge regarding many 
aspects of Tibetan traditional medicine.

[383] Chervyakov, DK: The Medicinal Plants of the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR (Russian). 96 p., 
Ulan-Ude 1949.

[384] Chervyakov, DK: Pharmacology of guzhir (Russian). In: Publications of the Buryat-
Mongolian Zoo-Veterinary Institute, issue 5 (Russian). pp. 83-87, Ulan-Ude 1949.

[385] Choedhak, Tenzin (1924-  ): vide Tenzin Choedrak, unter welcher (unkorrekten) 
Schreibweise dieser tibetische Arzt während der Jahre seiner größten Popularität meist 
publiziert wurde. Auch gelegentlich Chodak geschrieben. Keine einheitliche Schreibweise 
gegeben. Über Tenzin Choedak vide auch Albert Crum, Bonn 1990.
[386] Choedrak, Tenzin:  Seventeen Years in a Chinese Prison. Spearhead (New York, 1981).

[387] Choedrak, Tenzin: Ganzheitlich leben und heilen. Der Leibarzt des Dalai Lama über 
Vorbeugung und Therapie von Krankheiten. Mit einer Einführung herausgegeben von Dr. med. 
Egbert Asshauer. [Spektrum Band 4263]. 128 S. Herder, Freiburg/Basel/Wien 1994.
 Die 1992 im Tibetischen Zentrum zu Hamburg gehaltenen Vorträge von Dr. Tenzin Choedrak, 
des ehemaligen Leibarztes S. H. des XIV. Dalai Lama, werden hier erstmals einem größeren 
Publikum zugänglich gemacht: Berichte und Erkenntnisse eines profunden Kenners und 
erfahrenen Meisters der tibetischen Medizin über Vorbeugung und Therapie von Krankheiten. 
Folgende Fragestellungen und Themenkomplexe stehen im Mittelpunkt: Was soll man essen, 
und was soll man meiden, um gesund zu bleiben und die Körpersäfte im Gleichgewicht zu 
halten? Welche Diät gilt es als Therapie bei Krankheiten einzuhalten? Wie betreibt man richtige 
Körper- und Umwelthygiene? Wann ist die Behandlung mit Heilkräutern, Juwelenpillen, 
Moxibustionen oder mit der goldenen Nadel angesagt? Wie helfen Massagen, Bäder, 
Räucherungen sowie religiöse Heilmethoden (Visualisation, Mantras, Gebete)? 
Eine praxisnahe Einführung in Tibets sanfte Medizin - mit zahlreichen Anwendungs- und 
Selbsthilfeprogrammen für ein gesundheitsbewußtes Leben (aus dem Klappentext).- 
Zur Ethik des tibetischen Arztes führt Dr. Choedrak aus: "Schließlich noch ein Wort zur Ethik 
des tibetischen Arztes, der ja immer auch ein buddhistischer Arzt ist. Von ihm werden 
Weisheit, Ehrlichkeit, Hingabe, angenehmes Äußeres und Liebenswürdigkeit verlangt. Er soll 
nicht auf das Geld sehen, sondern seinen Lohn in dem Guten sehen, das er getan hat. Wenn ein 
Arzt sich vorstellt, daß der Patient sein Vater oder seine Mutter in einem früheren Leben 
gewesen sein kann, dann wird er ihm in einer Haltung der Liebe und Geduld begegnen. Durch 
diese Einstellung, daß das letzte Ziel des Menschen die Verwirklichung seiner Buddhanatur ist 
und daß die Medizin ganz wesentlich zu dieser Verwirklichung beitragen kann, wird die 
tibetische Medizin zu einer durch und durch buddhistischen Medizin und unterscheidet sich von 
allen anderen traditionellen Medizinsystemen. Nur ein Arzt, der selbst dem  Bodhisattva-Ideal 
folgt, kann nach Auffasssung der tibetischen Ärzte mehr als nur punktuelle Erfolge erzielen: 
hiermit ist dann auch die Grenze gesetzt, die einer Übernahme der tibetischen Medizin durch 
westliche Ärzte oder Heilpraktiker entgegensteht."

[388] Choedrak, Tenzin:  A lecture on AIDS and Tibetan Medicine. sMan-rTsis [new series!]. 
A publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine and Astro Science (Dharamsala) 1, No. 1 
(1995), pp. 26-31.

[389] Choedrak, Tenzin:  Diabetes in Tibetan Medicine. sMan-rTsis [new series!]. A publication 
for the Study of Tibetan Medicine and Astro Science (Dharamsala) 1, No. 2 (1995), pp. 1-10.

[390] Choedrak, Tenzin and Dorjee, Pema:  Dr. Tenzin Chodrak Speaks. The Tibet Society 
Newsletter (Bloomington)   New Series No. 11 (1983), pp. 1-4.
 (From TMI Newsletter 12/1982). "Dr. Tenzin Choedrak was born in 1924 at Ringpung Dzong 
near Shigatse, Tibet. At the age of ten he joined the nearby monastery of Nyepo Chode, and 
when he was seventeen he left for medical education and training at the Mentsekang in Lhasa. 
There he engaged in prolonged study of Tibetan Medicine, under the supervision of the famous 
physician, Ven. Khyenrab Norbu, the founder of the Institute. According to the traditional 
training of a Tibetan doctor, he first memorised the Four Medical Tantras (rGyud-bzhi), before 
embarking on a detailed study of the eleven principal subject divisions, including: embryology, 
anatomy, metabolic function, the signs of death, pathology, and diagnosis. Dr. Choedrak 
returned to his native monastery at the age of thirty, with a first class diploma in both the 
theory and practice of Tibetan Medicine. In 1954, he went to Phari, Richung Phatok, to 
experiment in the process of detoxifying mercury for use in medicinal compounds. After 
considerable success in Phari, Dr. Choedrak was summoned by the Tibetan Government to 
Lhasa in 1955. From 1953 he had held the position of personal physician to the Gyalyum 
Chenmo, the mother of the Dalai Lama, and in 1956 was appointed personal physician to H. H. 
the Dalai Lama. Following the unsuccessful popular uprising against the Chinese occupation in 
1959, Dr. Choedrak was imprisoned for seventeen years. In 1973, whilst still in prison, he 
successfully cured several prison officials. As a result, his status improved and he was allowed 
to practice medicine in the prison infirmary. When his seventeen-year prison sentence had been 
served in full, he was released and appointed head of a state-funded medical research team. In 
1980 the Chinese authorities permitted him to leave Tibet. In India, he took up his former post 
as personal physician to the Dalai Lama and joined the Tibetan Medical Institute in Dharamsala 
as chief medical officer and head of the research department. Since 1984 he has visited Europe 
and the USA to participate in conferences exploring the role of Tibetan Medicine in global 
medicine. More recently he has been engaged in research programmes, one of which is in 
association with the Harvard Medical School, under Dr. Herbert Benson, into the treatment of 
diseases such as asthma, cancer, hepatitis, multiple sclerosis and Aids. He is also concerned to 
recreate the Tibetan medical texts, which have been lost in recent years, by re-writing them 
from memory."

[391] Chögyam, Ngakpa: Rainbow of Liberated Energy. Working with Emotions through the 
Colour and Element Symbolism of Tibetan Tantra. xvii, 183 p. Element Books, Longmead, 
Shaftsbury, Dorset 1986.

[392] Chögyam, Ngakpa: Der fünffarbige Regenbogen. Energiearbeit mit der Farb- und 
Elementsymbolik des tibetischen Tantra. Deutsch von Theo Kierdorf und Hildegard Höhr. 
(Esotera Taschenbücherei). 202 S. Hermann Bauer, Freiburg/Br. 1988.
 (Rainbow of Liberated Energy. Element Books. Longmead, Shaftsbury, Dorset 1986).- "Die in 
diesem Buch beschriebenen Ideen haben keinen hochtrabend esoterischen Anspruch, sondern 
sind erstaunlicherweise ganz elementar und unmittelbar. Sie kreisen um das Thema, wie man 
am besten mit den Widrigkeiten des alltäglichen Lebens umgeht". Sie stellen im weiteren Sinn 
damit auch tibetische medizinische Vorstellungen dar.

[393] Chophel, Norbu:  vide Norbu Chophel.

[394] Choychzhamts, D: The Ngo-mtshar dga' sTon gTer mDzod. A Tibetan Medical Treatise: 
Translation from Tibetan by E. G. Bazaron, Ts. Lamzhav and V. N. Pupyshev (Russian). 161 p., 
"Science", Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 1989.
 Translation of a medical treatise written in Tibetan by the famous Mongolian traditional doctor 
and  practitioner Choyzhamts between 1921/1922 who has described diagnosis, treatment and 
classification of diseases in the Tibetan medical system. 341 original prescriptions are 
presented. The monograph is supplied with preface and index of medicinal raw material 
compiled by S. M. Batorova.

[395] Chundanova, Lydia L: vide Lydia L. Khundanova.

[396] Chuntumov, PG:  The Problem of Charlatanism in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 
Sovremennaya Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 5 
(1937), pp. 46-57.

[397] Clark, Barry (1949- ):  The Wish-Fulfilling Tree of Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Review 
(Delhi) 13 (1978), pp. 19-20, contd. 24b-c.
"Upon the correct balance maintained between the three humours, wind, bile and phlegm, 
depends the normal, healthy functioning of the body."

[398] Clark, Barry:  The Practice and Theory of Therapeutics in Tibetan Medicine (from the 
Explanatory Tantra). Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
(Dharamsala) Series No. 9 (1985), pp. 16-27.
 "This article is a translation of the therapy section comprising four chapters from the 
'Explanatory Tantra' of Tibetan medicine. This particular Tantra contains a detailed summary of 
most aspects of the traditional Tibetan medical system. Its diagnostic procedures have become 
relatively famous, and at least a little has been written in English about these and also about 
pathology. However, with regard to the importance of dietary and behavioural factors etc., 
almost nothing till now has appeared to explain the principles on which treatment is based and 
actually carried out. The chapters which follow show the general contingencies for every broad 
category of disease syndrome and the meanings are illustrated by vivid similes and metaphors. 
Nowhere are the therapeutic effects of the tastes and powers of given substances more 
profoundly understood than in the Tibetan medical system. Many specific examples are quoted 
along with detailed instructions for balancing the subtle energies of the body according to 
behavioral and environmental factors. The section on weight loss and weight increasing 
therapies describes appropriate dietary and medicinal factors, fasting and evacuation. The final 
chapter contains detailed and summarized sections on treatment of imbalances in the bodily 
humours by the traditional fourfold approach of dietary and behavioral factors, medication and 
accessory therapy. These are to be applied in a graded way, i.e. each successive one of the 
four is applied only when the preceding one proves inadequate."

[399] Clark, Barry: [rGyud bzhi. Rtsa rGyud] The Quintessence Tantras of Tibetan Medicine. 
Foreword by H. H. the Dalai Lama. Translated by Dr. Barry Clark. 260 p. Snow Lion,
Ithaca/NY 1995.
 Complete English translation of 1st and 2nd Tantra of the rGyud-bzhi. "Quintessence Tantras 
of Tibetan Medicine" contains a complete translation of the "Root Tantra and Explanatory 
Tantra of Tibetan medicine". It contains the Tibetan views and defining characteristics of 
healthy and diseased bodies. The remarkable diagnostic techniques of pulse and urine analysis 
are presented together with the principles of right diet, right lifestyle and behavioral factors, 
and with a treasury of knowledge about the beneficial applications of herbs, plants, spices, 
minerals, gems, etc. Also included are the subtle and psychological techniques of therapeutics 
and the standard of ethics and conduct required of a Tibetan physician - a warrior-like person 
equipped to overcome even the most formidable internal and external obstacles. - Dr. Barry 
Clark is the only Westerner to have undergone the complete theoretical and clinical training of a 
Tibetan doctor. For almost 20 years, he has studied, practiced and taught the ancient science 
of Tibetan medicine. His primary teacher was Dr. Yeshe Donden, the personal physician for 18 
years to H. H. the Dalai Lama. Dr. Clark now lives and practices in New Zealand, and 
frequently teaches and gives workshops in Europe, North America and SE Asia.

[400] Clifford, Terry (1945-1987):
 After acquiring a Ph. D. degree at the Union Graduate School at Yellow Springs, Ohio, 
Terrence Clifford studied the Hindu and Tibetan systems of medicine in India and Nepal. From 
1974 to 1976 she worked as a psychotherapist at the Gramercy Counseling Center and at the 
Psychiatric and Geriatric Division of the Gracie Square Hospital in New York. Her therapeutic 
programmes included yoga and meditation. She became the Executive Director of the Society 
for Tibetan Medicine founded in New York in 1983. She also completed a three years, three 
months and three days retreat in the Dordogne in France. The chief publication for which she 
will be remembered is her 'Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. The Diamond Healing', 
which includes a translation into English of chapters 77, 78 and 79 of the Third Tantra of the 
rGyud-bzhi on psychiatry. This book has been translated into French, German, Italian and 

[401] Clifford, Terry: Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. The Diamond Healing. 
Foreword by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Introduction by Lokesh Chandra. 40 b/w figures. 
268 p. Samuel Weiser, York Beach, Maine 1984.
 This edition 1984 also by Aquarian Press, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire. Reedition 1990, 
288 p. Also Paperback: Thorsons 1989. Reedition Delhi 1994.- It is the book edition of her 
PhD Thesis, Union Graduate School 1977. Translations into German, French, Italian and 
Portuguese.- The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the Tibetan art of healing. 
Using straightforward language the author discusses the components of Tibetan Buddhist 
Medicine: its religious, psychological and philosophical foundations, its history, traditions and 
rituals and its methods of diagnosis and cure.- The second half of the book deals particularly 
with Tibetan medical psychiatry and includes a translation of the psychiatric chapters of the 
"Four Tantras" or "rGyud-bzhi" in which the author attempts to correlate the Tibetan 
expressions with modern classifications of psychiatric disturbances.

[402] Clifford, Terry: Tibetische Heilkunst. Die Einführung für westliche Leser in eines der 
ältesten ganzheitlichen Heilsysteme. Mit einem Vorwort des Dalai Lama. Aus dem 
Amerikanischen von Jochen Eggert. Mit 32 Abb., 320 S. O. W. Barth, München 1986.
 (Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. The Diamond Healing. Samuel Weiser, York Beach, 
Maine 1984).- Eine weitere deutsche Ausgabe erschien als Sonderausgabe 1989; auch Ullstein 
TB 34648 (1990).- Die Verfasserin studierte im Rahmen ihrer Forschungsarbeit mit 
Unterstützung des Dalai Lama viele Jahre im Himalaya-Gebiet in Indien, und zwar nicht nur an 
der Hochschule, sondern auch bei buddhistischen Mönchen, die sie in die Praxis der Meditation 
und der medizinischen Behandlung einführten. Der deutsche Titel sagt nicht, daß es sich im 
wesentlichen um den Bereich der tibetischen Psychiatrie handelt (selbst der psychiatrische Teil 
des amerikanischen Originaltitels wird im Impressum ausgelassen). Ansonsten gut fundiertes 
Buch mit Bibliographie und Register. Behandelt vorwiegend den 'Ganzheitsaspekt' und die 
psychosomatische Richtung innerhalb der tibetischen Medizin.

[403] Clifford, Terry: Medicina Tibetana del corpo e della mente. Traduzione di P. de Paolis. 
(L'altra medicina). 272 p. Edizioni Mediterranee, Roma 1991.

[404] Clifford, Terry:  Tibetan Psychiatry and Mental Health. In: Aspects of Classical Tibetan 
Medicine. Bulletin of Tibetology (Gangtok/Sikkim) Special volume (1993), pp. 3-14.
 "Tibetan psychiatry combines the medical tradition itself with Buddhist theory and practice or 
with what might be called the medicine of Dharma. This means that the whole range of 
Buddhist practices for spiritual development - prayer, meditation, visualization, rituals, etc. - 
are used as a path to mental health and as specific psychiatric treatments. While physical and 
mental diseases are attended to in their own terms in Tibetan medicine, the ultimate goal of 
complete mental health, enlightenment, is never really out of the picture. In fact, the 
philosophical and psychological underpinnings of all Tibetan Medicine come from Buddhism. 
The fundamental principle at work here is that, as the Buddha said, 'Mind precedes all things 
and is their chief'. Mind creates illness and mind creates wellness. This is the basic 
psychosomatic assumption of Tibetan Medicine and Tibetan psychiatry . . .. Wind or rlung is 
the most important humour connected with mental illness; it is almost always involved in 
psychiatric disease. This is because the wind is the humour that mediates between the mind 
and the body. In the embodied psycho-physical organism, intangible mind takes the support of 
wind. As it is said in the tradition, 'Mind rides the wind'. Mind affects the wind, and wind 
affects the body. Conversely, the body can affect the wind and thus the mind . . .. The 
Tibetans have a tremendous amount of medicines for these wind disorders. They are quite 
famous for it, and these medicines are widely used among the Tibetan community. The main 
ingredient in the herbal compounds for wind is black aloe-wood or eagle-wood (Aquilaria 
agallocha), which is in Tibetan called agaru. It is their most favoured minor tranquillizer, much 
as Valium and Librium are ours in the West. According to the Tibetans, however, their medicine 
is harmless and without debilitating side effects. It would be wonderful if these Tibetan 
medicines for rlung could be studied scientifically. They might really make a very great 
contribution towards the treatment of mental illness, which is reaching epidemic proportions in 
modern times."

[405] Concon, Archimedes A:  Tibetan Medicine. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 
(Garden City, N.Y.) 11 (1-4) (1983), p. 165.
 "The ancient Tibetan method of diagnosis known as 'Uroscopy' is based on the theory that the 
whole hologram can be reconstructed from a piece (i.e. urine). Sclerodiagnosis is based on the 
theory that the changes in the sclera are a reflection of the state of health and/or disease 
condition in the individual. According to Georges Lakhovsky (1869-1942), a biological cell is 
capable of emitting and receiving electromagnetic waves (10-100 Hz). This emanation has been 
photographed as an aura by Kirlian photography. The ancient Hindus called this Prana, the 
ancient Chinese called this Chi Hua, the ancient Tibetans called this Second Body, the ancient 
Polynesians called this Mana, Franz Anton Mesmer called this Animal Magnetism, Baron von 
Reichenbach called this Odic Force, Wilhelm Reich called this Orgone, Soviet parapsychologists 
call this bioplasma, and Western parapsychologists call this a phenomenon observed in 

[406] Cordier, Palmyr:  Introduction à l'étude des traités médicaux Sanskrits inclus dans le 
Tanjur tibétain. Bulletin de l'Ecole Franãaise d'Extrême Orient (Paris) 3 (1903), pp. 604-629.

[407] Cornu, Philippe: L'Astrologie Tibétaine. 16 col. illustr., 272 p. Ed. Les Djinns, Paris 1990.
 As astrology and medicine in Tibet are closely interrelated, this wonderful book on Tibetan 
astrology is listed, too, even so there is not to much connection to Tibetan medicine in the 

[408] Crum, Albert:  Ein Triumpf des Geistes über die Materie. Wie Dr. Tensin Chödak 21 Jahre 
brutaler Gefangenschaft überlebte. 1 Abb. Tibet-Forum (Bonn) 1 (1990), pp. 19-22.
 "Dr. Tensin Chödak, Erster Leibarzt S. H. des 14. Dalai Lama, hat 21 Jahre chinesischer 
Einkehrung mit brutaler physischer und seelischer Folterung überlebt. Er ist ein hervorragendes 
Beispiel für eine Person, die in widrigsten Umständen obsiegt - für eine Person, die normale 
oder zu erwartende menschliche Grenzen in Krisen- und Katastrophenzeiten zu überschreiten 
und zu transzendieren vermochte.- Dr. Chödaks gleichbleibende Fähigkeit, selbst in 
Augenblilcken des Terrors die Gemeinschaft, die ihn mit seinen Folterern verband, 
anzuerkennen, trug zweifellos dazu bei, die Reaktionen seiner Bewacher zu besänftigen. 
Anstatt den Feind einzig als Ursache von Furcht zu sehen, hielt er ihn 'nur für eine andere 
Person, die sich ebenfalls in widrigen Umständen befand und eines Tages eine bittere Rechnung 
für die Taten bezahlen muß.' Mit anderen Worten: Dr. Chödak meinte, der Geist seiner 
Bewacher sei so programmiert worden, daß sie seine Empfindungen menschlicher 
Verwandtschaft mit Verschlossenheit zu leugnen versuchten, und daß sie mehr auf 
Unterschiede als auf Gleichheit aus waren. Dr. Chödak verlor nie die Verbundenheit mit den 
anderen Menschen in gleicher Situation aus dem Blick. Er hatte buddhistische Grundregeln, wie 
er sie vom Dalai Lama kannte, verinnerlicht: 'Es ist wichtig, unser aller Gleichheit als 
menschliche Wesen wahrzunehmen. Es ist wesentlich, menschlich zu sein; alle die anderen 
Lebensumstände wie Erziehung, Ansehen, Rasse oder Religion sind im Vergleich zu dem Band, 
das die Menschen einen sollte, zweitranging'."

[409] Csoma de Körös, Alexander (1784-1842): vide also Arpad Szállási, Budapest 1984;
J. Terjek, Budapest 1976; Alice Sárkösi, Budapest 1984; Norbu, Th. J., Bloomington 1987.

[410] Csoma de Körös, Alexander:  Analysis of a Tibetan medical work. Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal (Calcutta) IV (1835), pp. 1-20.
 Reprinted in 'Tibetan Studies, being a reprint of the articles contributed to the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal by Alexander Csoma de Körös', ed. by E. Denison Ross, Calcutta 
1912, pp. 47-65.- The summary made for Csoma by his Lama Sans-rgyas-phun-thsogs is 
preserved at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, cf. J. L. Nagy, 'Tibetan Books and 
Manuscripts of Alexander Csoma de Körös in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of 
Sciences', in Analecta Orinetalia memoriae Alexandri Csoma de Körös dicata. (Bibliotheca 
Orientalia Hungarica.5), ed. by L. Ligeti, Budapest 1942-47, pp. 38-41.- J. Terjék gave a 
detailed description of the manuscript in 'The Collection of Tibetan MSS and Xylographs of 
Alexander Csoma de Körös (Oriental Studies. 3), Budapest 1976, pp. 33-37.' It is reprinted in 
'Tibetan Compendia Written for Csoma de Körös by the Lamas of Zanskar: Æata-pitaka Series 
231, New Delhi 1976, pp. 223-312, ed. by J. Terjék.'"- Another reprint (abridged) in: 
'Theodore Duka, Life and works of Alexander Csoma de Körös, Manjusri Publ., Delhi 1972, pp. 
Csoma de Körös writes that there are approximately 40 other works on medicine in Tibet not 
including the five volumes contained in the Tangyur, but in fact there are many more, compare 
for instance Manfred Taube, St. Augustin 1981.- - Csoma himself in this famous article listed 
here writes: "The principal work on medicine in Tibet is that entitled the 'rGyud bZhi'. It is 
attributed to SHA'KYA, though not introduced into the Kangyur or Tangyur collections. When 
in Tibet I requested the Lama, my instructor in the language of the country, to give me an 
account of its contents, which he did in an abridged compilation divided, like the original, into 
four parts. The present translation of the LAMA's manuscript may be interesting to those who 
are curious on the subject of Tibetan literature, and the state of medical practice in that remote 
part of the world. The materials of the original are as usual all derived from Sanskrit works, 
which have not however hitherto been made known in an English dress. The following is the 
account given in the work itself of the manner in which this Treatise of medicine found its way 
to Tibet. In the time of KHRI-SRONG DEHUTSAN [he ruled 755-797] a Tibetan interpreter 
BAIROT-SANA (or Vairochana) having translated it in Cashmir, with the assistance of a 
physician-pandit, presented it to the above-mentioned Tibetan-king. At that time it was 
received by 'gYU THOG' a learned physician, and by several others, and afterwards it devolved 
successively to others till gYU THOG (the 13th in descent, from the first) styled the New 
gYUTHOG, to distinguish him from the former physician of the same name, who is called 'the 
ancient.' This physician much improved and propagated it; and at that time, it is stated, nine 
men became learned in medicine.-
 The Lama, who wrote me this extract, enumerated several works on medicine, current in 
Tibet, of which the most celebrated is a commentary on the present work, entitled 'Baidurya 
snon-po' (the lapis lazuli) written by 'Sangs-rgyas rgya mts'ho', a regent at Lassa about the end 
of the 17th century. The LAMA states that there are about forty books or works written in 
Tibet, on medicine, besides the five volumes in the Tangyur collection, and the scattered 
occasional instructions on medicaments in the Kangyur.-  The chief medical school in Tibet is 
at Chagpori, a monastery at or near Lassa. There are also two others, in middle Tibet, of some 
repute, called Cháng-Zur."

[411] Cutler, Howard and McDonald, Gail:  Tibetan Medicine and Tibetan Medical Practitioners. 
Myrobalan (Yalding/GB) 1 (1984), pp. 7-17.
 The following summary is given by the authors: "Two Tibetan settlements in Northern India 
were visited for the purpose of gaining a theoretical understanding of Tibetan Medicine and 
observing the practices of the various Tibetan medical practitioners. Tibetan practitioners and 
their patients were interviewed and observed. We found the Tibetans to have a comprehensive 
health care system. Their academic system of medicine includes complex theories of 
pathogenesis which outline how 'primordial causes' (ultimately based on principles of 
Buddhism) combine with 'immediate causes' (improper diet, behaviour, or adverse 
environmental conditions) to create 'imbalances' in the body's structural components and 
physiological processes. These 'imbalances' result in disease. Diagnostic methods include 
highly refined techniques of pulse palpation and urine examination. Treatment, based on a 
holistic approach, is designed to re-establish equilibrium in the body. Therapeutic modalities 
may include prescribed dietary or behavioural regimens, medications (compounded from natural 
substances), or external procedures. This system is widely utilized and believed to be effective 
by the members of these populations. Further study seems warranted to investigate what may 
prove to be very beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. In addition to the physicians 
who practise the formal Tibetan Medicine, there were spiritual healers, including lamas and lay 
healers of a shamanistic type, and technical specialists, exemplified by the 'liver ladies' who 
treated a respiratory disease of childhood. The type of practitioner selected by a patient 
seemed to depend on the nature of the disease as perceived by the patient, and on the bias of 
that patient. The different practitioners cooperated, occasionally referring patients to each 
other. Together they meet many of their people's health and social needs."

[412] Cyrova, NM: Discovering the Secret of mumiyah (Russian). 124 p., illustr. Tashkent 

[413] Daglio, Piero: Lineamenti di medicina Tibetana. Parallelismi e divergenze nei confronti 
della medicina occidentale. In: Congresso Nazionale di Storia della Medicina (25th Forli-Bologna, 
1971), pp. 389-397.  Soc. Italiana di Storia della Medicina, Bologna/Italy 1973.

[414] Dagthon, Jampa G: vide: Drakton, Jampa G.

[414a] Dakpa Nagwang: vide Dakpa Nawang.

[415] Dakpa Nawang:  La folie d'après un commentaire du rGyud-bzhi, les quatre Tantra. 
Scientia Orientalis (Strasbourg) 16 (1979), pp. 31-39.
 Nagwang Dakpa is the head of the Paris Tibetan Community. This article refers to psychiatry.

[416] Dakpa Nawang: La sphygmologie tibetaine. In: Les Médecines Traditionnelles de l'Asie, 
actes du colloque de Paris 11-12 juin 1979. Edition préparée par G. Mazars. pp. 23-29. 
Publication du séminaire sur les sciences et les technique en Asie, Strasbourg/Paris 1981.

[417] Dakpa Nawang:  Certain Problems of Embryology according to the Tibetan Medical 
Tradition. In: Aspects of Classical Tibetan Medicine.  Bulletin of Tibetology (Gangtok/Sikkim) 
Special volume (1993), pp. 79-95.
 "The teaching of embryology is divided into three parts, the causes (rgyu), secondary causes 
of development (rkyen) and the signs of birth (bca'-ba'i-rtags). The main causes are the semen 
(khu-ba) and menstrual blood [the role of the ovum was not yet known] without defect of wind 
(rlun), bile (mkhris) and phlegm (bad-kan). The consciousness of the intermediate state (bar-
do'i-rnam-ães) is projected by the force of Karma (las) with the help of the force of one's prayer 
(smon-lam) during the preceding life-time, accompanied by the assemblage of the five 
elements. As the commentary says, the consciousness of the intermediate state which is the 
main ingredient of conception is one of the many examples of relationship between the Tibetan 
medical tradition and Buddhist philosophy. For that reason a thorough knowledge of Buddhism, 
specially Tantric, is necessary in order to understand the Tibetan medical treatises fully and 
unmistakenly. The question of the consciousness of the intermediate state (bar-do'i-rnam-ães) 
is the basic element of Buddhist philosophy on rebirth conjointly with the law of Karma (las).- 
According to the Tantric teachings, in the case of a Nirmanakaya (skye-ba-sprul-sku) the 
consciousness enters by the mouth (kha) of the father and passes down to the womb along 
with semen.- The consciousness of the intermediate state can be either awake or not during 
the process of conception, and the development of the embryo depends on the degree of an 
individuality's spiritual awareness."

[419] Daksanova, BD: The Materials about the Establishment and Activities of Datsans in 
Buryatia (Russian) [Collection of G. D. Natsov in the Manuscript Department of the Buryat 
Institute of Social Sciences]. In: History and Culture of East-Asia. Vol. I.: Central Asia and Tibet 
(Proceedings of the Conference). pp. 120-121, Novosibirsk 1972.

[420] Dalai Lama, II (1475-1542): vide Gyal-wa dGe-'dun Gya-mtsho [692].
[420a] Dalai Lama, VII (1708-1757):
Benediction: Song to the Medicine Buddha (printed in the booklet [1080]):
In this age made totally dark
By the five great degenerations, 
The sentient being constantly toss
In waves of disease, sorrow and pain.

Thus Buddha, out of great compassion,
Emantes as Bendurya, the Medicine Guru,
To shine as a sun in the skies of the world
And dry up the waters giving birth to all ills.

Bendurya, the mere sound of whose name still pain, 
Radiates an endless cloud of (medical) knowledge
To uproot the causes of inner and outer sickness
By calming the turbulence of the three sources of grief. 

Like a sea of lilies in a field of thorns, 
His manifestations appear throughout the three worlds;
They wave the glorious flag of victory over disease
And restore the living to a state of peace and joy.
by Gyalwa Kalzang Gyatso, The Seventh Dalai Lama.
[421] Damdin:  The Lamaist Church in the Mongolian Peoples Republic (Russian). 
Sovremennaya Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 1 (14) 
(1936), pp. 98-100.

[422] Dargayeva, TD, Krenova, DK, Fedotovskikh, NN, and Tolmachyova, EL: Rational Use of 
Plant Drugs for Treatment and Prophylaxis of Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers (Russian). In: 
Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific 
Conference (Russian). pp. 48-49, Ulan-Ude 1987.
 According to the analysis of prescriptions of Tibetan Medicine and from the results of 
pharmacological screening, the authors have composed a new antiulcerogenic drug in the form 
of a soluble dry polyextract containing the complex of biologically active compounds 
(tetraphytum). The pharmacological test has shown that tetraphytum has an antiulcerogenic 
and antiinflammatory effect.

[423] Dargayeva, TD, Pletneva, TA, Tushemilova, EP, and Bichikhanov, MP: On Phytochemistry 
of Caragana Jubata. In: Abstracts of the  Vth Conference of Young Scholars, dedicated to the 
50th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 
24./25. April 1973 in Ulan-Ude (Russian). pp. 37-38, Ulan-Ude 1973.

[424] Dargayeva, TD, Rossiyskaya, GA, and Nikolayev, SM: Obtaining and Qualitative 
Investigation of Plant Hepatoprotector (Russian). In: The Rise of Quality of the Medicinal Aid to 
Out-Patients and In-Patients on the Basis of the Scientific-Technical Programme in the Light of 
Solutions of the XXVII Congress of CPSLL. Abstracts of the Reports of the IVth All-Union 
Congress of Pharmacists (Russian). pp. 371-372, Kazan 1986.
 Techniques of obtaining and quality control of a new complex hepato-protective plant-
preparation have been presented.

[425] Dargayeva, TD, Tushemilova, EP, and Bichikhanov, MP: Phytochemical Study of Some 
Drugs of Oriental Medicine. In: Abstracts of the Vth Conference of Young Scholars, dedicated 
to the 50th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist 
Republic, 24./25. April 1973 in Ulan-Ude (Russian). pp. 40-41, Ulan-Ude 1973.

[426] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan (1934- ):  Tibetan Medicine. Ayurdharma (Indian Ayurvedic Aid 
Society) (Bombay) 2, 5 (1966), pp. 390 ff.

[427] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan:  Haritaki, a comparitive study of literature in Ayurveda and 
Tibetan Medicine. Bull. Indian Inst. Hist. Med. 4,1 (1974), pp. 1-8.
 "Botanically, haritaki is known as Terminalia chebula Retz. In Ayurveda as well as Tibetan 
medicine, this drug is held in high esteem for its attributes relating to the prevention and cure 
of diseases. According to Ayurveda, there is no disease of human being which is not cured by 
haritaki. It protects human beings like a mother. In Tibetan medicine, haritaki is considered to 
be sMan-mChog-rgyal-po i.e. the king of the best medicines. In the work 'An Illustrated Tibeto-
Mongolian Materia Medica of Ayurveda' written by Jam-dpal-Rdo-rje of Mongolia which is 
edited and published by Dr. Lokesh Chandra (1971, vide there!), apart from illustrations of 
different types of haritaki, references from other works on various aspects of this drug are 

[428] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan:  Ayurveda in Tibet. The Tibet Journal (Dharamsala) 1, 1 (1975), 
pp. 94-104.
 About works on medicine in the Tanjur. Reflects also on the stages of embryological 
development.- "Tibetan is very rich in translations of Indic æastras. They are properly 
classified and scientifically translated. Some important and authentic works on Ayurveda as 
well as treatises on other aspects of science and art are preserved in the Tibetan language. 
Apart from the "Astanga-hrdaya." Tibetan tradition attributes to Vagbhata three more works. 
One of them, at least, is greater in size and content than the "Astanga-hrdaya" at present 
available. An auto-commentary on this work is available which at places differs significantly 
from the extant traditional commentaries on this work.- Inspite of the fact that many doctors 
from countries other than India were invited by the various rulers of Tibet to international 
congregations, Tibetan medicine is appreciably influenced by both the theory and practice of 
Ayurveda. "Gyü-zhi" which was translated from a Sanskrit work entitled "Amrta astanga guhya 
upadeæa tantra" (which is no longer extant) contains data which show a significant 
advancement of Ayurvedic knowledge.- In view of the above, if these two systems of 
medicine are brought together, they will be complimentary and supplementary to each other 
and will handsomely contribute to the world of science in gving relief to the ailing humanity."

[429] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: A Comparative Study of Ayurvedic and Tibetan Medical 
Literature on Haritaki. In: Inde Ancienne Vol. VI, actes du XXIXe Congrès international des 
Orientalistes. Section organisée par Jean Filliozat. pp. 431-434. L'Asiathèque, Paris 1976.
 "In Tibetan medicine, haritaki is considered to be sMan-mChog rGyal-po i.e. the king of the 
best medicines. In Tibetan literature 38 synonyms of haritaki are described. Seventeen of them 
are available in the extant Sanskrit works. Remaining 21 are either partly or entirely different."

[430] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan:  The Drug Terminalia Chebula in Ayurveda and Tibetan Medical 
Literature. Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) IV, 1 (1976), pp. 5-20.
 "In Tibetan language 'Haritaki' is known as A-ru-ra. In the 'Shel 'phreng' one of the 
commentaries [an independent treatise written by bsTan-'dzin Phun-tshogs, born 1672, who 
wrote the Shel 'phreng in 1727] is quoted to explain the signifiance of these syllables. 
According to this, 'A' indicates that it is the best of medicines and it cures all diseases caused 
by vayu, pitta and kapha. 'Ru' indicates that it has flesh, bone and skin which clear diseases of 
all the three dosas, and 'Ra' indicates that its body is like that of the Rhinoceros and it clears 
the diseases of all seven dhatus."

[431] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Indian Contribution to Tibetan Medicine. In: Dawa Norbu, An 
Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. pp. 12-24. Tibetan Review Publishing House, Delhi 1976.
 "In spite of the fact that many doctors from countries other than India were invited by the 
various rulers of Tibet to international congregations, Tibetan Medicine is appreciably 
influenced by both the theory and practice of Ayurveda. The 'rGyud-bzhi' which was 
[supposedly] translated from a Sanskrit work entitled 'Amrta a÷tanga guhya upadeæa tantra' 
(which is no longer extant) contains data which show a significant advancement of Ayurvedic 
knowledge.- The codification of the Tibetan Tripitaka goes back to the early fourteenth century 
when at the instance of Jam-yang ('Jam-dbyangs), the court chaplain of the Mongol Emperor 
Buyantu Khan (1312-20), a great number of sacred texts still scattered among the country's 
various monasteries were assembled and incorporated into the old stock of scriptures already 
existent at the Narthang Monastery. This collection represents the proto-type of all subsequent 
Kanjur and Tanjur editions. About 21 [or 22?] Ayurvedic works were translated and 
incorporated into Tanjur scriptures."- Many details of these Ayurvedic works in the Tanjur are 
then given in the text, with Sanskrit and English equivalents and titles.

[432] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan:  Saffron in Ayurveda and Tibetan Medicine. The Tibet Journal 
(Dharamsala) I, 2 (1976), pp. 59-66.
 "Saffron is one of those life-saving drugs held in high esteem by the physicians of both 
Ayurveda and Tibetan medicine. In Tibetan medicine, it is known as an effective remedy for 
curing all liver diseases, especially those caused by heat. In the text on Tibetan medicine, She-
gong (Shel-göng) and She-teng (Shel-phreng) composed by Dil-mar Ge-she (Dil-dmar, also 
known as De'u-dmar dge-bshes bsTan-'dzin Phun-tshogs), a reference from Caraka Samhita has 
been quoted, according to which 'Of the 2,000 medicinal preparations prescribed by Brahma, 
saffron and pomegranate are the most important - the former cures all diseases caused by heat 
and the latter cures all diseases caused by cold'. Unfortunately, this reference does not appear 
in any of the editions of Caraka Samhita. In Ayurveda as also in Tibetan medicine, numerous 
myths prevail regarding the origin of some important and therapeutically effective drugs like 
haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn.) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn.). Extant Ayurvedic texts do 
not provide any such description for saffron, but Tibetan medical texts describe many such 
stories to indicate the origin and usage of saffron in the hoary past. Some are based on stories 
in the Puranas of ancient India and some are new. In brief, they are given below."

[433] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Tibetan Medicine with Special Reference to Yoga Æataka. 
xvi, 390 p. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala 1976.
 Reedition: 1980, 1985.- Based mainly on the Sanskrit text of Yoga Æataka and allied 
Ayurvedic works, Dr. Dash shows the significant contributions of ancient Indian doctors in the 
development and growth of the science of medicine in Tibet. Besides a critical study of the 
Yoga Æataka discussing Æalakya Tantra, Salya Tantra and Agada Tantra etc., the work 
provides a comprehensive glossary and bibliography of great use for the students and scholars 
of Tibetan Medicine.

[434] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan:  Some Traditional Medical Systems. Traditional Medical Systems 
(Kalyani/India) I,4 (1982), pp. 1-20.
 "Prior to the spread of Buddhism in Tibet the local inhabitants were following the Bon religion 
and they had a type of traditional medicine which was considerably influenced by the funda-
mental principles and practices of Ayurveda. This influence was enhanced after the advent of 
Buddhism. They follow the same Pancamahabhuta Tridosa and Saptadhatu theories of 
Ayurveda. They also use Ayurvedic drugs. But simultaneously, they use their own medicinal 
plants growing in high altitude in considerable proportion.- In one of their religious scriptures 
viz., the Tanjur, they have included 22 Ayurvedic works in translated form. In the secular 
literature, they have also many medical works. The most popular one is known as rGyud-bzhi
 (to be pronounced as Gyu-Shi). This work has the following 4 parts: in Tibetan: I. Rtsa rGyud, 
II. Bshad rGyud, III. Man nag rGyud, IV. Phyi-ma rGyud; Sanskrit equivalents: I. Mula tantra, 
II. Akhyata tantra, III. Upadesa tantra, IV. Uttara tantra. English equivalents: I. The Primary 
text, II. The Explanatory text, III. The text of Instruction, IV. The Concluding text.-
 Even though the traditional system of medicine of Tibet was highly influenced by Ayurveda, 
the Tibetan medicine made great advancement in different fields. Their system of cutting the 
dead body and giving it to vultures for disposal gave them an opportunity to develop extensive 
anatomical knowledge which is scarce in Ayurveda. The development of pulse and urine 
examination in Tibetan Medicine, is unique and scholars entitled to an opinion even suggest 
that the pulse and urine examination followed by Ayurveda scholars of India is borrowed from 
the scholars of Tibet."

[435] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Alchemy and Metallic Medicines in Ayurveda. 247 p. Naurang Rai 
Concept Publishing Company, Delhi 1986.
 "Alchemy (transmutation of ordinary mercury into gold, etc.), which is considered to be a 
myth in the West was in practice in this country much before 5th century B.C. It was 
practically demonstrated in Delhi in the presence of some leading personalities only a few years 
back. Metals and minerals which are very toxic when taken internally in unprocessed form, are 
made absolutely non-toxic and therapeutically very potent. A killer-poison is converted into a 
healing nectar by special processes, and these processed metals and minerals and their 
preparations are used by Ayurvedic physicians for the treatment of diseases with absolute 
confidence since thousands of years. Unlike some of the synthetic and so-called wonder drugs 
of the present day, the Ayurvedic metallic preparations have no undetected slow poisoning 
effect. Instead of side (toxic) effects, these metallic preparations produce side benefits. While 
they cure some of the obstinate and otherwise incurable diseases, they also rejuvenate the 
body and promote longevity. Thus, these are useful for both patients and healthy persons. This 
book describes details of the methods prescribed in texts and followed by manufacturers as 
well as physicians for processing these metals and minerals including gems, jewels and 
poisonous vegetable products along with the basic physico-chemical as well as philosophical 
concepts for these students, teachers, scientists and intellectuals."

[436] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Illustrated Materia Medica of Indo-Tibetan Medicine. Foreword by 
Prof. Priya Vrat Sharma. (Indo-Tibetan Medicine Series, No 1). 647 p. Classics India Publication, 
Delhi 1987.
 2nd edition 1989. Also Motilal Books, Oxford.- "Indian medicine and its counterpart in Tibet, 
now known as Tibetan Medicine, are the repositories of safe and valuable remedies. These 
remedies have been included in the texts of these systems, only after centuries of clinical trial 
and personal experience. Each ingredient was scientifically analysed and its good and bad 
properties ascertained - a fact well authenticated by the texts. One such text containing 
valuable information about medicinal ingredients was composed before the tenth century A.D. 
in India, by Candranandana, the illustrious commentator of Vagbhata's Astangahrdaya. The 
work, no more extant in original Sanskrit, was translated into Tibetan and because of its 
authenticity and utility, was included in the Tanjur, the famous collection of the sacred writings 
of Mahayana Buddhism. A fragment of this work in Sanskrit, containing synonyms of the 
names, properties and therapeutic utility of the medicines has been, very recently, discovered 
in India. The present work is based on both these Tibetan and Sanskrit texts and allied works 
providing Tibetan, Sanskrit and botanical (or English) names, tibetanised synonyms and their 
Sanskrit equivalents, properties and therapeutic utility of medical plants, metals, minerals, 
gems, jewels, animal products and ingredients of food as well as drink. These natural and 
mostly herbal remedies can be advantageously utilised for the treatment of common as well as 
serious and otherwise incurable ailments in the place of and as a supplement to the remedies of 
modern medicine."

[437] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Formulary of Tibetan Medicine. (Indo-Tibetan Medicine Series, 
No. 2). 453 p. Classics India Publication, Delhi 1988.
 One hundred and sixty-four popularly used and therapeutically effective prescriptions are 
described with reference to their ingredients, parts of these ingredients used, the weight in 
which each ingredient is to be added, special methods of preparation, therapeutic indications 
and dosage. Tibetan terms are given alongside in romanized form and the weights and 
measures are given in traditional measures and metric equivalents. The text is accompanied by 
a large number of illustrations and diagrams.

[438] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Encyclopaedia of Tibetan Medicine. Being the Tibetan Text of 
rGyud bzhi and Sanskrit Restauration of Amrta Hrdaya Astanga Guhyopadeæa Tantra and 
Expository Translation in English. Vol. I: Rtsa rGyud or Mula Tantra or Fundamental Treatise. 
(Indian Medical Science Series 20). 323 p. Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi 1994.
 "Indo-Tibetan Medicine enshrined in rGyud-bzhi is a veritable treasure of centuries of 
accumulated experience with rational fundamentals and scientifically analysable therapeutic 
measures meant for the preservation and promotion of Positive Health, and prevention and cure 
of obstinate and otherwise incurable diseases. The rGyud-bzhi which was originally composed 
in Sanskrit and still preserved in Tibetan translation literally means a 'Four-fold Treatise'. 
Because of its Sanskrit origin and ignorance of Ayurveda, technical terms used in this text are 
often misrepresented in translations and critical analyses. The present effort is to give the 
Sanskrit equivalents on the basis of Ayurvedic texts like Vagbhata's Astanga-hrdaya of which 
both the original Sanskrit form and Tibetan translation are available. 
On the basis of this equivalent terminology, the text of rGyud-bzhi is rendered into English in a 
narrative form. In future, this will also help in restoring the original Sanskrit text, which, as the 
opening sentence of this translated text shows, was known as Amrta-hrdaya-astanga-
guhyopadeæa-tantra. The whole work will be published in 15 volumes. The present first volume 
contains the first part of this four-fold text. The unique feature of rGyud-bzhi is the systematic 
arrangement for all the Ayurvedic topics. All the concepts concerning 'Health, Ill-health and 
Therapeutics' are presented in the form of a tree having three roots, nine trunks, 47 branches 
and 224 leaves including two flowers and three fruits. Like the Rasarnava-tantra (12th cent. 
A.D.) which is composed in the form of a dialogue between Lord Æiva and his consort Parvati, 
the rGyud-bzhi is composed in the form of a dialogue between two emanations of 
Bhaisajyaguru (Medicine Buddha), viz., the sage Rig-pa'i Ye-æes (Sanskrit: Vidya-Jnana) and 
Yid-las-skyes (Sanskrit: Manasija). 
The four texts because of which it is called rGyud (=tantra) bzhi (=four) of this work are as 
follows: I. Rtsa rGyud (Sanskrit: Mula-tantra; Engl.: Primary text). It has six chapters. II. Bæad 
pa'i rGyud (Sanskrit: Akhyata-tantra; Engl.: Explanatory text). It has 31 chapters which are 
grouped into eleven gnas-s (Sanskrit: prakarana-s; Engl.: sections). III. Man nag rGyud 
(Sanskrit: Upadeæa-tantra; Engl.: Text of Instructions). It has 92 chapters which are grouped 
into 15 skabs-s (Sanskrit: prakarana-s; Engl.: topics). IV. Phyi ma'i rGyud (Sanskrit: Uttara-
tantra; Engl.: Subsidiary text). It has 25 chapters which are grouped into four mdo-s (Sanskrit: 
vibhaga-s; Engl.: divisions). In addition, there are two concluding chapters. Thus this work has 
156 chapters in total. Names of these sections and chapters are detailed in Appendix I of the 
present volume."

[439] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Encyclopaedia of Tibetan Medicine. Being the Tibetan Text of 
rGyud-bzhi and Sanskrit Restauration of Amrta Hrdaya Astanga Guhyopadeæa Tantra and 
Expository Translation in English. Vol. II: Bæad pa'i rGyud or Akhyata Tantra or Explanatory 
Text (Chapters I-XII). (Indian Medical Science Series. 21). 190 p. Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi 
 "This second volume contains twelve chapters from Bæad pa'i rGyud (Skt.: Akhyata tantra). 
Ch. I is in the form of a dialogue between the incarnate preceptor called Rig-pa'i Ye-æes (Skt.: 
Vidya-jnana) who emanated from the Body of Lord Buddha and the Sage Yid-las-skyes (Skt.: 
Manasija). The contents of the Bæad-pa'i rGyud or Akhyata-tantra (Explanatory text) are 
described in brief in this chapter. Ch. II describes the embryology and maternity including 
anatomical details of the body. In this chapter, details of the development and growth of foetus 
in each and every week are furnished. In Ch. III different parts including organs of the body are 
described with similes and metaphoric illustrations. Ch. IV describes details of the anatomy of 
the body including bones, muscles, veins, arteries, joints, tendons, hair, solid viscera, hollow 
viscera, channels (srotas) and vital spots (marmas). Chapter V elaborates functions of different 
types of dosas, dhatus (tissue elements), malas (waste products) and agnis (enzymes 
responsible for digestion and metabolism). Ch. VI is on classification and categorisation of an 
individual on the basis of age, sex, and prakrti (physical constitution and psychic 
temperament). Ch. VII elaborates signs and symptoms of bad prognosis (arista laksanas). Ch. 
VIII is on different categories of etiological factors. Ch. IX systematically describes causative 
pathogenesis of diseases with special reference to etiology for accumulation (sancaya), 
aggravation (prakopa) and migration as well as location (sthanasamæraya) of various dosas to 
cause different types of diseases in the body. Ch. X describes modes of spreading of dosas 
before their location in different parts of the body to cause diseases (prasara). Ch. XI 
elaborates signs and symptoms of the aggravation and diminution of different categories of 
dosas, dhatus (tissue elements) and malas. Ch. XII presents a systematic classification of 
diseases into 1616 categories. It is also mentioned in this chapter that taking into consideration 
the permutations and combinations of various factors, the diseases can be classified into 
innumerable categories. In addition, various diagnostic measures like nidana (etiology), purva-
rupa (premonitory signs and symptoms), rupa (actual signs and symptoms) and samprapti 
(pathogenic processes) are described in this chapter."

[440] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Pharmacopoeia of Tibetan Medicine. (Indian Medical Science 
Series No. 17). 301 p. Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi 1994.
 "All over the world, there is a growing awareness and interest about the multidimensional and 
multi-faceted culture of Tibet including religion, philosophy, arts and traditional medicine. 
Tibetan Medicine which is even now practiced in that country and her neighbourhood has 
become the centre of this interest. For the medical men and scientists, the language barrier and 
cryptic nature of description, specially with reference to therapeutic remedies have worked as a 
deterrent. These prescriptions are lying scattered in different texts and even physicians of 
Tibetan Medicine are facing difficulties in the absence of their compilation and codification. 
Thus a vast wealth of knowledge accrued through centuries of experience is not being properly 
utilized for welfare of suffering humanity. To overcome this difficulty, 205 popularly used and 
therapeutically effective prescriptions from the treasure of Tibetan Medicine are compiled and 
elaborated with reference to their compound, parts of these ingredients and weights in which 
these are added along with the methods of preparation, indications and dosage. Because of 
commercialization the manufacture of these prescriptions has created many problems and to 
overcome them, these prescriptions should be standardized and a pharmacopoeia is necessary 
to ensure quality control. Therefore in the introduction of this volume, the problems and 
methods of standardization and good manufacturing practices to be followed are elaborated."

[441] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Encyclopaedia of Tibetan Medicine. Being the Tibetan Text of 
rGuyd bzhi and Sanskrit Restauration of Amrta Hrdaya Astanga Guhyopadeæa Tantra and 
Expository Translation in English. Vol. III.: Regimens for Different Parts of the Day or Sadacara-
Dina-Carya (Chapters XIII to XXI). (Indian Medical Science Series. 22). 200 p. Sri Satguru 
Publications, Delhi 1995.
 "The present third volume comprises the fourth, fifth, and sixth sections (from chapter nos. 13 
to 21). The fourth section comprising chapter nos. 13, 14 and 15 deals with different 
categories of regiments. The fifth section comprising chapter nos 16, 17, 18 deals with 
different ingredients of food, drinks and drugs. The sixth section comprising chapter nos. 19, 
20 and 21 deals with the concepts of drugs composition and drug action, among others. The 
chapters are: - Ch. 13 deals with good conduct in its two aspects, viz., conduct in mundane 
affairs and religious or sacred conducts. Ch. 14 deals with the measurement of time and 
division of the year into months and seasons. It prescribes regimens including food, clothing, 
sleep, bath and other activities for each of these seasons. Ch. 15 deals with the manner in 
which one should behave in different situations. This includes the description of different 
natural urges, diseases caused by the suppresion of the manifested natural urges and measures 
to be taken to correct these ailments. Ch. 16 is on the properties of the ingredients of food and 
drinks which are described in this chapter in great detail. Ch. 17 deals with the measures to be 
taken to protect a person from being poisoned by his enemy, characteristic features of 
poisoned food including meat and drinks. This chapter describes dietetic rules. Ch. 18 describes 
the quantity in which food should by taken. Ch. 19 describes the mahabhautic composition of 
six different types of tastes, characteristic features of ingredients dominated by different 
mahabhutas, attributes of different tastes, groups of drugs having different tastes, therapeutic 
effects of these tastes and bad effects produced by their excessive consumption. Ch. 20 deals 
with the therapeutic effects of drugs. Characteristics features of potency, attributes and 
specific action are explained in this chapter. Ch. 21 explains groups of drugs having specific 
therapeutic effects and their mode of combination. In addition, various permutations and 
combination of tastes and potencies are also described."

[442] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Encyclopaedia of Tibetan Medicine. Being the Tibetan Text of 
rGuyd bzhi and Sanskrit Restauration of Amrta Hrdaya Astanga Guhyopadeæa Tantra and 
Expository Translation in English. Vol. IV. Surgical Instruments or Yantra-Æastra-Vidhi 
(Chapters XXII to XXXI). (Indian Medical Science Series. 23). 133 p. Sri Satguru Publications, 
Delhi 1995.

[443] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan: Encyclopaedia of Tibetan Medicine. Being the Tibetan Text of 
rGyud-bzhi and Sanskrit Restauration of Amrta Hrdaya Astanga Guhyopadeæa Tantra and 
Expository Translation in English. Vol. V-XV, to be published.  Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi 
1996- (?).

[444] Dash, VaidyaBhagwan and Doboom Tulku: Positive Health in Tibetan Medicine based on 
sMan-'Tsho-ba'i mDo (Vaidya-Jiva-sutra). (Indian Medical Science Series, No. 13). 
xxxi, 115 p. Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi 1991.
 "In the Tanjur section of Tibetan scriptures several works on medicine (including veterinary 
medicine) are incorporated. There are clear evidences in respect of most of these works that 
these were originally composed by Indian scholars in Sanskrit and subsequently translated into 
the Tibetan language by Tibetan scholars, in some cases with the help of Indian scholars. 
Sanskrit originals of most of these works are no more extant. Since these works are in the 
Tibetan language, scientists, physicians and well-meaning research workers in other parts of 
the world are not able to study them and utilise them for the benefit of suffering humanity. The 
first work in this list, viz., Sbyor-ba bRgya-pa or Yoga Æataka, with its translation in Sanskrit 
and English and notes has already been published by the Library of Tibetan Works and 
Archives, Dharamsala, India in 1985. The seventh work in this list, viz., sMan-dPyad Yan-lag 
bRgyad-pa'i sÑin-po'i 'grel-pa-las sMan-gyi Min-gi Rnam-grans or Vaidyaka 
Astangahrdayavrttau Bhesaja-Nama-Paryaya has also been published by Classics India 
Publications, New Delhi in 1986. 
The present work is placed second in the above mentioned list of works in the Tanjur scriptures 
and its Sanskrit or English translation has not yet been attempted. Since this is an important 
work dealing with measures for the preservation and promotion of 'Positive Health' (which is a 
new concept in modern medicine) and prevention of diseases, we attempted to bring out its 
edition with English translation and notes in English: Authorship of this work is attributed to 
Klu-sgrub (Nagarjuna) or Klu-sgrub sÑin-po (Nagarjunahrdaya or Nagarjunagarbha). Who is this 
Nagarjuna, whether he is the same as Nagarjuna-Pada, when did he compose this work and 
whether he is the same as the propounder of Madhyamika philosophy of Mahayana Buddhism 
is a subject of hot debate among the scholars of Indology and Tibetology."

[445] Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich) (1946- ): Ethnographic Aspects of Tibetan Pharma-
cological Terms (Russian). In: Izuchenie Traditsionnoy Kultury Naradov Tsentralhoy Asii 
(= Studies of the Traditional Culture of the Peoples of Central Asia) (Russian). A Collection of 
Articles, Chief Editor K. M. Gerasimova, pp. 66-74. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 
 Problems of identification of pharmacological terms of Tibetan Medicine in relation to 
ethnographic data have been discussed.

[446] Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich): Knowledge of Pulse Diagnosis from Tibetan 
Sources (Russian). In: Pul'sovaya Diagnostika v Tibetskoy Meditsine (= Pulse Diagnosis in 
Tibetan) Medicine (Russian), pp. 33-41.  "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1988.
 Some information on Chinese and Ayurvedic techniques of pulse diagnosis from Tibetan 
original sources is presented. The author suggests that these techniques have been borrowed 
from Chinese medicine and modified in accord with purposes of Ayurveda and Tantric 

[447] Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich): rGyud-bzhi - Monument of Tibetan Medieval 
Culture (Russian). Translated from Tibetan into Russian by Dandar Bazarzhapovich Dashiyev. 
Chief Editors S. M. Nikolayev and R. E. Pubayev. 349 p. The USSR Academy of Sciences, 
Siberian Division, Buryat Scientific Centre. The Institute of Biology., Novosibirsk 1989.
 Bibliography 35 titles, p. 321-323. Translation of Volume I, II, and IV complete.- [From the 92 
chapters of volume III only chapters 1-62 have been translated. This incomplete translation (by 
the same author) of the third volume of the rGyud-bzhi, entitled "Man-ngag rGyud - The Oral 
Instruction Tantra", has been published by the Union of the Buddhist Laymen, Ulan-Ude 1991, 
vide next entry].

[448] Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich): The rGyud-bzhi - Monument of the Medieval 
Tibetan Culture. Translated from Tibetan into Russian by Dandar Bazarzhanovich Dashiyev. 
Chief Editor N. V. Abayev (Russian). 285 p. Union of the Buddhist Laymen, Ulan-Ude 1991.
 This incomplete "Third Tantra of the rGyud-bzhi" in the translation by B. D. Dashiyev has the 
same title as the translation of the previous  translation of Tantras I, II and IV (Novosibirsk 
1989). The rGyud-bzhi is the classical source of Tibetan Medicine, accumulating of many 
centuries the experience of Tibetan medical men who used achievements of the medical 
systems of India, China and other countries in their practice. In this canon basic concepts of 
Tibetan Medicine have been given and theoretical purposes and natural drugs have been 
presented. Diagnostic techniques, technology of drug preparing, ways of prescription and 
methods of treatment have been translated by D. B. Dashiyev into Russian for the first time. In 
the preface a brief review of the history of Tibetan Medicine is given, and the problem of the 
rGyud-bzhi's authorship is considered.

[449] Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich) and Amogolonova, DD (1955- ): Philosophical 
Buddhist Categories in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Abstracts of the All-Union Buddhological 
Conference (Russian), pp. 91-92.  "Science", the Publishing House for the Oriental Literature, 
Moscow 1987.
 Problems of studying philosophical aspects regarding the Tibetan Medicine doctrine are 

[450] Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich) and Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna): The Dun-dpe: 
Tibetan Botanical Albums (Russian). In: The Second Republican Conference on Medical Botany. 
Abstracts of the Reports (Russian), p. 18.  Kiev 1988.
 A number of original sources of Tibetan Medicine where medicinal plants are described and 
identified are known as the dun-dpe. This Tibetan term is translated into Russian as "examples 
of growing" or "how plants grow". The dun-dpe are distinguished according to their origin 
(Chinese, Indian, Tibetan and Mongolian ones) and style (illustrative and textual ones). The 
authors consider the problem of their use for identification of medicinal plants adopted in 
Tibetan Medicine.

[451] Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich) and Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D: Problems of 
Studying Tibetan Medical Treatises (Russian). In: Izuchenie Traditsionnoy Kultury Naradov 
Tsentralhoy Asii  (= Studies of the Traditional Culture of the Peoples of Central Asia) 
(Russian), pp. 7-33. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1986.
 This paper is concerned with the problem of the authorship of the fundamental classical 
treatise of Tibetan Medicine - the rGyud- bzhi, on the basis of data from the commentaries on 

[452] Daursky, V:  Can One Recognize Tibetan Medicine as a Science? (Russian). 
Sovremennaya Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 5 (22) 
(1937), pp. 58-78.
 In this article the author tries to separate false propositions of Tibetan medicine from the true 
ones. He considers prayers, witchcraft, shamanism, amulets etc. as such false propositions. He 
points out that the astrology also prevents Tibetan medicine from being a science. The author 
criticizes the methods of studying medical science in Tibet, Buryatia and Mongolia, and he 
compares Tibetan medicine with the medieval European sciences. A 'Lama-amchi' usually has 
only a very small amount of different remedies and he 'fits' the illnesses to his pharmaceutical 
stock.- V. Daursky in his work argues with Tibetan doctors like A. A. Badmayev, P. A. 
Badmayev and N. N. Badmayev. He demonstrates the ignorance of Tibetan doctors, their lack 
of knowledge of anatomy, bacteriology and proper diagnoses. He speaks about general ousting 
of Tibetan medicine by European science; from his point of view, this process is also going on 
in Tibet.

[453] Daursky, V:  The Literature on Tibetan and Folk Medicine of the Buryat-Mongols, 
Mongols and Tibetans (Russian). Sovremennaya Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, later 
'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 3 (22) (1937), pp. 92-106.
 Valuable and extremly interesting and helpful article with 117 bibliographical entries, devoted 
to the history, theory and methods of Tibetan Medicine. All 117 entries are listed seperately in 
this current bibliography.

[454] Dawa Norbu (editor): An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. 95 p. Tibetan Review 
Publishing House, Delhi 1976.
 Includes the following: 1. The Art of Healing in Ancient Tibet by B.C. Olschak; 2. What is 
Tibetan Medicine? by Yeshe Donden and Gyatsho Tshering; 3. Indian Contribution to Tibetan 
Medicine by Bhagwan Dash; 4. An Anatomy of Body and Disease by Yeshe Donden and 
Jeffrey Hopkins; 5. Buddhist Tantric Medicine Theory by Alex Wayman; 6. Tibetan Medical-
Cultural System by William Stablein; 7. Tibetan Medicine on Cancer by Theodore Burang; 8. 
Tibetan Pharmacology by Kesang Tenzin; 9. Methods of Healing by Kesang Tenzin; 10. 
Appendices: (a) Tibetan physicians in exile, (b) Tibetan Medical Centre, Dharamsala, (c) 
Qualities required of a Tibetan doctor, (d) Portraits (i) Tibetan Lady Doctor (ii) Mongolian 
Doctor, (e) The Modernity of Tibetan Medicine. - All these articles are listed and annotated 
seperately under each authors name in the present bibliography.

[455] Dawa Norbu:  Tibetan Medical System and Ayurveda. An Introduction to Tibetan 
Medicine. Tibetan Review (Delhi)  (1976), p. 16.
 This is a review of the book listed in the entry above: "In Ayurvedic literature very little 
anatomical description of different parts of the body is available at present. Some vital organs 
like heart, brain, pancreas, kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs and urinary bladder are briefly 
described. While teaching the students, the teacher always makes efforts to collect material 
from other sources. On the other hand, in the books on Tibetan Medicine, these organs are 
described in greater detail. Even medicines which are for the most part of Indian origin are 
classified according to their action on these organs. The resemblance between Indian and 
Tibetan Medicine is so close that some scholars entitled to an opinion prefer to call both the 
systems by one name i.e. Indo-Tibetan System of Medicine. Nine articles written on various 
aspects of the subject by eminent authors are compiled and at the end, some interesting facts 
about the actual characteristics of Tibetan Medicine have been brought to light through an 
interview with the Lama physician who has the privilege of medically examining His Holiness, 
the Dalai Lama every day."

[456] Dawa (sMan-rams-pa) (1958- ):Bod-kyi gSo-rig sMan ris gSal-ba'i me-long [= A Clear 
Mirror of Tibetan Medical Paintings, text in Tibetan with 151 beautiful colour illustrations], 
vol. I. Editor Lobzang Ten-t'dzin. Illustrations drwan by the author Dr. Dawa.  392 p. 
The Tibetan Medical & Astro Institute, Dharamsala 1993.
 This is one of the few exceptions to my rule not to list Tibetan original books, yet the English 
translation is planed to be published in 1996.- This is a wonderful and competent publication 
on Tibetan medicinal herbs, and their preparation acccording to the fundamental text of the 
Tibetan medicine entitled 'Dri Med Shel-'phreng', composed by Deumar Geshe Tendzin Phun 
tshogs (born 1672).- Dr. Dawa sMan-rams-pa, author of this new publication, was born at 
Lhasa in 1958. He started learning Tibetan, Chinese literature and painting at a very early age. 
He joined the Lhasa Medical College in 1971 and graduated with distinction in 1975. In 1976, 
he became a member of the Research Committee of the Traditional Tibetan Medicine. After 
completion of his training in the Institute of Medicinal Research and the school of Botanical Art 
of Central Health Department of China in 1980, he was declared the topper amongst all 
students of the Autonomous Regions. - Dr. Dawa escaped into India in 1988 and was advised 
by His Holiness The Dalai Lama to continue and complete his project in the Tibetan Medical & 

[457] Dbyans-can-dga-bai-blo-gros,  A-kya Yons-dzin: vide Lati Rinpoche & Jeffrey Hopkins, 1979.

[458] Debelmas, Anne-Marie:  Plantes médicales et médecines traditionnelles: Motivations et 
méthodes de recherche. Application au Nepal. In: Himalaya: Ecologie/Ethnologie (Centre 
Nationale de Recherche Scientifique)  (1977), pp. 179-186.

[459] dell' Angelo, Enrico:  Notes on the History of Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 8 (1984), pp. 3-14.
 "The Tibetan medical system is one of the best known in all Asia. Its complex history is 
marked, down to the present time, by extraordinary personalities, who, transcending the 
specific functions of a doctor, often rise to the stature of a spiritual master. This article briefly 
examines the phases of the historical development of this medical system; we will describe in 
particular detail the period between the origins and the era of the great physician gYu-thog 
Yon-tan mGon-po Junior (1112-1203). During this period, the long phase of formation, through 
improvement of heterogeneous components and the assimilation of foreign contributions gave 
rise to today's medical system."

[460] Delone, BP:  Comparison of the Medicine of Ayurveda with the Medicine of Hippocrates 
(Russian). Moscow Medical Newspaper (Russian) 30-40 (1877), pp. (30), 913; (31), 950; (32), 
980; (33) 997; (34) 1022; (36) 1089; (37) 1122; (40) 1216.
 Only marginally concerned with Tibetan medicine.

[461] Desideri, Ippolito (1684-1733): In: Historical Sketch of Thibet (1712-1733), ed. by Filippo 
de Filippi as: "An Account of Tibet. The travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia, S.J., 1712-
1733". pp. 186-187. George Routledge & Sons, London 1937.
 First published 1931.- Desideri's notion on Tibetan Medicine is as follows: "Medicine is the 
only profession which has qualified members, and in Thibet they are many and excellent. It is 
not their custom to ask the patient how he is or what is his pain, but they feel first one pulse, 
then the other, then both together, and then say what ails the sick man. They have not many 
drugs, but good medicinal herbs, either indigenous or brought from China, the Lhobà country, 
which I have already mentioned, Nepal or Hindustan, or shall we say Mogol. These are 
generally given in pills or in powders, and often effect cures. The professors are well paid and 
generally stipulate what their fee is to be before undertaking a cure. The Reverend Capuchin 
Fathers, from the beginning of their mission, have with great charity given medicine to sick 
people and have cured many without asking for any money, only accepting any present which 
is offered. In this way they have baptized and sent many children to Heaven."

[462] Desjarlais, Robert R: Body and Emotion. The Aesthetics of Illness and Healing in the 
Nepal Himalayas. 6 fig., 2 tables, 19 photographs (Series in Contemporary Ethnography). 
xiv, 300 p. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1992.
 Printed also by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1994.- "One of the major domains of pain in 
Helambu is a kind of malaise that can be glossed as 'soul loss'. While this illness can take 
several forms, villagers typically suffer from it when a sudden fright causes the bla ('la') or 
'spirit' to leave the body and wander about the countryside, prey to malevolent ghosts, 
demons, and witches. If the spirit is lost, the body feels 'heavy' and lacks energy and 
'passion'.- This book is an account of Yolmo souls: how and why they are lost, how healers 
return them to their owners, and why incidents of 'soul loss' occur so frequently in certain 
parts of Helambu. How do local ways of being, feeling, and knowing tie into experiences of 
illness and healing? Of chief concern here is the 'aesthetic' nature of everyday life: the 
common graces and embodied values that govern how villagers go about their lives, walk down 
a hillside, or talk with neighbors; the forms and sensibilities that contribute to the sensory 
grounds of an aging body, a lost soul, or a healthy person.- It is within this context that the 
rapport between Shamanic and Western medicine occurs. Villagers have several options 
available when they fall ill: self-care, a shaman, the priestly lama, or a small medical clinic 
supported by a Kathmandu development project. Since the inception of this 'hospital' in 1982, 
a steadily increasing clientele has stepped inside its doors to receive treatment for wounds, 
headaches, respiratory ailments, and a host of other services, such as vaccinations and eye 

[463] Deumar Tendzin Phun-tshogs (1672- ?): Born 1672, no date of his death is known. In 
Tibetan: bsTan-'dzin Phun-tshogs. Tenzin Phuntshogs has been one of the outstanding Tibetan 
medical scientists and physicians, so I quote his biography, which was kindly translated for me 
in Dharamsala: "Deumar Geshe Tenzin Phuntshogs was one of the foremost Tibetan 
authoritative scholars in the field of healing from among the rosary of authoritative scholars, 
who are like the stars in the space. He was born in Gojo dzong, Tibet, in the year 1672, the 
Water-Mouse Year of the 11th sexagenary in the Nangrig lineage of the great healing scholar 
Tsampa Shilahade (sMan-pa mKhas-pa chen-po tsam pa shi-la ha-de), who had come (to Tibet) 
from the land of Trom (Khrom) during the time of Lhatsanpo Me-agtshom (Lha-bstan-po Me Ag 
tshom, the 36th King of Tibet). Deumar Geshe was also a direct disciple of Tshoje Karma 
Tenphel ('tsho-byed Karma bsTan-'phel), the holder of all the Lower Drugpa (Kham) and the 
founder of Phuntshog Choeling Shedrup which was the seat of the line of his incarnations. 
Deumar Geshe cultivated Tshoje Karma Tenphel ('tsho-byed Karma bsTan-'phel), Khampa 
Tshang Rinpoche Ngawang (Kunga Tenzin, =Kham-pa Tshang Rin-poche Ngag dBang Kun-dga' 
bsTan-'dzin) and others as his spiritual masters from whom he obtained authority in the three 
modes of scholarship (teaching, debate and compound) over sutra, tantra and all other fields of 
It was said that in Laglen Cedue (lag-len gCes-btus), he practised as physician since he was 
eight years old. He was known by the name of Geshe Tenzin Phuntshog, after he had obtained 
the Geshe degree from Drepung monastery in Central Tibet. I have neither seen a biography of 
this noble being in detail nor have I seen the dates of birth and deeds of this noble being in 
complete from his own works. However, here are some selected deeds of Deumar Geshe 
compiled by Dawa Tshering (zla-ba tshe-ring) of Gojo (Go-'jo). During the life of Deumar Geshe, 
there was not a single land of Tibet left untouched by him. He had even visited China where he 
had command over the instructions and practices of healing. Because of his scholarship and 
authority over healing, it was said that he had composed more than sixty accomplished works.
In addition to the knowledge of Healing, he was accomplished in the shilp-vidya and astrology. 
He was famous for his elegant speeches which were fearless like the roar of a lion. He 
authored twenty five major works on Tibetan medicine and astrology. Moreover, he had 
composed a teaching on mahamudra as well as many others. There are sixty works by him 
according to a catalogue. Finally when he passed away, he not only left a good amount of 
collected works but also left many distinguished disciples who would become eminent 
scholars. Foremost among them were Chogtrul Karma Rigzin (mChog sPrul Karma Rig-'dzin), 
Tshodze Gelong Ngawang Yongdu ('Tsho mdzad dGe sLong Ngag dBang Yongs-'du), Pema 
Wangi Gyalpo (Padma dBang-gi rGyal-po), Choekyong Lodoe (Chos sKyong Blo-gros), a 
bodyguard of Dege Burinpoche (sDge-dge Bu Rin-po-che'i sKu Srung), Depon Ngawang (sDe 
dPon Ngag dBang), Menratnatha (sMan Ratna Tha), Tshodze Bimug ('Tsho-mdzad Bi-sMug), a 
lineage disciple of Man-ngag Kagye, Lama Ngawang Nyima (Bla-ma Ngag dBang Nyi-ma), 
Damchoe Sum (Dam-chos gSum), Miwang Choekyi Gyalpo (Mu-dBang Chos Kyi rGyal-po), a 
lineage disciple of profound, extensive and secret medicine, Khor Nying Log Sum (Khor-sNying 
sLob-gSum), Situ Chokyi Jungne (Situ Chos kyi 'Byung-gNas), a great scholar and so forth. 
Through these distinguished disciples, Deumar Geshe established the foundation for the study 
of teaching and other fields of knowledge." This fragment of the life of Deumar Tendzin Phun-
tshog has been translated from the profound monograph (in Tibetan) "The Historical Survey of 
the Tibetan Medical Science", written by one of the most eminent modern traditional Tibetan 
doctors (sMan rams-pa) Pasang Yonten (vide!). His book is entitled "Bod-kyi gSo-ba Rig-pa'i lo-
rGyus Kyi bang mdzod gYu-thog Bla-ma dran-pa'i pho-nya", published by the Yuthog Institute 
of Tibetan Medicine Choglamsar, Leh, Ladakh, India 1986 (311 p.).

[464] Deumar Tendzin Phun-tshogs: Shel-gong & Shel-'phreng (Chinese modern version), 
entitled Pearl-Herbology or Jing Zhu Ben Cao. Translated into Chinese by Mao Jizhu, Luo 
Dashang, Wang Zhenhua and Ma Shilin. 200 p., appendix for Latin and Chinese nomenclature 
for each drug. The Shanghai Press of Science and Technology, Shanghai 1986.
 Shel-gong and Shel-'phreng are two independent treatises, the original  written in Tibetan by 
Deumar Tendzin Phun-tshogs. These very famous works on Tibetan herbology were written in 
1727, in sloka style and narrative style respectively. At some later time these two works were 
up to today always published together in one book. 2294 kinds of drugs are recorded in this 
book in which property and action, indication, compatibility of drugs and toxicity are chiefly 
recounted. Altogether 2294 drugs/titles are mentioned. However, since there are - in many 
circumstances - one drug with multiple titles and recounted separately, 1220 kinds of drugs 
are recorded actually. All the drugs are divided into 13 categories on the basis of their nature, 
origin, growth environment and the part used, including 166 jewelleries, 594 stones, 31 earths, 
150 essences and juices, 182 trees, 142 damp grasses, 266 xerophytes, 59 salines and alkali, 
448 animals, 42 crops, 121 different waters, 11 fires, 82 processed products.
 According to its part used, plant categories are divided into root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, 
whole plant, and the animal categories are also divided into different parts such as head, brain, 
horn, eye, tongue, tooth, throat, stomach, intestine, kidney, blood, meat, bone, hairs, stool and 
urine.- The book, which occupies a significant position in the history of Tibetan pharmacology, 
has been recognized as one of the most important works of Tibetan pharmacology. It is also a 
required reading for the study and understanding of classification of Tibetan drugs, and it is still 
an important and worthy reference in modern taxology of drugs.- 
All drugs recorded in the book are special local products of the Tibetan plateau area with 
pronounced features of Tibetan drugs. This book, being a masterpiece in Tibetan 
pharmacological history, is still the most important textbook in this field today. It exerts 
profound influence in the history of Tibetan medicine (Hong Wuli).-  The original Tibetan text 
entitled Dri Med Æel Gon and Dri Med Æel Phren (= Presentation of the Principles of Tibetan 
Pharmacognosy and Materia Medica) is available as a reprint from the 1980 Tibetan movable 
type edition based on the Sde-dge redaction by O-rGyan rNam-rGyal, published by Dr. T. Y. 
Tashigang (Smanrtsis Shesrig Spendzog, vol. 113), Leh 1983. The Tibetan text of Dri Med Æel 
Gon on pp. 1-50; list of contents of Dri Med Æel Phren on pp. 1-37, Tibetan text of Dri Med 
Æel Phren on pp. 1-488. No translation of this important work in any Western language  (even 
partly) is available (Natalia Bolsokhoyeva).

[465] Deumar Tendzin Phun-tshogs: Kunsal Nandzod. The  Tibetan Medical Treatise of the 
Preparation of the Medicinal Elixirs. Part I [Methods of treatment of drug raw material and the 
way of preparing medicinal oils, elixirs and pills] (Russian). Translation from Tibetan, with 
introduction and indices by Dandar Bazarzhanovich Dashiyev. 64 p. The Association of the 
Writers of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude 1991.

[466] Deumar Tendzin Phun-tshogs: Kunsal Nandzod. The  Tibetan Medical Treatise of the 
Preparation of the Medicinal Elixirs. Part II [The description of the procedures and their use in 
the ancient Tibetan Medicine; footnotes, terminological dictionary, index of prescriptions and of 
raw drug materials, which are helpful for the decipherments of some diseases, and the 
components of the preparation of the medicines] (Russian). Translation from Tibetan, with 
introduction and indices by Dandar Bazarzhanovich Dashiyev. 48 p. The Association of the 
Writers of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude 1991.

[467] Devoe, Dorsh Marie:  An Introduction to Tibetan Folk Medicine. Curare (Braunschweig) 4, 
no. 1 (1981), pp. 57-63.
 "Based on interviews with a number of elderly Tibetans, this article outlines some of the basic 
folk medical practices. These often involve the use of materials or practices which would 
normally be regarded as harmful, but, as with folk medicine in other cultures, they are often 
believed to have surprisingly beneficial results.- It is clear that at least for minor illnesses, 
foods are considered an important curative source for people. Foods that work as cures are not 
mild foods but commodities of unique and potent character. Several informants commented on 
the weakness of certain foods in India. Butter and barley in Tibet are described as powerful 
foods with medicinal qualities, but in India, they do not seem to work the same miracles. If 
healthiness requires an adaptive response to new or unusual circumstances, Tibetans' claims 
that their own health has deteriorated or 'weakened' since their arrival in India, are most 
probably accurate reports. Nonetheless, traditional food habits are maintained even after 20 
unfortunate years as refugees, as are the beliefs in remedial powers of various foods and diets, 
despite the continual, real disappointments in the effectiveness of those foods as cures in 

[468] Devoe, Dorsh Marie and Clark, Barry:  Tibetan Folk Medicine. Traditional Medical System 
(Kalyani/India) 1, 3 (1982), pp. 1-23.
 Profound, elaborate and quite well balanced article. I quote some lines of special interest: 
"There are a set of religious personnel who act as healers for Tibetan folk. They are the 
ngagpa, the churpa (yogi), the moma, and mopa. The ngagpa is known as a man with command 
of mantras. The moma can tell the future with beads, and the mopa is a dice thrower. When 
first sick, a trip to one of these healers will provide the sick one with a diagnosis and 
prescription. Amulets or jhinten (byin. rten), pieces of clay endowed with preventive powers 
from the lama's blessing, may be given. For pain or sores on the skin, stamps with printed 
mantras are applied to the ailing spots. Whatever his purification rituals, the lama isolates the 
sick from factors which are bringing his health down, developing a sort of clinical condition 
under which the unhealthy may grow strong once more. Curing and enlightening may very well 
be one and the same process. These religious figures, endowed with special healing powers, 
offer root cures to Tibetans whose understanding of their health problems requires that the 
very source of their illness be addressed in order that they will be cured.- The treatment of 
disorders of the three humours is by way of fourfold graded approach, namely by food, 
conduct, medicine and accessory therapy in turn. The recommended diet for wind disorders 
includes marmot meat, mutton, seed oil, one year old butter, garlic, hot milk and 'bone wine', 
whereas for bile conditions a cooler powdered diet of, for example, curd, fresh butter, goat 
meat, dandelion porridge and mountain spring water are recommended.- 
Tibetan Medicine, unlike modern drug use is not accompanied by side effects. Quite to the 
contrary; there is nothing mystical about the side effects of medicines. The phenomenon can 
easily be scientifically investigated. The truth of other theories of Tibetan Medicine, such as 
the claim that certain diseases are caused by malignant spirits, or by evils done in this or 
previous life, is perhaps impossible to ascertain by conventional scientific  means. Merely 
because Tibetan doctors may not have conducted surveys in the standard Western format does 
not prove that what they say has to be accepted on blind faith alone or rejected as highly 
improbable. Otherwise, we can conclude that Western-based knowledge in every sphere of 
cultural and scientific activity is the only sound knowledge, because no other society in 
recorded history (excluding various nations that recently have tried to imitate Occidental 
systems of inquiry) have approached data in this way."

[469] De  Rossi Filibeck, E: Quelques illustrations concernant les prescriptions architecturales 
dans les textes tibétains du vinaya. In: Demeures des hommes, sanctuaires des dieux, ed. 
Paola Mortari Vergara et Gilles Béguin, pp. 104-110.  Il Bagatto, Roma 1989.

[470] de Charms, Christopher:  An Interchange Between the Tibetan Understanding of Mind 
and the Western Science of Brain: Interview with His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama. The Tibet 
Journal (Dharamsala) 18, No. 1 (1993), pp. 2-14.
 "This interview took place on October 22nd 1992 in the personal rooms of Tenzin Gyatso, His 
Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama of Tibet. His Holiness has a long  standing interest in the 
topic of Neuroscience and has repeatedly advocated its importance for Tibetan Buddhism in the 
past. Christopher deCharms is a neuroscience researcher at the University of California at San 
Francisco who has been standing the relationship between the findings of contemporary 
neuroscience, and the understanding of the mind found in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy, 
particularly the Tibetan Gelugpa order's of Buddhism. In his neuroscience research, he is 
studying the neural mechanism that correlate with the subjective experience of perception and 
the related factors of attention and memory. His research in Dharamsala was an adjunct to his 
doctoral training."

[471] Dhawan, BN and Ambasta, SP (ed): Medicinal Plants. Bibliography of CSIR Contributions 
(1950-1987). 156 p. Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Road, Delhi 1988.
 The CSIR (Scientific & Industrial Research Laboratories) of India have published and entered 
into this bibliography about 1800 publications on medicinal plants in use. The majority of these 
plants are also used in Tibetan Medicine. Very valuable work.

[472] Dhonden, Yeshe:  vide Donden without 'h'. 

[473] Diener, Lennart:  History of Tibetan Medicine (Swedish, with English abstract). Nordisk 
Medicinhistorisk Aarsbok (Stockholm)  (1987), pp. 59-72.

[474] Ding Linghui:  Dieto-tonics, Life-preserving Measure in Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). 
Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy [Kunming/Yunnan Province] (Chinese) 13 
(1995), pp. 37-39.
 Tonic diets in Tibetan medicine include five categories, namely corns, flesh from animals, oil, 
vegetables and drinks. Each class is discussed and some examples are given. The author claims 
that as early as the rGyud-bzhi, diets are included and applied as remedies for various kinds of 

[475] Diqing Jinmei:  A Talk on the Tibetan Medicine in Diqing of Yunnan Province (Chinese). 
Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy [Kunming/Yunnan Province] (Chinese). 
13 (1995), pp. 2-3.
 Inhabited by 24 minorities, Diqing (bDe-chen) is mainly an area of Tibetan people dominated 
with Tibetan medicine. This paper describes very briefly the history, physiology, rationale, 
pathology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of Tibetan medicine.

[476] Dixit, Hemang(Chief Editor) and Pradhan, Mohan Raj(ed. comp.): Annotated Health 
Science Bibliography of Nepal (1950-1977). 201 p. Health Learning Materials Centre, 
Kathmandu 1993.

[477] Dixit, Hemang (Chief editor), Pradhan, Mohan Raj, Mottram, Susan, and Pokhrel, Govinda 
P(editors): Annotated Health Science Bibliography of Nepal (1978-1987). 740 p. Health 
Learning Materials Centre, Kathmandu 1990.

[478] Dobryakov, JuI, Miroljubov, II, Ryashenko, LP, and Sopova, MS: The Bibliography on the 
Spot Deer (Russian). In: The Plant Drugs of the Far East. Vol. IX. pp. 76-112, Vladivostok 1968.

[479] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang (1934-1989):
 Vide also Glen Mullin, Dharamsala, no year; James R. Buskirk; Glenn Mullin 1978; Sandy R. 
Newhouse, Dharamsala 1982; especially Tashi Tsering Josayma & K. Dhondup, Delhi 1990.- 
The late physician, Mrs. Lobsang Dolma Khangkar was born on July 6th 1934 in the Khangkar 
family, in  Kyirong, Western Tibet, in a line of physicians going back for thirteen generations. 
At the age of fourteen she began her medical training at the Khangkar Tibetan Medical School. 
She spent ten years in intensive study of theory and practice of Tibetan Medicine, astrology 
and related Buddhist philosophy. In 1959, she took over as head of the Khangkar Hospital 
following the imprisonment by the Chinese and subsequent death of her father. Her practical 
training came principally from her father, Dr. Tsering Wangdu, but all her textual study was 
made under the supervision of Geshe Lhungtok Nyima. After coming into exile, she practised 
medicine in Nepal from 1960 to 1962. She then went to India in order to join the Tibetan 
refugee community that had been formed under the guidance of the exiled Dalai Lama. She 
spent several years working in an orphanage for Tibetan refugee children in Kangra before 
opening her own private medical clinic in Dalhousie. In 1972, she was appointed Chief Medical 
Officer of the Tibetan Medical Institute. In 1978, she opened her own clinic, Dekyi Khangkar, in 
Dharamsala. She was a member of the Council of the International Association for the Study of 
Traditional Asian Medicine (Harvard Medical School, USA), and a member of the Board of 
Directors for Ph.D. students in Tibetan Medicine at Viæva-Bharati University, Calcutta. She has 
received honorary doctorates from several American universities and has delivered extensive 
lectures and conducted workshops in universities of the USA, UK, Switzerland, Australia, Italy 
and Holland. Dr. Dolma has devised several new Tibetan medicines. These include a 
contraceptive pill, medicines for painless child delivery, for curing baldness, barrenness in 
women and sterility in men. She passed away at her residence in Dharamsala on 15 December 
1989 after a prolonged illness. She is survived by her husband and two daughters, both 
practitioners of medicine. Her elder daughter succeeded her as head of the Dekyi Khangkar 
clinic in Dharamsala.

[480] Dolkar Khangkar, Tsewang: Health and Harmony through the Balance in Pulse Rhythms. 
The Diagnostic Art my Mother taught me. 48 p. Yarlung Publications, New Delhi 1990.
 Lady Dr. Dolkar in "Health and Harmony through the Balance in Pulse Rhythms" has brought to 
the readers a glimpse of the fascinating art of diagnosis through the reading of the pulse 
movements and variations of the pulse and the message they convey to a specialist. At a more 
personal level, the memories of her late mother whose kindness and foresight inspired Dolkar to 
inherit the medical legacy, movingly comes forth almost on every page as she unfolds the 
intriguing art of exploring the pulse by listening to their rhythms.

[481] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang:  (Tibetan Contraceptive Pill). Tibetan Review (Delhi) IX, 4-5 
(1974), p. 22.
 This short notice reads in toto: "Dr. (Mrs.) Lobsang Dolma of the 'Tibetan Medical Centre' in 
Dharamsala, has prepared a Tibetan brand of contraceptive pills. These are free from bad side 
or after effects surpassing the 'modern' pills, which are said to have adverse side effects on 
women. A total of seven pills, taken once a day for a continuous week, can ensure effective 
protection for an entire year. Dr. Dolma said at present a number of young Tibetan girls and 
women are taking the pills. No case of failure or bad effects have been reported. Dr. Dolma, 
one of the few Tibetan lady doctors now alive in exile, does not, however, claim that she has 
worked out the formula. She said the formula is made by the great Tibetan physician-saint, 
Yuthog, and is his work, known as 'Yuthog Shepa'."

[482] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang:  Tibetan Medical Center. Tibetan Review (Delhi) IX, 4-5 
(1974), pp. 22 b-c.
 "In 1961 the Dalai Lama initiated the establishment of a small dispensary at Dharamsala and 
placed it under the supervision of those few competent physicians who were able to escape to 
India. The Medical Centre at present consists of an outdoor patients' department, pharmacy 
and class of about 15 students. An average of 150 patients receive treatment daily. The 
preparation of medicine in Tibet used to be purely by hand. This, however, is now replaced by a 
set of machinery. At present there are about 15 Tibetan medical students, both boys and girls, 
under an intensive six year course. The first batch of students will graduate this year. The 
graduates are expected to serve in the Tibetan camps and settlements. The Centre hopes to 
start branch dispensaries wherever there are Tibetans in large number. The Astrological Centre 
which was established simultaneously with the Medical Centre in 1961 was amalgamated with 
the latter in 1967. This wing of the Tibetan Medical Centre is still very rudimentary and suffers 
from a lack of funds as in the case of the medical wing, more so as its contribution is not 
immediate and directly apparent. So far, the main work of the astrological section has been to 
produce the Tibetan yearly calender with comments on the astrological implications of each 
day of the year. Apart from this it is also a teaching institution, seeking to impart and preserve 
this body of tradional Tibetan learning."

[483] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang: Pulse Diagnosis. Sang Daya Hetibai Mission, Delhi 1979.

[484] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang:  A Talk on Ingredients of Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, 
a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 5 (1982), pp. 3-9.
 "Concerning the Tibetan system of pulse diagnosis, the Tibetan doctor uses six fingers to 
diagnose all the inner organs of the patient. A doctor in training must first memorize many 
texts and certain key instructions. After these years of theoretical study, the doctor must 
undergo practical training in using the fingers, for several years. They learn all the different 
ways of diagnosing with six fingers. Also urine is tested. A patient's face is studied and he or 
she is also questioned. The doctor must be healthy and should not have lung or skin diseases 
or be nervous or shivering. Mentally, the doctor must be balanced and able to concentrate; 
otherwise the diagnosis will be wrong. Moreover, the doctor must have six qualities. Three of 
these are most important. The first of these is compassion, equal compassion with no 
partialities both in diagnosing and explaining. The second is patience. The third is satisfaction 
or contentment. When a patient has a very serious illness but has no money to pay, the doctor 
should have equal thought in diagnosing and giving the medicine. Whatever they pay the doctor 
should be satisfied. It is most important to save the life of patients. Suppose the patient is very 
poor and the medicine he needs is very expensive, like jewelry pills, the doctor must accept the 
responsibility to give freely to save the patient. A doctor who treats many patients a day 
should rejoice because he or she has helped many and not because a large profit was made. 
One should count the benefit one has brought, not the money one has made. If a doctor has 
this attitude of love and patience, then patients will naturally be drawn; there is no need to 
advertise anything. The attitude of helping the poor out of kindness; cultivating attitudes of 
love and compassion do not professionally harm a doctor; whereas their opposites do (sic!)."

[485] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang:  A Talk on Ingredients of Tibetan Medicine. (Lectures on 
Tibetan Medicine by Dr. Lobsang Dolma Khangkar given in Australia attending the International 
Conference on Traditional Asian Medicine at the Australian National University, Canberra, 
September 1979). Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
(Dharamsala) Series No. 5 (1982), pp. 3-38.
 All the lectures were translated by Mr. Norbu Chophel Khangkar and transcribed by Gerrard 
(sic) Allan.

[486] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang:  A talk on Pulse Diagnosis in Tibetan Medicine.  Tibetan 
Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 5 (1982), 
pp. 10-15.
 "The day before the examination or diagnosis, there is some behaviour to be observed. The 
diet should be normal, not too much food and not too little. There should be no sexual contact 
and no strenous excercises.- The pulse is taken from the first wrinkle of the wrist and one 
'tsun' down from that winkle. The doctor has to use three fingers. The names of the three 
fingers are Tsun, Ken and Cha. They should not touch each other; about the width of a grain of 
barley apart. Pressing the wrist, the fingers should be in the same straight line. When reading 
the pulse the doctor should not press in the centre of the vein but at an angle from the edge of 
the bone, the radius. This ist the place of the pulse diagnosis.- Pressure of the doctor's finger: 
the Tsun finger presses just on the surface of the skin, the Ken finger presses to the flesh. The 
Cha finger presses too hard then it makes it difficult for the other fingers to diagnose 
accurately.- The doctor to diagnose accurately must be free of skin diseases, nervousness, 
numb hands, either low or high blood pressure and all mental problems. The doctor is a very 
fine instrument of diagnosis so the health of the healer must be perfect. If he or she is sick 
then the doctor cannot diagnose. If the doctor's breathing is abnormal in any way, like asthma, 
that doctor cannot diagnose correctly."

[487] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang:  An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 9 (1985), pp. 3-15.
 Elaborate and easy readable review article. It starts like ". . . the human body is composed of 
five elements (Tibetan: hByung. was) (Sanskrit: mahabhutas) and without these no unit of life 
can exist. Each of the five (earth, water, fire, air and space) has a specific function and though 
structurally they are opposed to one another functionally they work in symbosis by means of 
varying combinations and permutations. An element unit acquires its particular characteristics 
chiefly due to the predominant combination for specific sets of elements in a major unit. For 
instance, a food item is determined as heavy and sacharine because it is composed primarily of 
earth and water elements that contain these potencies intrinsically.- Generally, the 
predominant element constituent is 50% and the remaining portion of the structural unit is 
made up of the other elements in equal parts.- An element is a composite unit of atoms. In 
face, the theory of modern atoms consisting of protons, electrons and neutrons is not 
inconsistent with Tibetan medical principles of the five elements. Weight, cohension, 
electricity, movement and spatial relations connotes these principle potencies and functions of 
earth, water, fire, air and space elements. In many ways the elements can be compared with 
protoplasm which constitutes a cell. Inorganic salts, water and organic carbhoydrates and fats 
can be identified with the structure and functions of water and earth elements, while proteins 
are similar to fire and air elements. Air and space elements ensure the symbosis of water and 
earth on one hand and fire and air on the other by means of ensuring the special arrangement 
and organisation of these opposing elements."

[488] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang: Tibetaanse Geneeskunde. 149 p. Karnak Publ., Amsterdam 1985.

[489] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang: Lectures on Tibetan Medicine. Compiled and edited by 
K. Dhondup. 218 p. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala 1986.
 Reprint 1991.- The author gave these lectures on Tibetan Medicine in Australia and Holland 
and they thus form a useful introduction for Western readers. They cover the fundamental 
concepts of Tibetan Medicine, its history and the various cures and concepts propounded in its 
general and secret medical tantras. The methods used in training a Tibetan doctor are 
described; and there are sections dealing with conception and the Tibetan medical concept of 

[490] Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang (editor): Journey into the mystery of Tibetan Medicine. Book 
one. Based on the lectures of Dr. Dolma. With an introduction by Dr. Dolkar. 94 p. Yarlung 
Publications, New Delhi 1990.
 As explained by Dr. Dolkar in the introduction, her mother, the 13th Khangkar doctor Lobsang 
Dolma indeed wrote very little on Tibetan Medicine during her life. It is a loss to posterity, as 
the life of this remarkable Tibetan doctor from a little known town in Western Tibet could be an 
enriching and rewarding journey into the extraordinary mind and world of a Tibetan woman who 
found herself pushed into the limelight of international medical attention. With only her 
ancestral medical training and background as her tools she defended and defined a distinct role 
and identity for herself and Tibetan Medicine. And from all accounts, Tibetans should perhaps 
be proud that she did not fail to stand up to the challenges that came her way. More 
significantly she stood her ground and carved out an indelible name and dignity for herself, her 
family and the Tibetan medical culture that she represented for over a decade or so. As is clear 
from the pages that follow, Dr. Dolma's knowledge and experience was not confined only to 
medicine as a diagnostic and therapeutic weapon. She was well versed in all the other 
disciplines including astrology and Buddhist philosophy and their important contributions in 
shaping the philosophy and outlook of Tibetan Medicine and its true practitioners. If her 
explanations of the origin of Tibetan Medicines and its many concepts are mysterious and 
mythical, her thoughts on the future of Tibetan Medicine and its present developments are 
starkly honest and uncomfortably sharp.

[491] Dolma (Khangkar), Lobsang: Pulse Diagnosis. [Part I of a booklet together with Glenn H. 
Mullin: Profile of a Tibetan Doctor], pp. 1-16.  The Dekyi Khangkar, Dharamsala (no year).

[492] Donden, Yeshe (1929- ):  Tibetan Medicine - A brief History. Translated by Gyatso 
Tshering. The Tibet Society Bulletin (Bloomington) 5 (1972), pp. 7-24.
Besides a historical review and broad general introduction into Tibetan Medicine, Dr. Donden 
makes two statements [which might be seen somewhat different from a modern point of view 
into the history of Tibetan medicine]: "1) Tibetan scholarship attracted Persian scholars. Galay 
Ne [Galenos], Cehanpa Sila [Champa Shila], both reputed Persian scholars, had enriched 
Tibetan medicine with their own works. But neither the Persian nor the Chinese scholars could 
indoctrinate Tibetan medical scholars to any alteration of the fundamental principles of their 
medicine such as the theories of rlung (wind or air element), tripa (bile), and badken (phlegm), 
dhangma (juice), trag (blood), sha (flesh), tsil (fat), rupa (bone), kangmar (bone-marrow) and 
khuwa (fluid or liquid). 
In the other works of Tibetan Medicine, which are still available, there is no trace of the 
existence of the influence of the four humour theory of the Unani system of medicine prevalent 
at that time in Persia, or the Kungruak system, acupuncture therapy, etc., typical of Chinese 
medicine.- 2) The Tibetan medical classics are replete with reference to tantras and mantras as 
means to cure disease; Tibetan scholars seem to continue in this approach. Beneficial effects 
to cure diseases are, according to Tibetan physicians, classified into three main healings: 1. 
The healing power of chemical compounds (minerals, animal products, herbs, etc.). 2. The 
healing power of accomplished meditation. 3. The healing power of mantras. The healing power 
of meditation consists of drawing and calling forth the spiritual power of an adept lama, and 
letting the force of spiritual blessings fall on the patient, i.e. the beneficiary. Some of the merits 
of the adept lama are transferred to benefit the patient. At the request of the patient, the adept 
lama enters deep meditation, directing all his thoughts and energy to attracting the source of 
reserve spiritual powers. He then transfers this to the psyche of the patient. In the third 
method, i.e. healing power of mantras, pills are made of materials which are of non-medical 
value such as roasted barley flour or simply kneaded flour dough. The adept lama then intones 
mantras hundreds of thousands of times, repeating the intonations a number of times, and then 
transfers the power of the mantras by means of the breath. When the pills are consecrated, 
these become 'animated', i.e. replete with spiritual power."

[493] Donden, Yeshe:  The Modernity of Tibetan Medicine (Interview). Tibetan Review (Delhi) 
IX, 4-5 (1974), pp. 21-22.
 Dr. Yeshe Donden, interviewed here by Dawa Norbu, was born in 1929 in the village of 
Namro, near Lhasa. At the age of six he was ordained as a novice monk in the local monastery 
of Shedrup Ling. His talent for memorisation caused him to be selected to represent his 
monastery at the Mentsikang, the larger of Lhasa's two state-run medical colleges. From the 
age of eleven, he began his medical training by memorising all 156 chapters of the Four 
Medical Tantras (rGyud-bzhi). At the age of thirteen he moved on to a detailed examination of 
the eleven divisions of study. This comprised a familiarisation with the traditional diagrammatic 
exposition of Tibetan Medicine - the illustrated Tree of Medicine - together with its points of 
correspondence with the Four Tantras; recognition of the three bodily humours; and then, in 
succession, the study of embryology, anatomy, metabolic function, the sign of death, 
pathology, treatment and finally diagnosis. 
After four years he was sent by Khyenrab Norbu (mKhyen-rab Nor-bu, 1883-1962), 
Mentsikang's principal, to undertake a four-year internship with a master physician practising in 
Lhoka. There he became fully experienced in the prescription of herbal medicines, emetics and 
purgatives, and the practice of moxibustion, cauterisation and acupuncture. Concurrently, he 
developed an encyclopaedic knowledge of Tibetan Medicine's vast pharmacopoeia, through 
assisting in the yearly expeditions of the Medical College to collect medicinal plants. This 
knowledge was confirmed when he passed first in herbal identification examinations, at the age 
of twenty. In 1951 Dr. Donden received his medical diploma, and spent the next few years 
travelling throughout Tibet treating numerous patients. He left for India in 1959, during the 
Chinese military takeover, and helped to treat the refugees in Dalhousie. In 1960 he was 
appointed personal physician to the Dalai Lama, a post he held until 1980. Dr. Donden became 
the Founder-Director of the Tibetan Medical Centre in Dharamsala in 1963 [1961], establishing 
a seven-year curriculum for the training of Tibetan doctors. He resigned in 1969, opening a 
private practice in Dharamsala.

[494] Donden, Yeshe:  Tibetan Medicine: A short history. Tibetan Review (Delhi) IX, 4-5 
(1974), pp. 13-14, 17c.

[495] Donden, Yeshe: The Ambrosia Heart Tantra. The Secret Oral Teaching on the Eight 
Branches of the Science of Healing. Volume I. With Annotations by Dr. Yeshe Donden, Personal 
Physician to His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Translated by Jhampa Kelsang. 126 p. Library of 
Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala 1977.
 Reedition 1983 in Tibetan Medicine, Series No. 6, 1983. For Italian Edition see Ubaldini 
Editore, Roma 1980.- The Tibetan medical system with its emphasis on natural healing 
methods has, for centuries, held the position of being an exclusive discipline in Tibetan culture 
and civilization. A unique tradition, the Tibetan art of healing has evolved through the 
evaluation and co-ordination of diverse ancient medical systems, incorporating the finest 
qualities and ideas from each of them. The result has been a distinct balance and synthesis of 
concept and practice directed towards the making of a system all at once scientific and valid. 
In an age where a growing proportion of people are turning to healing through natural 
processes, this present volume on Tibetan Medicine appears at an appropriate time to respond 
to the growing interest in Tibetan healing traditions. The Root Tantra or rTsa-rGyud comprises 
the first of the four basic treatises for a medical student according to tradition. Lucidly written, 
the present work will serve as a useful guide for both novice and adept and for numerous 
others attracted to the Tibetan way of life.- Contains a translation into English of Book I 
complete, and 15 chapters of Book II of the rGyud-bzhi, with explanatory notes.

[496] Donden, Yeshe:  Tibetan Medical System and Ayurveda. The Healing Science of Tibet. 
Tibetan Review (Delhi) 12 (1977), pp. 14-15.

[497] Donden, Yeshe:  Answers to Questions on Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 1 (1980), pp. 53-58.

[498] Donden, Yeshe:  Childbirth in Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the 
Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 1 (1980), pp. 36-40.
 "The Tibetan system of childbirth is both simple and effective; being based on the use of 
herbal medicine, it is also natural. There are three types of medicines used for childbirth, only 
one of which is used in the normal, non-complicated case. Another one of these is given if the 
foetus is dead.- The system of childbirth as practised by the mainstream western medical 
profession is felt by many to have a very unsatisfactory approach. Many women have such 
little faith in it that they prefer to give birth at home with absolutely no medical assistance. 
This, however, is an extreme action that is perhaps unnecessarily painful to both mother and 
child, but is chosen as the best of two difficult alternatives. Many people in the West would be 
very interested in such a system; and if it could be made available to some extent, it would 
prevent a tremendous amount of suffering".

[499] Donden, Yeshe:  Embryology in Tibetan Medicine. Translated from the Tibetan by Gyatso 
Tsering. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series 
No. 1 (1980), pp. 43-48.
 "How human life begins is as mysterious as the subject of embryology itself. Tibetan 
Medicine, rooted as it is in the tradition of Buddhist thought, brings in the concept of the 
primary mind and its operation within the framework of the law of karmic forces, i.e. the 
psycho-physical forces of cause and effect, as being the plausible answer to this mystery. All 
life is understood in terms of this central concept. Embryology in Tibetan Medicine is classified 
under three major heads: I. Formation of Foetus. II. Growth Contributing Factors. III. Delivery 
Symptoms.- According to the Tibetan psycho-philosophical concept, the consciousness of 
highly realised spiritual people, who are able to control their birth, enters through the mouth of 
the male and course down the sexual organ into the female womb. During this passage the 
consciousness feels the consciousness of people who have collected rich merits in their past 
lives and feel the pleasure of entering a beautiful house when the sperm reaches the womb. On 
the other hand, the consciousness of people who have committed unvirtuous deeds in the past 
feel as though they are entering a dark, gloomy cave from which there is no escape. What are 
the contributions made by the factors involved in the formation of the foetus? According to 
Tibetan medical literature, the father (sperm) contributes the bone marrow-like substance 
running from the brain to the base of the spinal cord. The mother (ovum) contributes the flesh, 
blood, the five vital organs (heart, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney), stomach, intestines, bile, gall 
bladder, and the seminal vesicle. Of the five elements, earth is associated with bone, flesh, 
movement, and the organ of smell; water with increase of blood, body moisture, and organ of 
taste; fire with temperature, breathing, skin pigment, and organ of sight; air with breathing, 
skin, and organ of touch; and space with body cavities, like the ears, nostrils, and skin pores, 
and organ of hearing. The primary consciousness of the child conceived contributes to the 
formation of the five sense-consciousnesses and the gross consciousness."

[500] Donden, Yeshe: I Fondamenti della medicina Tibetana.  Centro Ghe-Pe-Ling Edizioni, 
Milano 1980.

[501] Donden, Yeshe:  Materia Medica. Translated by Gyatso Tsering. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 1 (1980), pp. 49-52.
 "Tibetan Medicine recognizes the medical potential of all plant life. It considers the flora and 
fauna as a means to alleviate the sufferings of human beings, including the animal kingdom. To 
a skillful physician the humblest of plants is a source of medical potency and power. With 
constant observation, research, and experimentation, it is possible to discover medical 
properties of plants unknown before. In developing new types of medicine, factors like climate 
(temperature and humidity), topographical features (altitude and location), and flora and fauna 
must be considered in conjunction with the special characteristics of a country. In Tibet much 
of the flora and fauna are indigenous in character, and are not to be found in countries like 
India. Consequently, a physician in India has perforce to seek new plants suited to Indian 
conditions.- In Tibetan medicine wide use is also made of metals and minerals in making 
medicine. The texts devote a great deal of attention to this; e.g. there is a chapter by chapter-
description on how to remove and neutralize the toxic content of a mineral to render it fit for 
human consumption. Likewise, the parts and products of animals are also used in the 
preparation of medicine, but to a lesser extent, because of the Buddhist injunction against 
killing for human profit. To give an idea of Tibetan Materia Medica, a brief list of the various 
source materials used in the preparation of medicine is given in this article."

[502] Donden, Yeshe:  Methods of Treatment in Tibetan Medicine. Translated by Gyatso 
Tsering. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series 
No. 1 (1980), pp. 8-12.
 "The methods of treatment are many and diverse, but the principal ones are: (1) regulation of 
proper dieting, (2) observance of daily routine, (3) administration of medicine, (4) use of moxa, 
surgery, etc.- Ailments of a minor nature are treated by dieting and strict adherence to a 
carefully programmed daily routine without the use of medicines. If a patient is suffering from a 
disease in a medium state of condition, a decoction is prescribed; in a more advanced case, 
medicines in the form of pills are administered; and in diseases of a serious nature, treatment 
consists of bloodletting, moxa, administration of medicines, use of psycho-therapeutic process 
to induce emesis, and bathing in hot springs or in hot water treated with medicinal compounds. 
Surgery was at one time widely practised as a method of treatment in diseases of a critical 
nature, which defied every other known method of treatment. It was, however, discontinued 
from the reign of king Muni Tsenpo, when a series of mishaps occurred which brought to this 
practice royal disfavour."- All these methods are then described in more detail.

[503] Donden, Yeshe:  Sleep and the Inner Landscape. Tibetan Review (Delhi) XVIII, 6-7 
(1983), pp. 12-15, contd. 26 b.
 "In general, I can say that in the Buddhist view sleep and death states are similar. The dream 
state and the between state [between death and rebirth] are similar, and the waking state and 
the birth state or the rebirth state are similar. So the entire life cycle is encapsulated in the 
cycle of sleep, dream, and waking. The analysis of different types of consciousness in our 
scientific texts is very precise and elaborate."

[504] Donden, Yeshe:  Tibetan Doctor Conducts Cancer Research. The Tibet Society 
Newsletter (Bloomington) New Series No. 11 (1983), pp. 12-13.
 Reprinted from 'Tibetan Review'. About experiments at the University of Virginia performed by 
a Tibetan physician (Dr. Yeshe Donden) and an American physician (Dr. Gerald Goldstein). The 
authors conclude "that Tibetan drugs for cancer are able to arrest cancerous growth" [for more 
details see Avedon, New York 1984].-  "A unique experiment is presently being conducted at 
the  University of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA), by a Tibetan and an American physician, to 
test the efficacy of traditional Tibetan cure for cancer. Initial results seem to indicate that 
Tibetan drugs for cancer are able to arrest cancerous growth, but any definite conclusion must 
await tests that are larger in scope, that go beyond what is considered 'statistically 
insignificant'. Dr. Dhonden expressed his confidence in the ability of Tibetan medicine to cure 
cancer in my interview with him. He recounted many cases of having helped cancer patients in 
India, especially those who had exhausted all other modern medical treatment. Diabetes is 
another disease Tibetan medicine can cure, Dr. Dhonden said, and he intends to conduct some 
tests on this while he is in Virginia."

[505] Donden, Yeshe: Health Through Balance: An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. Edited and 
Translated by Jeffrey Hopkins. Co-translated by Dr. Lobsang Rabgay and Allan Wallace. 6 
figures. 252 p. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca, NY 1986.
 Also Element Books, London.- "Tibetan Medicine maintains balance among the three humors 
of the body through a variety of treatments - diet and behaviour modification as well as the 
use of medicine and accessory therapy. Based on the author's lectures presented at the 
University of Virginia in 1980, this is a good introduction to the subject. Its basic theme is how 
the Tibetan medical system restores and maintains the balance of the body through a variety of 
treatments which include diet and behaviour modification as well as the use of medicines. The 
author considers factors of personality, age, diet, behavioural patterns and physical 
surroundings and describes a wide variety of curative techniques."

[506] Donden, Yeshe: La salute mediante l'equilibrio. Un' introduzione alla medicina Tibetana, a 
cura di Jeffrey Hopkins. Traduzione di Gloria Cugurra. 200 p. Casa Editrice Astrolabio, Ubaldini 
Editore, Roma 1988.
 (Health through Balance, Snow Lion, Ithaca 1986).

[507] Donden, Yeshe: Gesundheit durch Harmonie. Einführung in die tibetische Medizin. 
Herausgegeben von Jeffrey Hopkins. Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von Burkhard 
Quessel. 1 Abb., 244 S. Diederichs, München 1990.
 (Health through Balance. An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca, 
N. Y. 1986).-  "Im Frühjahr 1980 gab Dr. Yeshe Donden, mit der Unterstützung des Center for 
South Asian Studies, an der University of Virginia einen Einführungskurs in tibetische Medizin. 
Dr. Donden, der damals Leibarzt Seiner Heiligkeit des Dalai Lama war, gewährte in seinen 
Vorlesungen einen Einblick in dieses komplizierte und unzugängliche Gebiet. Im Mittelpunkt des 
Systems der tibetischen Medizin, das sich vor allem aus der indischen buddhistischen Medizin 
ableitet, steht die Wiederherstellung und Wahrung des Gleichgewichts zwischen drei Faktoren 
im Körper. Es sind die drei Körpersäfte, die Wind (Luft), Galle und Schleim genannt werden. 
(Dabei umfaßt der Begriff "Galle", zum Beispiel, nicht nur das Sekret der Gallenblase, es ist 
außerdem der Körpersaft, der für gutes Sehen, eine entschlossene geistige Haltung und anderes 
zuständig ist. Die Bedeutung dieser drei Begriffe ist also sehr weit zu fassen.) Die Mittel, die 
das sehr störanfällige Gleichgewicht zwischen den drei Körpersäften wiederherstellen und 
erhalten, sind: Diätetik, Verhaltensregeln, Arzneimittel und zusätzliche Therapien. Das 
ursprüngliche System wurde bereichert und erweitert durch die Ergebnisse der praktischen 
Erfahrungen, die tibetische Ärzte in über tausendjähriger Praxis gewonnen haben. Nach meiner 
Erfahrung, die allerdings die eines Patienten und nicht die eines Mediziners ist, liegt die Stärke 
der tibetischen Medizin darin, daß sie um die Symptome des Patienten herum orientiert ist; sie 
hat eine sehr genaue Wahrnehmung von Symptomgruppen und läßt keine Beschwerde des 
Patienten außer acht. Die tibetische Medizin hat sicherlich nicht auf alles eine Antwort, aber sie 
verfügt über eine Fülle von Behandlungstechniken; das gilt besonders für komplizierte und 
langwierige Krankheiten. Wer in Indien herumgereist ist und dort studiert hat, konnte den 
Nutzen dieser Medizin bei Hepatitis und anderen chronischen Krankheiten am eigenen Leibe 
erfahren. Ich hege die Hoffnung, daß das System der tibetischen Medizin einmal von 
kompetenter Seite und auf wissenschaftlicher Basis untersucht wird, damit seine Vorteile auch 
anderen Teilen der Welt zugänglich werden." (Jeffrey Hopkins, aus der Einleitung).

[508] Donden, Yeshe and Gyatso, Tsering: What is Tibetan Medicine? In: Dawa Norbu, An 
Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. pp. 5-11. Tibetan Review Publishing House, Delhi 1976.
 "The primary aim of Tibetan Medicine, as of all systems of medicine, is to relieve human 
beings of physical suffering, i.e., to restore to equilibrium an imbalance in the normal 
functioning of the wind, bile, and phlegm elements in the body. It is true that one's mental 
disposition influences and determines, to a vast degree, the bodily functions, stresses and 
strains, and all other activities associated with the body. Mind is superior to the body. Mind is 
the architect of all our suffering and happiness. Mind is the master; body and speech are its 
attendants. While the cultivation of the art and science of medicine is predominantly intended 
to cure the physical ailments of a being, Tibetan physicians place an equal degree of stress on 
the cultivation and development of mental power and the observance of moral laws.- For the 
elimination of bodily suffering, the healing art of medicine is prescribed. For the modification of 
consciousness (mind), Dharma, i.e. moral laws, are prescribed. The two are closely related. 
Psychology, parapsychology, ethics, and philosophy, as enunciated in the Dharma, are all 
conducive to and directed toward controlling the consciousness in order to obtain mental and 
bodily peace.- The Buddha is said to be the originator of the Tibetan system of medicine. He 
was no doubt the Great Healer of spiritual maladies but history does not provide sufficient 
evidence to prove that he was also the healer of physical ailments. Whatever the case may be, 
the Tibetan scholars probably followed the traditional Indian practice of ascribing the authorship 
of their own works to their gods or preceptors. For example, in the basic treatises on Tibetan 
Medicine, the Buddha is described as the source of all knowledge pertaining to medicine, and it 
was he who pronounced this science through his devoted disciples."

[509] Donden, Yeshe and Hopkins, Jeffrey:  An Anatomy of Body and Disease. Tibetan Review 
(Delhi) IX, 8 (1974), pp. 18-20.
 "Distant causes and near or proximate causes are the two types of causes of diseases. 
Distant causes are deep or profound because we must make an investigation of Buddhist 
Dharma in order to understand them. If we take an easy example, a disease could come from a 
deed done in a former lifetime, such as killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisiveness, 
or senseless talk. Such activities done in a former lifetime could ripen in this present lifetime 
itself as a specific disease.- The three proximate causes of illness in this lifetime are the 
winds, phlegms, and biles. The winds, phlegms, and biles are the main causes, and the 
secondary causes are, for instance, improper eating, improper shelter, and improper behaviour. 
For instance, if you spent all twenty-four hours sleeping, you could get ill from that. In the 
scriptures, eighty-four thousand afflictions or diseases are identified; we expound these into 
four hundred and four; these in turn are condensed into one hundred and one; and the mothers, 
so to speak, of all these diseases are the phlegms, winds, and biles."- These are then 
explained in detail.

[510] Donden, Yeshe and Hopkins, Jeffrey: An Anatomy of Body and Disease. In: Dawa Norbu, 
An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. pp. 25-32. Tibetan Review Publishing House, Delhi 1976.

[511] Donden, Yeshe and Jampa Kelsang: Il Tantra della Medicina Tibetana. L'insegnamento 
orale segreto delle otto branche della scienza della guarigione. Commentato da Yeshe Donden, 
tradotto da Jhampa Kelsang. Traduzione di Giorgio Milanetti. 136 p. Casa Editrice Astrolabio, 
Ubaldini Editore, Roma 1980.
 (The Ambrosia Heart Tantra, Dharamsala 1977).

[512] Donden, Yeshe and Rabgay, Lobsang:  An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan 
Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 1 (1980), 
pp. 3-7.
 "According to Buddhist philosophy, a person is composed of five aggregates which are form, 
feeling, recognition, volition and primary consciousness. A healthy person is one whose 
aggregates are balanced and whose humours, physical energies and excretions are in complete 
harmony and regulate uniformly. Physiologically, the body is made up of three humours, seven 
physical energies and three excretions. Humours are biological representations of the five 
cosmic energies in the human body, and are mainly responsible for physiological functions 
when the body is in a state of homoeostasis, and pathological disorders when the body is 
disturbed. The three humours are vital current, vital energies and vital force (also translated as 
wind, bile and phlegm). Each of them consists of five major types having specific biological 
functions. Pathological occurrences are explained in terms of how the humours favour certain 
age groups, places, times and seasons. For instance, an aged man is more susceptible to wind 
disorders, an adult to bile and a child to phlegm." The whole system is then explained in more 

[514] Dorey, Grace:  Multidisciplinary Study Tour of China and Tibet. Physiotherapy (London) 
77 (11) (1991), pp. 743-744.
 "At the Tibetan Medical Hospital in Lhasa we learned about Tibetan acupuncture where only 
one acupuncture point is used. A gold shallow needle is applied to the top of the head 
accompanied by moxibustion and is used for a number of conditions such as hypertension. 
Cupping is performed for arthritic conditions, using a hollow yak horn by sucking rubber tubing 
attached to the pointed end to produce a vacuum. Faradism accompanied by Chinese 
acupuncture is applied to facial acupuncture points to treat sinusitis and toothache. 
Nonluminous infra-red lamps are combined with acupuncture as treatment for low back pain 
and arthritic joints. The ancient art of cauterisation using a heated branding iron with a pencil 
applicator is still used for various joint conditions. These physiotherapy treatments are 
performed by nurses. At the Medical Institute in Lhasa, 30 doctors qualify each year after a 
three-year training."

[515] Dorjee, Pema: Tibetan Medicines (Editor: Elizabeth Richards). 52 p. Tibetan 
Pharmaceutical Center Ashoka Niwas, Dharamsala (no year given).
 Brief summary of 150 commonly used remedies. These remedies are named by giving the 
principal ingredient and the number of total ingredients.

[516] Dorjee, Pema:  Cancer: A Traditional Tibetan Medical View. Translated by Gyatso 
Tsering. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series 
No. 1 (1980), pp. 41-42.
 ". . . such being the nature of beings, even those Devas who championed and protected the 
cause of white action have been angered and have turned into malevolent spirits. Thereupon 
the malevolent spirits breathe toxics and poisons which spread all around like an engulfing mist 
and rain down the disease of cancer (gNyan-nad). And then like fuel coming into contact with 
fire, the primary cause (toxics and poisons are spread in the atmosphere) meets with the 
secondary cause and is taken up by the germs called Tre-tay ho or Par-pa-ta. The germ's shape 
is like that of snake, big-mouthed and head like that of a lizard, tail long like a snake, hands and 
feet as many as that of centipede, and is able to transport itself with the help of invisible 
wings. Floating in the atmosphere, it enters the body of a man through the skin pores, and the 
nostrils, and gets merged with the seven types of blood cells inhabiting the body. The latter is 
copper red in colour, round in shape, and invisible to the naked eye. It circulates through all 
parts of the blood vessels, and has the tenacity to reach the head and feet in the twinkling of 
an eye. When the external germs (Par-pa-ta) come into contact with the internal blood cells, the 
normal body process is disturbed. The external germs begin to destroy the seven Dhatus of the 
body, and thus create very favourable conditions for the onset of diseases. The forces in turn 
disrupt the normal working or the three principles of Vayu, Pitta and Kapha. The external 
causes facilitating the disruption would be a hot country, a hot season, consumption of 'white 
type' of foods, sweet things which strengthen the harmful germs, indulgence in non-virtuous 
actions, and immoral activities as mentioned earlier."

[517] Dorjee, Pema:  Tibetan Medical Treatment of Diabetes - A Case Study. Tibetan Review 
(Calcutta) XIX, 2 (1984), pp. 14-15a.
 "There are several causes and types of diabetes (Sanskrit: Madhumeh, Tib.: Chin-sNyi), but 
the basic factors are excessive formation of  abnormal fats and mucus (Sanskrit: Kapha, Tib.: 
Badkan) in the body due to overconsumption of intakes predominated by earth (Sanskrit: Bu, 
Tib.: Sa) and water (Sanskrit: Ap, Tib.: Chu) elements. A substance formed by such 
predominance of elements are cold (Sanskrit: Íita, Tib.: Dhang-mo) in potency and sweet 
(Sanskrit: Mandhu, Tib.: Grang-mo) in taste (Sanskrit: Rasa, Tib.: Ro). Due to its antagonistic 
potency, the heat (Sanskrit: Usha, Tib.: Drod) of the digestive fire gets degenerated and results 
in weakness of digestion. A diabetic patient needs to be treated in two ways: firstly, to correct 
the digestive function so that the food taken will be assimilated well by the body and produce 
normal bodily elements. Secondly, it is very important to rinse the bodily elements with mild 
purificatories. Both the Tibetan system of medicine and Ayurveda agree that there are twenty 
different varieties of diabetes. Hence profound study is needed to ascertain its diagnosis. I 
have been advised several times by friends to report a case of diabetes treated with Tibetan 
medicine. So here it is: . . . " [the following case report does not give a pretreatment status of 
the patient, but only nearly normal blood sugar levels after treatment with Tibetan medicine, 
without any description, what kind of Tibetan medicine was given].

[518] Dorjee, Pema:  Introductory Notes on Tibetan Medicine. Edited by Jeremy Russell. 
Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series 12 
(1989), pp. 52-62.

[519] Dorjee, Pema:  Tibetan Medicine: Diagnosis and Treatment. India International Centre 
Quarterly (Delhi) 18, 2 & 3 (1992), pp. 111-122.

[520] Dorjee, Pema and Richards, Elizabeth:  Cures and Concepts of Tibetan Medicine [I]. 4 
Illustr. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series 
No. 2 (Vol. I) (1981), pp. 1-83.
 "The Four Tantras are texts widely used in the study of Tibetan medicine. The First Tantra and 
half of the Second Tantra have been translated previously. These contain the basic principles of 
Tibetan medicine. Rather than repeating the whole process, translating the same material, we 
decided to insert some of the subject matter of the Third Tantra in a condensed form.- It is felt 
that the material of the Third Tantra ('The Oral Instruction Tantra') will be of particular interest 
to Western readers, as it deals with specific diseases, their causes, symptoms and treatment. 
However, a complete translation of 'The Oral Instruction Tantra' is likely to be many years in 
preparation, as it is a volume of ninety-two chapters. Also, it is best studied in detail under the 
guidance of a qualified teacher. In this respect, Dr. Pema Dorjee was extremely fortunate in 
receiving the teaching on the 'Appendix to The Oral Instruction Tantra' from his venerated 
teacher, Professor Barshi Phuntsog Wangyal [1914-1983]. Moreover, we both received the oral 
tradition and commentary on 'The Oral Instruction Tantra' from our highly respected teacher, 
Dr. Yeshe Dhonden, [former private] Physician to H. H. The Fourteenth Dalai Lama."

[521] Dorjee, Pema and Richards, Elizabeth:  Cures and Concepts of Tibetan Medicine [Part II]. 
Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 2 
(Vol.II) [= Series No. 10] (1985), pp. 1-56.
 "This volume follows Tibetan Medicine Series No. 2 (1981). It continues with summarized 
explanations, and all the chapters in the present volume occur in the Third of the Four Tantras, 
'The Oral Instruction Tantra'. The chapter numbers are those of their place in the Four Tantras, 
rather than their number in the Third Tantra. Translations and brief explanations of some terms 
have been given in the glossary and notes. The contents are the following: p. 3 Introduction; p. 
13 Chapter I: The Basis of Discussion; p. 29 Chapter II: The Arisal of Discussion; p. 82 

[522] Dorjee, Tashi:  Education in Tibet. Translated from the Tibetan by K. Dhondup. The Tibet 
Journal (Dharamsala) 2, 4 (1977), pp. 31-37.
 "Tibet's educational system may be classified under the following divisions: Tze (rTze); Yig-
tsang (Yig-tsang); Tzi-tr'ug-pa (rTzi-phrug-pa); Chag-po-ri (lCags-po-ri) Medical Centre; Ae-pa-
k'ang (A'e-pa-khang); and the private schools of Lhasa. The Chag-po-ri Medical Centre is 
situated on Lha-ri (Lha-ri) or abode hill of Chag-na Dor-je (Phyag-na rDo-rje). This particular site 
was chosen by His Holiness the Fifth Dalai Lama, who, during a tour of Lhasa, saw a vision of 
the Mandala of Män-päi gyäl-po (sMan Bla rGyal-ppo'i dkyil-'khor) on this hill. The Män-päi 
Monastery (sMan-pa'i Grva-tsang) was subsequently established. Others, however are of the 
opinion that Drub-t'ob T'ang-t'ong gyäl-po (Grub-thob Thang-stong rGyal-po) was the founder 
of the Medical Centre since most of the statues at the Centre are reputed to be built by him, 
e.g. the J'u-ru (Byu-ru) or ruby [which actually is not ruby but coral!] of Tse-pag-me (Tse-dpag-
med); Dung (Dung) or conch shell statue of Chän-rä-zig (sPyan-ras-gzigs); and the Yu (gYu) or 
turquoise statue of Tara or Dröl-ma (sGrol-ma).- Män-tzi-k'ang (sMan-rTsis-khang) was another 
centre of repute dedicated towards the study of medicine as well as astrology. The name itself 
implied a medical and astrological centre and here, both lay men and women were admitted to 
its courses of study. The training of both sexes in the medical profession was seen to be less 
restrictive in outlook than those monk doctors trained at Chag-po-ri Medical Centre. It was 
recognised that the rigid and binding vows of a celibate monk often made it impossible for a 
frank diagnosis of female patients and hence Män-tzi-k'ang undertook the training of women in 
the medical discipline."

[523] Dormidontov, P:  What is mumiyah? (Russian). Okhota i Okhotnich'e Khozyaystvo (= 
Hunt and Hunt's Economy) (Russian) 2 (1975), pp. 36-37.

[524] Douglas, Nik: Tibetan Tantric Charms & Amulets. 230 Examples reproduced from Original 
Woodblocks. xxxiii, 273 (no arab. pagina) p. Dover Publications, New York 1978.
 "The protective spells, charms and amulets that constitute the subject of this study were 
hardly, if ever, meant to be seen, with very few exceptions. Most are in the form of diagrams 
or other representations of secret protective formulae, printed on handmade paper from the 
original Tibetan woodblocks. They range from simple inscribed sacred phrases to edible charms, 
prayer flags, good-luck banners, auspicious emblems, cosmograms, psychocosmograms, 
Tantric symbols, demon-binding amulets of all kinds, sickness-curing amulets against stillbirth, 
smallpox, worms, syphilis, plague, insanity and a host of other maladies, charms against 
malefic stars and planets, for wealth, prosperity, long life, wisdom and favorable rebirth. There 
is hardly any real or imagined situation for which one cannot find the requisite visual 
representative counterweapon. The magical traditions connected to the activation and 
empowerment of these art forms have been indicated in our text, with full transliterations of 
the liturgical phrases and detailed commentaries on the symbolism, use and connected rites. 
Thus the book offers more than just the visual side of this art, but also its philosophical and 
theoretical structure as presented in the Tantras. A large number of the examples involve 
comparisons between the pre-Buddhist Bon traditions of Tibet and those of all sects of 

[525] Drabaek, Hans, Mehlsen, Jesper, Himmelstrup, Holger, and Winther, Kaj:  A Botanical 
Compound, Padma 28, Increases Walking Distance in Stable Intermittent Claudicatio. Angiology 
- The Journal of Vascular Diseases (Baltimore/New York) 44 (1993), pp. 863-867.
 "36 patients with a median age of 67 years and a median duration of intermittent claudicatio 
of five years were randomized to either active treatment with Padma 28 or placebo. The effect 
of treatment was quantified by measurements of systemic and peripheral systolic blood 
pressures and by measurements of the pain-free and the maximal walking distance on a 
treadmill. The ankle pressure index (ankle systolic pressure/arm systolic pressure) was 
calculated. The group randomized to active treatment received two tablets bid containing 340 
mg of a dried herbal mixture composed according to an ancient lamaistic preparation (Padma 
28). After active treatments, administered over a period of four months in a double-blinded, 
randomized design, the patients allocated to this group attained a significant increase in the 
pain-free walking distance. The patient-group receiving placebo treatments did not show any 
significant changes in either the pain-free or the maximal walking distance."

[526] Draghi, Paul Alexander: A Tibetan-Mongolian Glossary of Materia Medica in Tibetan Script 
(M. A. Thesis Indiana University). 49 p. Bloomington Research Collection, Bloomington 1978.

[527] Drakton, Jampa Gyaltsen:  Astrology and the Tibetan Art of Healing. Translated and 
annotated by Tashi Tsering and Glenn H. Mullin. Tibetan Review (Delhi) XV, 2-3 (1980), pp. 
 "This essay on the relationship between astrology and the Tibetan art of healing has been 
written by the astrologer Jampa Gyaltsen Drakton (Byams. pa rGyal. mtshan Brag. mthon) upon 
specific request from the Tibetan Review because of frequent enquiries from our Western 
readers on the relationship between these two branches of Tibetan learning. The author claims 
to have 'never gained a clear understanding' of Tibetan Medicine, and suggests that those who 
may read this do not take it as ultimate truth. The views expressed in it are purely his own. 
Still he hopes it contributes in some way to an understanding of Tibetan Medicine. From the 
viewpoint of the doctor, the various ingredients that he will use in his medicines must be 
collected in the appropriate season; herbal shoots in spring, medicinal flowers in summer, fruits 
and berries of medicinal value in autumn, and, after that the variety of roots and stalks used in 
the medicines. But this is just a general rule; more specifically, each ingredient has its moment 
within its season when its potency reaches a peak, and it should be gathered at that exact 
time. Not all flowers, for example, can be collected at the same phase of summer. The precise 
time at which each item is to be picked is determined by astrological findings. Many medicines 
must be compounded in accordance with astrological events. For instance, the fifteenth day of 
the eighth Tibetan month is the correct time to compound the medicines called chong-zhi da-oo 
(chong-zhi-zla-od), etc. Also, when during the seventh Tibetan month the star called ri-chi (Ri-
pyi) appears in the sky the waters for seven days take on a special quality: a number of 
medicines are to be made at that time. Such cycles are calculated from astrological data."

[528] Drakton, Jampa Gyaltsen:  Astrology and the Tibetan Art of Healing. Translated and 
annotated by Tashi Tsering and Glenn H. Mullin. Traditional Medical Systems (Kalyani/India) 2, 
4 (1987 (1983?)), pp. 80-90.
 "The Tibetan system of astrology/astronomy is basically a synthesis of two ancient traditions 
known in Tibetan as nag-tsi (nag-rTsis) [= Chinese astrology], and kar-tsi (dKar-rTsis) [= Indian 
astrology] astro-calculations. Although these systems differ considerably from one another, it 
would not be correct to identify one with the modern Western concept of the word 'astrology', 
nor to relate the other to the Western 'astronomy'. Throughout the following article 'astrology' 
is used as a general term encompassing both astronomy and astrology.- Were one to ask 
whether or not in general there is a relationship between Tibetan Medicine and the science of 
astrology, or rather, astro-calculations, the answer would be that there are numerous 
connections between the two. However, as for that relationship, if it is further asked whether 
Tibetan Medicine is used as an aid in the field of astrology, or if the converse is true, or 
whether a situation of mutual interdependence and co-application exists, it should be answered 
that in the study and practice of astrology there is no need whatsoever to refer to the medical 
sciences nor to study any aspect of medicine whereas in the study and practice of Tibetan 
Medicine it is imperative to also study and rely upon a knowledge of astrology for a large 
variety of reasons. I will explain a few of these."

[529] Drakton, Jampa Gyaltsen:  The Five Mayor Schools od Tibetan Astro Science. sMan-
rTsis [new series!]. A publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine and Astro Science 
(Dharamsala) 1, No. 2 (1995), pp. 60-65.
 Actually the authors name in this article is given as "Prof. Jampa G. Dagthon", but to place all 
his publications together, I decided for only one spelling.

[530] Drakton, Jampa Gyaltsen (editor): Tibetan Astronomy and Astrology. A brief introduction 
[with articles by Prof. Jampa Gyaltsen Dagthon (=Drakton), Jhampa Kalsang and Mrs. Tsering 
Choezom]. 65 p. Astrological Department T.M.A.I., Dharamsala 1995.
 "The sciences of astronomy and medicine come together in the Sri Kalachakra Tantra, first 
translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan in 1027 A.D. The chapter on the Internal Kalachakra 
explains that human life begins when the seed from the parents receive the spark of 
consciousness and are nourished with the energy taken from the mother's food, which is itself 
comprised of the five elements. The Tantra explains that the embryo goes through three 
phases, where it successively resembles a fish, a tortoise and a pig; also that the human body 
goes through the phases of development, existence and degeneration. The two most important 
texts in Tibetan medicine, the Kalachakra Tantra and the rGyud bzhi (Four Root Tantras of 
Medicine), postulate an elemental basis to all life, but with minor differences: although 
Astronomy and Medicine observe Fire, Earth, Water, Air and Space, astrologers observe 
instead Fire, Earth, Water, Wood and Iron. Air and Wood are seen to possess qualities of 
movement, while Space and Iron both connote emptiness. According to the Kalachakra Tantra, 
since the body is composed of five elements and takes food composed of the elements, and 
since disease is an expression of imbalance among the elements, then the remedy should be 
composed of the corresponding elements. There are many similarities to be found between the 
Internal Kalachakra and the rGyud bzhi, in the way of remedies which may include medicine or 
yogic practice, behavioural guidelines or puja techniques. Indeed, there are references to Astro-
Science in other Dharma texts as well, such as the bde mchog mkha rgya mtso and the Dorje 
bden bzhi. When some people see the Kalachakra text for the first time they think it is a 
medical text, which gives an indication of how closely these two sciences are interrelated".

[531] Drogovoz, SM and Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna):  Search for Raw Plant Materials with 
Cholagogic Action According to the Arsenal of Tibetan Medicine (Ukrainian). Farmatsevtychnyi 
Zhurnal (Pharmaceutical Journal) (Kiev) 38 (1983), pp. 47-50.
 The chemical compounds and pharmacological properties are described for plants used in 
Tibetan folk medicine due to their choleretic action.
[532] Drogovoz, SM and Nikolayev, SM:  The Polyphenolic Plant Complexes' Effect in 
Experimental Hepatitis (Russian). Farmachiya (= Pharmacy) [Moscow] (Russian) Nr. 4 (1983), 
pp. 74-75.
 A strong pharmacotherapeutic effect of polyphenolic plant complexes in experimental hepatitis 
has been demonstrated.

[533] Dudin, SA, Boronoyev, VV, and Tsydypov, ChTs: The Pulse Wave Analysis as a Process 
(Russian). In: Mathematical Problems of Ecology. Abstracts of the Reports of the All-Union 
School (Russian), Chita 1988.

[534] Dudin, SA and Tsydypov, ChTs: The Interconnection of Some Conceptions of Tibetan and 
Modern Medicine (Russian). In: Pul'sovaya Diagnostika v Tibetskoy Meditsine (= Pulse Diagnosis 
in Tibetan Medicine) (Russian),  pp. 18-32. "Science", Siberian Branch.  Novosibirsk 1988.
 A correlation has been undertaken of the disturbance symptoms of the body systems - 
determined in Tibetan medicine as wind, bile and phlegm in Tibetan Medicine and which are of 
great importance for man's health and for pulse diagnosis - with the central and autonomic 
nervous systems of modern medicine. It has been shown that the part of the wind system is 
the central nervous system, the part of the bile system is the sympathetic nervous system, the 
part of the phlegm system is the parasympathetic one.

[535] Dummer, Tom:  Problem of Relating Tibetan Medicine in the West. Tibetan Review (Delhi) 
16,1 (1981), pp. 9-12.
 ". . . in accordance with the wishes of His Holiness The Dalai Lama, who has graciously 
consented to become Patron of the Group. a) His Holiness was asked to give guidance as to 
how it should be presented and applied in the West. The only criteria, He said, was that 
Tibetan medicine should be of benefit, in the widest possible sense, to humanity as a whole. It 
must be adapted with this in mind and not kept culturally intact as a primary consideration. b) 
Tibetan medicine is not meant to replace other systems - all should be complimentary, one to 
the other. c) What is valid scientifically and clinically proves to be of use should be retained - 
the rest should be discarded."

[536] Dummer, Tom:  Holism in Medicine. Myrobalan (Yalding/GB) 4 (1986), pp. 89-93.

[537] Dummer, Tom: Tibetan Medicine and other Holistic Health-Care Systems. Foreword by 
His Holiness The Dalai Lama. 307 p. Routledge, London & New York 1988.
 (Also Penguin Books, 1989). 2nd edition by Paljor Publications, Delhi 1995.- Tom Dummer 
describes concepts and practice of Tibetan Medicine in a non-traditional way, thus making it 
more readily accessible to the Western mind. He writes from first-hand experience of observing 
notable Tibetan doctors at work in their practices and receiving instruction from them, to give a 
comprehensive account of their country's medicine. This he assesses both in terms of the 
Tibetan tradition of Buddhism of which he is a follower and with the clinical insight of a 
practising osteopath of many years' standing. Beginning with an explanation of the basic 
elements of Tibetan Medicine he describes the relevance of certain Buddhist concepts; the 
Tibetan analysis of bodily functions; concepts of health and susceptibility to disease and 
methods of diagnosis and treatment. In the second part of the book he analyses the similarities 
between Tibetan and Western holistic medicine and shows how they may be practised in 
conjunction with each other. He considers different, specific areas of medicine, including the 
use of Occidental herbal medicine and homoeopathy within a context of Tibetan Medicine; the 
similarities between contemporary osteopathy and Tibetan massage, based on theories of 
spinal centers and reflexes, and the use of Tibetan medical philosophy and Buddhadharma as a 
basis for counselling therapy.

[538] Dummer, Tom (editor): Myrobalan. A Quarterly Review Devoted to Disseminating 
Knowledge of Tibetan Medicine. Editor Tom Dummer (Study Group for Tibetan Medicine). Nos. 
1-4. Tom Dummer, Yalding - Maidstone/GB 1984-1986 (only).

[539] Duncan, Marion H: Customs and Superstitions of Tibetans. 265 p. The Mitre Press, 
London 1964.
 Chapter XI: The Land of Medicine, pp. 99-109: Interesting chapter on ritualistic medicine. 
Quotation of an example: "Red-robed priests of the Sakya sect at Jyekundo held a service in a 
room for a man far advanced in the last stages of tuberculosis. This ceremony will illustrate the 
type of the usual procedure in all sects although possibly not as elaborate as at times as this 
man was poor and could not afford a large number of priests. On the first day a number of clay 
cones composed of moistened yellow clay were set in shallow saucers with loose barley grains 
arranged around them. Then dorma or cone-shaped offerings were moulded of ground parched 
barley flour, adorned with round dabs of butter and placed before the four priests who started 
chanting. After a time the sick man was summoned and during the continuation of the chanting 
his head was touched with a dorje or thunderbolt (an article made of brass and shaped like a 
miniature dumb-bell). Pills that had been blessed were fed to him. Holy water from a teapot, 
with a peacock feather in it, was first sprinkled and then poured upon his head. A bell was rung 
at intervals and power was given to him to recover. The second day was a repetition of the 
first except in addition he was compelled to eat some of the hard barley grains, and rice grains 
were sown in his hair. He declared on the third day that he was no better. The final desperate 
ceremony for casting out the disease-demon was then undertaken. The four priests lit over a 
hundred butter lamps and mumbled a long chant. An image of a man six or seven inches high 
was made which was dressed in brightly coloured cloth. The sick man sat with them and the 
disease-demon was enticed into the image. When the prayers and the bell ringing reached 
crescendo the scapegoat image was taken out and cast into a field. Dogs started to eat the 
image but a beggar beat them off and ate the image himself. He was in such a miserable state 
that one more demon or disease would make little difference."

[540] Dutt, Uday Chand: The Materia Medica of the Hindus. With a glossary of Indian Plants by 
George King. With additions and alterations by Kaviraj Binod Lall Sen & Kaviraj Athutosh Sen. 
356 p., Calcutta 1877.
 Reprinted 1900 and several times thereafter, newly reprinted Mittal Publications, Delhi 1989.- 
"This work is not a literal translation of any particular treatise, but a compilation from standard 
Sanskrit medical works, arranged somewhat upon the plan of Waring's Manual of Therpeutics, 
and intended to give a concise exposition of the Materia Medica of the Hindus. Dr. Wise, in his 
commentary on the Hindu system of Medicine, has given a full and accurate account of the 
Anatomy, Surgery and Pathology of the Hindus. The scope and plan of his book did not, 
however, admit of his treating of Sanskrit Materia Medica in the manner of modern works on 
the subject. I have, therefore, undertaken to publish this work under the impression that it will 
prove an acceptable contribution to the history of drugs, and will form a basis for further 
researches on indigenous medicines. In the first part of the work I have given an account of the 
mineral medicines used by the Hindus, the mode in which they are prepared for use, their 
chemical compound, and the principal combinations in which they are employed in different 
diseases. With regard to the Vegetable Materia Medica, I have endeavoured to give the correct 
scientific names of the plants described, by procuring the drugs through practising Kavirajas or 
native physicians, and having them identified in the Royal Botanical Gardens."

[541] Eichinger, Franz (Pater, SVD): Die Mühle in den chinesischen Nachbargebieten der 
Tibetanischen Nomaden. Mit 7 Abb. 66 S. Verlag für Recht und Gesellschaft, Basel 1968.
 Buchausgabe von 'Sinologica' 10, Heft 2/3, pp. 83-148. Eigene Feldforschung im Dorf Tanger 
(etwa 1 000 Einwohner), das stark von tibetischen Nomaden beeinflußt ist, ermöglichte es dem 
Verfasser, Sagen zur Entstehung der Mühlen, aber auch rechtliche, soziale, religiöse und 
magisch-medizinische Aspekte, die mit den Mühlen und dem Mahlen zu tun haben, zu 

[542] Eigner, Dagmar:  Schamanische Therapie in Zentral-Nepal. Curare (Braunschweig) 17 
(1994), pp. 217-228.
 "Im Gesundheitswesen Zentral-Nepals spielen Schamanen noch eine wichtige Rolle. Besonders 
für die Behandlung von psychischen Störungen mit oder ohne somatischer Komponente gelten 
sie als Spezialisten, für die es bis heute kaum eine Alternative gibt. Auch Frauen üben diesen 
Beruf aus, jedoch in geringer Zahl. Viele Schamanen und Schamaninnen behandeln nur 
Krankheiten, die von außen durch eine aktive, übelwollende Kraft oder von einem Wesen der 
spirituellen Welt verursacht worden sind. Häufig werden diese Leiden auf das Wirken von 
Geistern und Hexen, aber auch auf das von lokalen Gottheiten und Ahnen zurückgeführt."
[543] Eigner, Dagmar and Scholz, Dieter:  Das Zauberbüchlein der Gyani Dolma. Pharmazie in 
unserer Zeit (Weinheim) 19 (1990), pp. 141-152, 9 Abb.
 "Gyani und ihr Vater gehören zu den Tamang, einer ethnischen Minderheit mit einer 
tibetoburmesischen Sprache. Die Tamang bezeichnen sich oft als Buddhisten, sind aber auch 
stark vom Hinduismus beeinflußt.- Das Merkheft, das ich von Gyani Dolma bekommen habe, 
beinhaltet 35 Zaubersprüche, 16 Rezepte und 4 Handlungsanweisungen, um einen bestimmten 
Effekt bei einer Person zu erzielen, z.B. Liebeszauber. Das in dem Zauberbüchlein präsentierte 
Wissen stammt aus der Tradition von Gyanis Vater, der ein bekannter Schamane in den Bergen 
östlich des Kathmandu-Tales war. Die Behandlungen, die Gyani Dolma vornimmt, erfolgen 
sowohl durch magische Praktiken als auch durch Kräutermedizinen. Auch wenn eine in unserem 
pharmakologischen System sinnvoll erscheinende Substanz verabreicht wird, geschieht das 
niemals ohne magische Sprüche oder rituelle Handlungen. Materie ist immer an eine Idee 
gebunden.- Die Besprechung der Rezepte zeigt deutlich die Grenzen des Wissens bei 
ethnopharmazeutischen Fragen auf. Viele der verwendeten Pflanzen wurden weder 
pharmakologisch noch pharmakognostisch untersucht, obwohl ihre Verwendung von vielen 
Volksgruppen auf eine entsprechende Wirkung hinweist."

[544] Eliade, Mircea (1907- ):  Eléments chamaniques dans le Lama.sme. France-Asie (Paris) 
61-62 (1951), pp. 97-105.

[545] Eliade, Mircea: Symboliques et techniques chamaniques au Tibet. In: Le Chamanisme. pp. 
335-344. Ed. Payot, Paris 1968.
 Réedition Paris 1978.

[546] Eliashev, KA: Early Methods of Medical Education by the Different Nations of the Irkutsk 
Region (Russian), Irkutsk 1879.

[547] Emmerick, Ronald E (1937- ):  A Chapter from the rGyud-bzhi. Asia Major, 3rd series 
(London) XIX, 2 (1975), pp. 141-162.
 Born 1937 in Sydney, Australia. B.A. Cambridge 1961, Ph.D. Cambridge 1965, University 
Lecturer, London 1964-71. Visiting Associate Professor Chicago 1967-8, Ordentlicher 
Professor Hamburg 1971. Corresponding member of the Istituto per il Medio ed Estremo 
Oriente (Roma) and Fellow of the British Academy.- "When I was approached some time ago 
by Dr. E. Finckh with a request to provide a translation of chapter three of the first Tantra, I 
thought at first that the task would be easy in view of the fact that J. Filliozat had long ago 
published text, translation, and commentary to that very chapter in Asiatica, Festschrift 
Friedrich Weller, ed. J. Schubert and U. Schneider, Leipzig, 1954, 93-102. On closer 
inspection, however, it became apparent that Filliozat's understanding of the material was 
inadequate and that he had made only superficial use of the Vaidurya snon-po. Rather than to 
discuss in detail the divergences between my own rendering and that of Filliozat, I have 
decided to justify in some detail my own rendering and have referred only occasionally to 
Filliozat. The publication of this chapter may also be regarded as providing a specimen of what I 
hope to provide for the whole of the rGyud-bzhi."

[548] Emmerick, Ronald E:  Ravigupta's Place in Indian Medical Tradition. In: Indologica 
Taurinensia, Volumes III-IV (1975-76). Official Organ of the International Association of 
Sanskrit Studies. Proceedings of the Second World Sanskrit Conference (Torino, 9th-15th June 
1975). Edizioni Sereno, Torino.  (1977), pp. 209-221.
 "Ravigupta's Siddhasara was translated into Tibetan early in the ninth century and into 
Khotanese in the ninth or tenth century. The Tibetan translators append their names to the 
Tibetan version: Adityavarman, Candra, and Jinamitra. This Jinamitra must certainly be the 
Jinamitra who took part in the compilation of the Mahavyutpatti in the first quarter of the ninth 
century. He is mentioned in the Chronicles of Ladakh as having been invited to Tibet as a 
translator by the Tibetan king Ral-pa-can. That he was a pandit living under Ral-pa-can is also 
attested by the Chang-so chih-lun. Ral-pa-can's reign has been given as AD 817-836 by 
Roerich.- At the beginning of the ninth century, the Siddhasara was sufficiently famous for it 
to have been translated into Tibetan and admitted to the Tibetan canon. At the same time or 
later it was extensively quoted by Vrnda. But it is clearly likely to have been written 
considerably earlier and if Madhava is correctly assigned to AD 700, a date of about AD 600 
seems likely for Ravigupta. This would make Ravigupta contemporary with Vagbhata and may 
well account for the absence of identical verses in Ravigupta and Vagbhata."

[549] Emmerick, Ronald E:  Sources of the rGyud-bzhi. (Supplement, Deutscher Orientalistentag 
vom 28. Sept. bis 4. Okt. 1975 in Freiburg i. Br.). Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen 
Gesellschaft (Wiesbaden) III, 2 (1977), pp. 1135-1142.
 "Rgyud-bzhi 'Four Tantras' is the short title of a Tibetan treatise on medicine divided into four 
books. This work has always been regarded as the most authoritative treatise on Tibetan 
medicine even though it was not admitted into the canonical collections of the Bkah-hgyur and 
the Bstan-hgyur.-  The question has naturally been asked what relationship, if any, exists 
between the Rgyud-bzi and Vagbhata. Similarities in terminology and in medical doctrine have 
often been pointed out, but the question has otherwise remained unanswered. It has often been 
stated that the Rgyud-bzi was translated from a no longer extant Sanskrit medical work, but 
others have advised caution and pointed out that the fact that the text has been provided with 
a Sanskrit title should not be help to prove anything more than that it was fashionable to 
provide texts with Sanskrit titles. The Rgyud-bzhi is not a direct translation of an extant text of 
Vagbhata but could be a translation of a text that was used by Vagbhata.-- There remain the 
following possibilities: 1) There may have been two Rin-chen bzan-pos, one living in the eighth 
century and one in the eleventh, the former having translated Vagbhata's 
Astangahrdayasamhita and the latter Candranandana's  commentary on it. This would also 
account for the Tibetan tradition making Rin-chen bzan-po contemporary with Jinamitra, who 
collaborated with Danaæila at the beginning of the ninth century. There is also a tradition 
recorded in the Blue Annals placing Rin-chen bzan-po before Danaæila in the succession of 
transmission of the teachings of Ravigupta. 2) It may have been the Younger G-yu thog-pa, 
dated to the eleventh century, who used Rin-chen bzan-po's translation of Vagbhata's 
Astangahrdayasamhita. Tibetan tradition my have confused the two G-yu thog-pas. 
Candranandana may then have been the contemporary of King Abhimanyu II of Kashmir 
(reigned AD 958-972). 3) The Elder G-yu thog-pa may have received Vairocana's translation of 
Vagbhata's Astangahrdayasamhita as in the Tibetan tradition recorded in his biography. In that 
case Rin-chen bzan-po must have taken over Vairocana's translation more or less in its entirety. 
Nothing is known in Indian tradition of Vairocana's translation."

[550] Emmerick, Ronald E: Some Lexical Items from the rGyud-bzhi. In: Proceedings of the 
Csoma de Körös Memorial Symposium held at Matrafüred, Hungary, 24th - 30th September 
1976, ed. L. Ligeti. pp. 101-108. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1978.
 "Csoma de Körös made extensive use of his knowledge of the rGyud-bzhi in compiling his 
famous Tibetan-English dictionary, which bore the title 'Essay towards a Dictionary, Tibetan 
and English' and appeared in 1834.- More precise understanding of many Tibetan medical 
terms can be obtained by studying Tibetan translations of Sanskrit medical works. A useful 
beginning has been made by Claus Vogel in his treatment of 'Vagbhata's 
Astangahrdayasamhita, the First Five Chapters of its Tibetan Version', Wiesbaden 1965. The 
Tibetan translation of Vagbhata's work is of particular importance for understanding the rGyud-
bzhi since many chapters of the rGyud-bzhi are largely a reworking into nine-syllable verses of 
the seven-syllable verses of the translation of Vagbhata. Some verses are identical in both 

[551] Emmerick, Ronald E: The Siddhasara of Ravigupta. (= Verzeichnis der orientalischen 
Handschriften in Deutschland, Suppl.-Band 23). 482 p. Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 1980-1982.
 Suppl. vol. 23, 1: The Sanskrit text; 23, 2. The Tibetan version with facing English translation.

[552] Emmerick, Ronald E: Mi-chos. In: Ludwik Sternbach Felicitation Volume. pp. 883-885. 
Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow/India (1981).
 "The Tibetan medical compendium rGyud-bzhi "The Four Tantras" draws heavily on 
Vagbhata's Astangahrdayasamhita as one of its main sources. Chapter 13 in the second book 
is in this respect typical. It contains 100 lines of verse. Of these 76 are verses of nine syllables 
and 24 are verses of eleven syllables. The nine-syllable verses correspond closely with the 
Tibetan translation of Vagbhata contained in the Tanjur, but the eleven-syllable verses have no 
counterpart. They seem to be a Tibetan creation."

[553] Emmerick, Ronald E: Some Lexical Items from the Siddhasara. In: Contributions on 
Tibetan Language, History and Culture (Proceedings of the Csoma de Körös symposium held at 
Velm-Vienna, Austria, 13-19 September 1981, Vol. I.- Ed. E. Steinkellner and H. Tauscher = 
Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde, 10). pp. 61-68. Arbeitskreis für 
tibetische und buddhistische Studien Universität Wien, Wien 1983.
 A Sanskrit medical text by Ravigupta. Translated into Tibetan (9th century, found in the 

[554] Emmerick, Ronald E: A Khotanese Version of the Sutra of the Lord of Healing. In: 
Buddhism and Its Relation to Other Religions: Essays in Honour of Dr. Shozen Kumoi on His 
Seventieth Birthday. pp. 225-232, Kyoto 1985.

[555] Emmerick, Ronald E: Epilepsy according to the rGyud-bzhi. In: Studies on Indian Medical 
History. Papers presented at the International Workshop on the Study of Indian Medicine held 
at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 2nd-4th September 1985. Edited by G. 
Jan Meulenbeld and Dominik Wujastyk (Groningen Oriental Studies, Vol. II). pp. 63-90. Egbert 
Forsten, Groningen 1987.
 "The chapter of the rGyud-bzhi that concerns epilepsy (Tibetan (b)rjed-byed 'causing 
forgetfulness') was recently presented for the first time in an English translation.- On this 
occasion I wish to draw attention to certain features of the chapter which agree with or differ 
from the Tibetan version of the corresponding chapter of Vagbhata's Astangahrdayasamhita. 
Unfortunately, the latter [that is, the Tibetan version, because the Sanskrit version has been 
translated into German by Hilgenberg] has not hitherto been edited or translated and I have 
accordingly provided for comparison a first tentative edition and translation.- It will at once be 
clear that in the case of this chapter the rGyud-bzhi is not as heavily dependent upon Vagbhata 
as it sometimes is: see for instance my article on the 'Sources of the rGyud-bzhi'. There are 
here no identical verses, and there are even some significant differences of doctrine. Most 
noticeable is the fact that epilepsy is classified by the rGyud-bzhi into five kinds according to 
whether it is due to wind, bile, phlegm, poison, or demons whereas the standard Indian doctrine 
is that there are four kinds: those due to wind, bile, and phlegm separately, and that kind which 
is due to the concerted action of the humours."

[556] Emmerick, Ronald E:  Tibetan Nor-ra-re. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African 
Studies (London) Li. 3 (1988), pp. 537-539.
 "The late Walter Simon discussed the Tibetan particle re in two important articles published in 
this journal: 'The Tibetan particle re' (BSOAS XXX, 1, 1967, 117-26) and 'Tibetan re in its 
wider context' (BSOAS XXXI, 3, 1968, 555-62). It may accordingly be of interest to examine 
the passage from which nor-ra-re derives. It is to be found in the rGyud-bzhi, the famous 
Tibetan medical compendium. This work was for a long time difficult of access but it is now 
readily available. An excellent printed edition based on a blockprint from Derge was published 
in Lhasa in 1982 under the editorship of Blo-bzan tshe-rin. Facsimile reproductions of two old 
blockprints have been published in Leh: rGyud-bzhi, a reproduction of a set of prints from the 
eighteenth century zung-cu ze blocks from the collections of Prof. Raghu Vira, ed. O-rgyan 
Namgyal [= Dr. T. Y. Tashigang], Leh, 1975 (=Sman rtsis Shesrig Spendzod, vol. 68), and 
rGyud-bzhi, a reproduction of a set of prints from the 1888 Lha-sa lCags-po-ri blocks, Leh, 
1978 (=Sman rtsis Shesrig Spendzod, vol. 87). The main source of information concerning its 
content has been for many years an article published by  Alexander Csoma de Körös (Journal 
of the Asiatic Society, 37, 1835, 1-20), in which he provides an English translation of a 
Tibetan summary of the rGyud-bzhi made for him by Sans-rgyas phun-chogs of Zans-dkar."

[557] Emmerick, Ronald E: rGas-pa gso-ba. In: Indo-Tibetan Studies. Papers in Honour and 
Appreciation of Professor David L. Snellgrove's Contribution to Indo-Tibetan Studies [Buddhica 
Britannica, Series continua II], ed. Tadeusz Skorupski. pp. 89-99. The Institute of Buddhist 
Studies, Tring/UK 1990.
 Translation of chapter 90 of the Third Tantra.- "The standard medical handbook of the 
Tibetans, the rGyud-bzhi, contains a chapter (i.e. chapter 90 in the third book) dealing with the 
treatment of the aged. It is not suggested that our 'Honorand' is in need of such treatment, but 
as one who has dedicated a large portion of his life to the study of Tibetan culture, he may find 
it of interest to give consideration to what the Tibetans thought worth recommending. In 
particular, the usual emphasis placed on garlic may even be to his taste. Like much of the 
rGyud-bzhi, the chapter concerning treatment of the aged is not easy to translate even with the 
help of Sde-srid Sangs-rgyas-rgya-mtsho's excellent commentary."

[558] Emmerick, Ronald E: Some Remarks on Tibetan Sphygmology. In: Medical Literature from 
India, Sri Lanka and Tibet. Ed. G. Jan Meulenbeld. (Panels of the VIIth World Sanskrit 
Conference, Kern Institute, Leiden: August 23rd-29th, 1987. Vol. VIII), pp. 66-72. E.J. Brill, 
Leiden, New York, Kopenhagen, Köln 1991.
 "As is well known, sphygmology (=pulse diagnosis) plays no role in classical Indian medicine. 
Thus there is no entry at all concerning the pulse in the index to L. Hilgenberg and W. Kirfel, 
Vagbhata's Astangahrdayasamhita, ein altindisches Lehrbuch der Heilkunde, Leiden 1941. By 
contrast pulse diagnosis is one of the pillars of Tibetan medical practice. The main source of 
information about the Tibetan tradition concerning sphygmology is the standard Tibetan 
medical treatise rGyud-bzhi or the 'Four Tantras'. This work was for a long time difficult of 
access but it is now readily available."

[559] Emmerick, Ronald E:  Some Tibetan Medical Tankas. In: Aspects of Classical Tibetan 
Medicine. Special Volume of 1993. Bulletin of Tibetology (Gangtok/Sikkim)  (1993), pp. 53-78, 
annex with 12 b/w unnumbered plates.
 "On 3rd August 1983 Professor D. Schuh (Bonn) and I went on an official visit to the sMan-
rTsis-khan. Although it was completed only in 1978 it was already in 1983 inadequate for the 
growing demand for medical treatment. We saw in another part of Lhasa the construction work 
in progress on a much larger new hospital designed to accommodate 150 to 200 beds. For this 
project the Chinese government claimed to have budgeted six million yüan. In accordance with 
its name and with Tibetan tradition, the sMan-rTsis-khan even today includes a department of 
astronomy, one of whose main functions is to prepare for publication each year the current 
Tibetan calendar, of which circulation in 1983 was 180,000. The hospital has a library of 
medical and astronomical works, and books on those subjects are actually printed, published, 
and sold in the hospital. We were no doubt among the best customers they had ever had. At 
any rate they had considerable difficulty in handling the large sum of money we had to pay. 
The director of the hospital, Byams-pa hphrin-las, informed us that the hospital possesses a 
complete set of the seventy-nine medical scrolls illustrating the rGyud-bzhi."- The author then 
describes the history and facts about the known sets of these Medical Tankas in Lhasa, Ulan-
Ude and Peking.

[560] Epstein, Lawrence:  Blood and Thunder. Theories of Causation in Tibet (1). The Tibet 
Society Bulletin (Bloomington) 9 (1975), pp. 40-45.

[561] Epstein, Lawrence:  On the History and Psychology of the 'Das-Log. The Tibet Journal 
(Dharamsala) 7,4 (1982), pp. 20-85.
 "The 'das-log literature centers around a figure in Tibetan popular religious lore. Designating 
'one who has returned (log) from passing away ('das)' the 'das-log occupies a place in Tibetan 
folklore and folklife, as well as in the literature associated with the worship of the bodhisattva 
Avalokiteævara. There exists a number of written biographies of 'das-log; additionally, they 
existed in the flesh in Tibet and the Himalayas, as they do today, albeit rarely, amongst the 
Tibetan refugee population. Claiming to have undergone personally the experience of returning 
from death, they committed themselves to a life of telling their stories, bringing with them 
tidings from beings born in limbo (bar-do) and hell to the living, and conveying to men at large 
injunction to moral conduct from the lips of the Dharmaraja, the Lord of Death, himself.- The 
'das-log biographies bring together as a class an extremely disparate bunch of persons, linked 
only by the fact that they share a remarkable experience in common. The 'das-log is seized 
with an illness and enters a catatonic state; for all intents and purposes, in so far as onlookers 
are concerned, he dies. Our task will be first to examine in some detail the physical and 
affective states of the 'das-log previous to the onset of their catatonia. What are the 
characteristics of such states? Can we postulate the existence of preconditions for their 
seizure in terms of intrapsychic or socio-psychological stresses that may help us explain why 
certain individuals undergo such experiences? If we are dealing with an organic disorder or a 
genetic one, we cannot of course discover it through texts alone. Instead, we must accept, on 
faith, and for the sake of argument that there are socio-psychological reasons for them. States 
of dissociation and hallucinosis may be regarded as defense mechanisms against a range of 
'disorders' during which there is an intensification of internal perceptions and ego withdrawal."

[562] Epstein, Mark D (1953- ):  Wie traditionelle tibetische Medizin moderne Krankheiten heilt. 
3 Abb. Tibet-Forum (Bonn) 2 (1985), pp. 11-14.
  Aus 'Asia', März/April 1983.- "Es ist eine der Paradoxien der Geschichte, daß Tibets reiche 
und vielgestaltige Kultur dem Westen erst zugänglich wurde, als viele Tibeter, einschließlich 
des Dalai Lama, nach der chinesischen Invasion Mitte der fünfziger Jahre aus ihrer Heimat 
flohen. Die tibetischen Flüchtlinge haben um die Bewahrung ihrer Kultur in Indien gekämpft, und 
in diesem Kampf werden viele tibetische Geheimnisse enthüllt. Eines davon ist das 
medizinische Wissen und die medizinische Praxis. Dieses Wissen ist so hoch entwickelt, daß 
die kommunistischen Machthaber Chinas in Tibet es als eines der wenigen Gebiete der 
tibetischen Kultur bewahrt haben. In Indien erfreuen sich tibetische Ärzte eines großen Zulaufs. 
Als Mensch des Westens, ausgebildet in Psychiatrie und innerer Medizin, hatte ich das große 
Glück, eine Reihe von Behandlungsmethoden untersuchen zu können, die ihren Ursprung in dem 
religiös-wissenschaftlichen System der tibetischen Medizin haben".

[563] Epstein, Mark D:  Forms of Emptiness: Psychodynamic, Meditative and Clinical 
Perspectives. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology (Palo Alto, CA) 21, 1 (1989), pp. 61-71.
 "In my efforts to synthesize Buddhist and psychodynamic psychologies of mind, the inner 
experience of emptiness has emerged as the most beguiling and yet the most treacherous 
subject common to both fields. There is confusion within psychodynamic theory about what 
constitutes emptiness, there is confusion within Buddhist theory about what constitutes 
emptiness, and there is certainly confusion among psychodynamic psychotherapists about 
what Buddhists mean by emptiness, and confusion among Buddhists about what 
psychotherapists mean by emptiness. The word is applied to such an array of states of mind 
that its meaning has become virtually impossible to grasp. Yet a careful examination of the 
various forms of emptiness does much to illuminate the special contribution of Buddhist 
thought to contemporary understanding of the nature of the self."

[564] Epstein, Mark D and Rabgay, Lobsang:  Mind and Mental Disorders in Tibetan Medicine. 
Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 5 
(1982), pp. 66-84.
 Reprinted from: 'Revision' (1982). Also published by Potala Publications, New York 1988.-  
"Traditional Asian philosophical-religious, and medical systems of thought share a fundamental 
belief in the existence of a vital force or energy that pervades the human organism. Termed 
prana in Sanskrit and ch'i by the Chinese, this life force moves in channels throughout the 
body, underlying the psychophysical process. This energy is said to dissolve in death, to be 
blocked or disrupted in disease, and to be channelled or controlled in the practice of meditation. 
A similar energy has also been postulated by Western practitioners of such therapies as 
bioenergetics. The channels in which this energy moves are termed nadis in Sanskrit and tsas 
(spelled rtsa) in Tibetan. These pathways make up a kind of psychic nervous system whose 
anatomy is well known to all practitioners of Tantric meditation. The Chinese also postulate the 
existence of energy channels in the body through which the ch'i moves (these channels are 
usually referred to as 'meridians'). The movement of this energy within the channels of the 
human organism is termed vayu in Sanskrit and rlung in Tibetan. The word 'vayu' is derived 
from the root 'va', 'to breathe' or 'to blow', which refers to the motive power of 'prana'. These 
'vayu' control the bodily functions; and thus each has its own place and duty. Health, essential 
for the yogin, depends upon keeping each vital-air normal, or in its own channel of operation.- 
The Tibetan tradition has probed, explored, and described the complex patterns of this energy. 
Both medical and religious texts lay a strong emphasis on these currents of psychic energy, 
and much of Tibetan psychiatry and medicine is concerned with the manifestations and 
treatments of disruptions or blocks in the flow of prana. Whenever the Tibetan tradition refers 
to rlung, therefore, it is referring to the movement or flow of this energy within prescribed 
pathways in the human being. In fact, when Tibetan Medicine is examined with an eye toward 
descriptions of mind and mental disorders, it becomes clear that what is being discussed is 
how these currents of prana function in health and disease. Tibetan medical texts are filled 
with descriptions of the manifestations of dysfunction of the pranic flow, and Tantric religious 
texts voluminously elucidate the reorganization of these currents that occurs in death or in 
meditation. An understanding of the Tibetan approach to mind is not possible without an 
appreciation of the character of these pranic currents."

[565] Epstein, Mark D and Rabgay, Lobsang:  Mind and Mental Disorders in Tibetan Medicine. 
Tibetan Review (Calcutta) XVII, 8 (1982), pp. 7-15.
 Reprinted from 'Revision', Spring 1982, with the section on History and Concept of Tibetan 
Medicine omitted (see following listing).

[566] Epstein, Mark D, Sonam Topgay (=Rabgay, Lobsang):  Mind and Mental Disorders in 
Tibetan Medicine. Revision (Cambridge) 5, No. 1 (1982), pp. 67-78.
 "Tibetan concepts of personality derive from two major branches of Buddhist texts: the 
Tantric teaching particularly those known as Highest Yoga Tantra, and the Sutra system 
involving primarily the Abhidharma texts. The Tantric teaching emphasises the spiritual and 
emotional aspect of mind in correlation with various psychic energies in the body. The 
Abhidharma is a system of psychological theory derived from the study of the moment to 
moment observations of the workings of the human mind. It describes the nature of the mind 
as a combination of wholesome, afflictive and neutral mental factors of perceptual, cognitive 
and affective qualities. In terms of psychopathology, the classification of nervous and mental 
diseases occurs in the major medical texts."

[567] Ermolayev, A:  Materials on Folk Medicine among the Russian Population of the Enisey 
Guberniya (Russian). Sibirskiy Arkhiv (= The Siberian Archives) (Russian) 6-8 (1913), 
pp. 358-373.

[568] Fasko, Daniel, Osborne, Michael R, Hall, Geri, Boerstler, Richard W, and Kornfeld, Hulen:  
Comeditation: an exploratory study of pulse and respiration rates and anxiety. Perceptual and 
Motor Skills (Louisville) 74 (1992), pp. 895-904.
 "To achieve deep relaxation in seriously ill persons, Tibetan Medicine has employed a 
breathing process, known as 'comeditation', which requires a caregiver to focus attention on 
the chest of the reclining patient while making a sound or number keyed to the patient's 
exhalation. This study investigated the relationship between state and trait anxiety and lowered 
respiratory rate, using the comeditation procedure. Ten subjects were assigned randomly to 
either a control or comeditation group. Anxiety was measured on the 'State-Trait Anxiety 
Inventory'. Analysis indicated a decrease in state-anxiety scores in the comeditation group, but 
no differences between groups in pulse and respiration rates or trait anxiety. Implications for 
theory and research are discussed."

[569] Fedchenko, BA:  New Materials for the Flora of the Transbaikalian Region (Russian). The 
Publications of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the Priamur Division of the Russian 
Geographical Society vol. 13, issue 2 (1910 (Moscow), [1912 (St. Petersburg)]), pp. 33-147.
[570] Fedchenko, BA: Some Notes about the Botanical Collection in Siberia (Russian). In: The 
Collection of Instructions and Programmes for the Participants of the Excursions in Siberia. 
pp. 168-171, St. Petersburg 1914.
[571] Fedotov, NP: Folk Medicine as the Source of New Drugs (Russian). In: Publications of the 
Tomsk Medical Institute, vol 13., pp. 246-249, Tomsk 1947.
[572] Fedotovskikh, NN, Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna), and Khapkin, IS: The Antihistamine 
Effect of Plant Drugs Included into Tibetan Antiinflammatory Prescriptions (Russian). In: 
Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= Problems of the 
Assimilation of the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of the Reports of 
the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian), pp. 228-229.  Novosibirsk 1983.
 The authors have valued antihistaminic action of 16 plant drugs prescribed as antiinflammatory 
ones in Tibetan Medicine. The results of the studies have shown high and medium 
antihistaminic action of decoctions made of these plants. The data obtained have shown that 
most of them are advisable for treatment of relevant diseases.

[573] Fedotovskikh, NN, Khapkin, IS, and Nikolayev, SM: On a Possibility of the Use of the 
Extract from Gentiana barbata Froel. in Complex Therapy of Atherosclerosis (Russian). In: Early 
Diagnosis and Prophylaxis of Cardio-Vascular Diseases. Abstracts of the Reports of the 
Conference, Part II (Russian). pp. 309-310, Novosibirsk 1983.
 The authors discuss the possibility of using an extract from Gentiana barbata Froel. in complex 
therapy of atherosclerosis due to its choleretic and hypocholesterinic action.

[574] Fenner, Edward Todd: Rasayana Siddhi: Medicine & Alchemy in the Buddhist Tantras. 
Ph.D. Thesis. Microfilm Department of the University, Ann Arbor/Michigan 1982.
 Book edition by Trado-Medic Books, Delhi.

[574a] Fenner, (Edward) Todd: The Origin of the rGyud bzhi: A Tibetan Medical Tantra. In: 
Tibetan Literature. Studies in Genre. Essays in Honor of Geshe Lhundrup Sopa, ed. by José 
Ignacio Cabezón and Roger R. Jackson, pp. 458-469. Snow Lion, Ithaca/N.Y.  1995

[575] Filchner, Wilhelm (1877-1957): Das Kloster Kumbum in Tibet. Ein Beitrag zu seiner 
Geschichte. Mit 39 (davon 4 teils mehrfach gefalteten, 8 mit einem gegenübergestellten 
Erläuterungsskizzenblatt) Tafeln, 2 gefalt. Karten, 1 gefalt. Plan und 20 Abb. im Text. Tafeln 
und gefaltete Karten als II. Teil des Buches im Anhang beigebunden. 164 S. Ernst Siegfried 
Mittler u. Sohn, Berlin 1906.
 Ein sehr lebendig und ungemein informativ geschriebenes Buch. Zudem Hinweise zur 
tibetischen Medizin S. 30 und S. 90-92. Autor der medizinischen Anmerkungen ist W. A. 
Unkrig (vide W. A. Unkrig, Leipzig 1933, da in dieser Ausgabe des Filchnerschen Werkes 
Unkrig den umfangreichsten Beitrag zur tibetischen Medizin geleistet hat, sowie Unkrig, Zürich 

[576] Filliozat, Jean (1906-1982): La médecine indienne et l'expansion bouddhique en Extrême-
Orient. Journal Asiatique 224 (1934 (April-Juni)), pp. 301-307.

[577] Filliozat, Jean: Le Kumaratantra de Ravana et les textes parallèles indiens, tibétains, 
chinois, cambodgien et arabe. (Étude de démonologie indienne, IV.). 192 p. Cahiers de la 
Société Asiatique, Paris 1937.
 Tibetan parallels pp. 123-146; = rGyud-bzhi IV, chapter 23.

[578] Filliozat, Jean: Fragments de textes Koutchéens de médecine et de magie. Texte, 
parallèles sanskrits es tibétains, traduction et glossaire. 155 p., 8 plates.  Libraire d'Amérique 
et d'Orient Adrien-Maisonneuve, Paris 1948.
[579] Filliozat, Jean: La doctrine classique de la médecine indienne. Ses origines et ses 
paralleles grecs. 230 p. Ecole Franãaise d'Extrême-Orient, Paris 1949.
 A comparison between Greek and Indian Medicine with many parallels (M. Winder).
[580] Filliozat, Jean: Un chapitre du rGyud-bzhi sur les bases de la santé et des maladies. In: 
Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag gewidmet von seinen Freunden, 
Kollegen und Schülern. (Herausgeg. von Johannes Schubert und Ulrich Schneider). pp. 93-102. 
Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig 1954.
 "Le rGyud-bzhi, les 'Quatre tantra', d'après son titre populaire, ou, plus exactement le Bdud-
rtsi-snin-po, Amrtahrdaya, analysé par Csoma dès 1835, est un des plus importants 
monuments de la médecine indienne au Tibet, en raison de sa popularité au Tibet même et de 
sa diffusion en Mongolie, où il a été traduit. La version, malheureusement inachevée, qu'en a 
donné Pozdnéev en 1908, d'après le texte mongol, qu 'il a en même temps publié, et en 
s'aidant du texte tibétain, est fort précieuse pour la connaissance de médecines tibétaine et 
mongole d'origine indienne. En outre, la version tibétaine représente un original sanskrit perdu 
et l'ouvrage, bien que reprodusiant le plus souvent le même enseignement que les traités 
indiens classiques, a un intérêt spécial comme offrant d'une part un exemple d'adaptation 
bouddhique partielle de cet enseignement et, d'autre part, des particularités de doctrine qui se 
retrouvent dans la littérature bouddhique conservée en chinois."- For a more relevant 
translation see R. E. Emmerick, London 1975.

[581] Filliozat, Jean: Yogaæataka. Texte médical attribué à Nagarjuna. (Publications de 
l'Institut Franãais d'Indologie, 62). xxxviii, 208 p. Institut Franãais d'Indologie, Pondichéry/India 
 For an English translation and comment see V. B. Dash, Dharamsala 1976.

[582] Fillipov, VR: The Contents of Macro- and Microelements in Borgoy Khuzhir (Russian). In: 
Micro-Elements in Siberia, vol. 8., pp. 6-8. Ulan-Ude 1970.

[583] Finckh, Elisabeth (1912-1993):  Die kosmologischen Beziehungen zwischen 
Wundergefäßen und Jahreszeiten. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur (Heidelberg) Nr. 11-12 
(1955), pp. 120-124.
In der asiatischen Welt wird der Einfluß der Jahreszeiten viel mehr beachtet als bei uns. Man 
mißt der Tatsache größere Bedeutung bei, daß durch atmosphärische und klimatische 
Veränderungen, wie sie mit dem Wechsel der Jahreszeiten einhergehen, Krankheiten entstehen 
können. So gibt es bestimmte Regeln, die man im Hinblick auf die Jahreszeiten beachten muß. 
Nach der tibetischen Lehre - ich halte mich an Badmajeff - wirken in der Zelle, die als 
Mikrokosmos von denselben Kräften gelenkt wird wie der Makrokosmos, fünf Grundelemente: 
Raum - Wärme - Luft - Erde - Wasser. 
Das ist eine ähnliche Fünfer-Einteilung, wie wir sie bei den fünf Elementen kennen: Feuer - Erde 
- Metall- Wasser- Holz. Die Physiologie der Zelle wird von drei Faktoren beeinflußt. Sie heißen: 
Chi, Shara und Badahan. Das Leben in der Zelle wird geboren, wenn Chi, Shara und Badahan 
dort ihre Funktionen übernommen haben, nachdem durch die 5 Grundelemente, auf die 
hinwiederum Energien des Weltalls eingewirkt haben, eine Zelle gebildet wurde. In ihr nehmen 
sie selbst die Gestalt der Faktoren Chi, Shara und Badahan an. Wenn diese im Gleichgewicht 
sind, ist Gesundheit da. Ist das Gleichgewicht gestört, entsteht Krankheit. Es soll jetzt versucht 
werden, zunächst die physiologischen Funktionen dieser drei Faktoren zu beschreiben. Dann 
wird es wichtig sein zu sehen, welches die charakteristischen Merkmale der einzelnen 
Jahreszeiten sind. Aus diesem Erkennen wird sich der Zusammenhang zwischen den vier 
Jahreszeiten und den vier Wundergefäß-Paaren ergeben.

[584] Finckh, Elisabeth: Ein Erfahrungsbericht über tibetische Medizin. In: Abendländische 
Therapie und Östliche Weisheit. Ein Erfahrungsbericht. Hrsg. Dr. Wilhelm Bitter, pp.118-122. 
Ernst Klett, Stuttgart 1968.
 "Ich möchte nun erklären, wie ich zu dem Studium tibetischer Medizin kam. Als Fachärztin für 
innere Medizin, auch ausgebildet in Neurologie, Psychiatrie und Tropenmedizin, also mit einer 
breiten Grundlage klinischer Fächer, kam ich über Homöopathie und Naturheilverfahren 1951 
zur Akupunktur. Den Weg dorthin hatte ich gesucht, weil mich ein tiefes Unbehagen erfaßt 
hatte über die Möglichkeiten der sogenannten Schulmedizin. Seit 1951 also übe ich auschließ-
lich diese asiatische Behandlungsweise in meiner Praxis aus. Nach meiner Vorstellung arbeitet 
man in der Schulmedizin sozusagen immer nur in einer Ebene, indem ausschließlich sympto-
matisch das erkrankte Organ behandelt wird. Bei der Akupunktur konnte auch die zweite Ebene, 
die Psyche, immer mit erfaßt werden.- Es blieb mir nichts übrig: Ich entschloß mich, nach 
Asien zu den Tibetern zu fahren, um dort ihre Heilkunst zu prüfen und zu studieren. Der Dalai 
Lama vernahm meine Bitte, bei tibetischen Medizin-Lamas studieren zu dürfen. Zu meinem 
großen Erstaunen erhielt ich die Erlaubnis, am Hofe des Dalai Lama zu bleiben und in der 
Medizin-Schule zu studieren. Diese Erlaubnis war verbunden mit dem Versprechen des Dalai-
Lama, daß auf seine Anweisung mir in der Medizin-Schule alles erklärt und gezeigt werden 
dürfe. Auch wurden mir Dolmetscher zur Verfügung gestellt. Ich war am Ziel meiner Wünsche 
angekommen! Für mein Studium stellte ich mir bestimmte Aufgaben: Unbeeinflußt von allem 
Wissen, von allen Büchern und theoretischen Vorstellungen wollte ich versuchen, die anatomi-
schen und physiologischen Grundlagen der tibetischen Medizin zu finden. Die Lamas zeigten mir 
alle Tabellen, Bücher und Zeichnungen, die ich abschreiben, abzeichnen und fotografieren 
konnte. Mit den Lamas, die sehr freundlich und höflich waren, verband mich bald ein freund-
schafltiches Verhältnis."

[585] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetische Heilkunde. L'Acupuncture Physiologique - Physiologische 
Akupunktur (Lausanne) 1 (1971), pp. 31-35.
 I. Symposium International de Médecine Biologique, Lausanne, 29.- 31. Mai 1971.

[586] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetische Heilkunde - Medizinhistorisches. L'Acupuncture-
Physiologique (Lausanne)  (1972), pp. ??
 II. Symposium International de Médecine Biologique, Lausanne 4.-7. Mai 1972

[587] Finckh, Elisabeth: Grundlagen tibetischer Heilkunde. Nach dem Buche rGyud-bzhi. Band 1. 
(Schriftenreihe: Asiatische Heilkunde - Forschung und Praxis). Geleitwort: Seine Heiligkeit der 
Dalai Lama. Mit Blockdrucktexten in Faksimile und 1 Faltkarte. 114 S. Medizinisch Literarische 
Verlagsgesellschaft, Uelzen 1975.
 Als erste westliche Ärztin nahm die Autorin, Ärztin für Innere Medizin, Kontakt zu tibetischen 
Ärzten auf, die sie persönlich in das Standardwerk der tibetischen Heilkunde "rGyud-bzhi" 
einführten. In diesem vierteiligen Standardwerk der tibetischen Medizin werden in 156 Kapiteln 
systematisch Symptome, Diagnostik und Therapie dargestellt.-  Die Medizinterminologie 
(Anatomie, Physiologie, Pathologie) wird von der Autorin im vorliegenden Band I aus dem tibe-
tischen Text erarbeitet und das System der tibetischen Heilkunde dargestellt. Wie Peter Lin-
degger (Rezension in Anthropos 1976) betont, gab es bislang "kein auf original tibetischen 
Quellen basierendes Werk zur Heilkunde der Tibeter: Es kann nämlich in der Tat Cyrill von 
Korvin-Krasinskis 'Tibetische Medizinphilosophie', ebenso umfänglich wie verwirrend speku-
lativ, nicht im Ernst als verläßlich oder gar medizinisch klärend genommen werden".

[588] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetische Heilkunde. Akupunktur: Theorie und Praxis (Uelzen) 3, Heft 
3 (1975), pp. 145-151.
 Vortrag auf dem Intern. Kongreß für Akupunktur in Bad Homburg.- Zur Anwendbarkeit bei uns 
schreibt die Autorin: "Die tibetische Heilkunde ist nicht nur von hohem theoretischen Interesse, 
sondern auch mit Erfolg im Westen anwendbar. Allerdings ist die tibetische Heilkunde nicht 
irgendeine Technik, die man in Schnellkursen flink erlernen kann. Für die Ausübung der 
tibetischen Heilkunde gelten bestimmte Voraussetzungen: Kenntnis der Medizinterminologie, 
die aus den Texten zu entnehmen ist. Kenntnis des Systems der tibetischen Heilkunde, 
Kenntnis der Gesetze der Heilung, die sich aus den Texten ergeben, Kenntnis der Kon-
stitutionstypen, die sich aus den Texten ergeben. Die tibetische Heilkunde stellt eine Konsti-
tutionslehre dar, ohne deren Beachtung Diagnose und Behandlung überhaupt nicht möglich sind. 
Vor allem muß der religiöse Hintergrund, auf dem die tibetische Heilkunde gewachsen ist und 
mit dem sie eng verwoben ist, genau bekannt sein."

[589] Finckh, Elisabeth: Foundations of Tibetan Medicine. According to the Book rGyud-bzhi. 
Volume I. Translated from the German by Fredericka M. Houser. 104 p. Watkins, London & 
Dulverton 1978.
 Reedition 1980. Also Element Books U.K., 1990.- A survey of Tibetan Medicine. It contains 
chapters 6 and 3 of the rGyud-bzhi and a fold-out chart of the Tibetan Medicine tree.

[590] Finckh, Elisabeth: Tibetan Medicine - Theory and Practice. In: Tibetan Studies in Honour of 
Hugh Richardson. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Tibetan Studies, Oxford  1979. Eds 
Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi, pp.103-110. Aris & Phillips, Warminster 1980.
 Also by Vikas Publ. House, New Delhi 1979.
[591] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Theory and Practice of Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Review (Delhi) XVI 
(1981), pp. 13-18.
 Adopted from previous entry i. e., "International Seminar on Tibetan Studies, Oxford 1979".- 
Due to special interest of many readers I quote Dr. Finckh's annotations on "Urinanalysis" and 
on "Questioning", i.e., anamnesis: 
"(a) Examination of Urine (Observation). [Trunk III.] I was able to study this method thoroughly 
both at the Medical School in Dharamsala and by observing itinerant doctors at work in other 
regions of the Himalayas. In addition, I had the opportunity of observing urinary examinations 
which a Tibetan doctor carried out on European patients when Yeshe Donden spent some time 
as a guest in my practice during his trip to Europe in 1970. The urinary examination was carried 
out on the basis of the three types of constitution. This diagnosis together with the two 
methods of examination described below was in fact very accurate. For this examination 
Tibetan doctors use a small clean bowl into which morning urine is poured and then stirred with 
a pale wooden stick. The examination of the urine takes quite a long time because the 
following characteristics must be studied: the formation of vapour, colour, smell, the formation 
of bubbles and sediment. Normal, healthy urine has definite characeristics corresponding to 
each of the three constitutional types. If these characteristics vary, then the illness diagnosed 
from the urine will be present.- 
(b) Anamnesis (Questioning). [Trunk V.] When compiling a case history, a Tibetan doctor is 
concerned with establishing the constitutional type of the patient because he needs to know 
this in order to choose the right therapy. Again, this method of examination demonstrates 
throughout the typical three-part division. First of all come questions of a general nature; then 
specifically pointed questions in order to establish and, to a certain extent narrow down the 
constitutional type of the patient concerned and the clinical picture present. All in all, 29 
questions are posed with regard to: I: productive causes (slong rkyen) 3; II: conditions of illness 
(na lugs) 23; III: (habits in connection with) food (zas) 3; = 29."

[592] Finckh, Elisabeth: Tibetische Heilkunde. In: Jahrbuch der Universität Düsseldorf 
1980/1981, pp. 283-296. Düsseldorf 1981.
 Symposium der Universität Düsseldorf, Institut für Geschichte der Medizin. Gast-Vorlesung.

[593] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetan Medicine: Theory and Practice. American Journal of Chinese 
Medicine (Garden City, N.Y.) IX, 4 (1982), pp. 259-267.
 First published in 'Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson, Warminster 1980'.- 
"Tibetan Medicine must be carefully studied to unearth valuable medical insights. This complex 
system, which utilizes oral instruction, can have various applications to Western medicine once 
language barriers are overcome and a standard medical terminology is devised. Fundamental to 
this medical system is a three-part division oriented toward function. Diagnosis involves 
examination of urine, tongue and pulse together with questioning patients to determine their 
constitutional types. According to these types therapy is prescribed with strong emphasis on 
nutrition, behavior and herbal medicines."

[594] Finckh, Elisabeth: Tibetische Heilkunde. In: Der Weg zum Dach der Welt. Hrsg. Claudius 
C. Müller, Walter Raunig, pp. 391-394. Pinguin-Verlag, Innsbruck 1982.
 "Die tibetischen Ärzte haben für ihre Heilkunde ein besonderes System entwickelt, das am 
Gleichnis eines Baumes dargestellt wird, der 3 Wurzeln, 9 Stämme, 47 Zweige und 224 Blätter 
hat. Das System ist vor allem deswegen so wichtig, weil es uns wie ein roter Faden durch die 
neun Disziplinen der Heilkunde führt. Außerdem lassen sich die Relationen der einzelnen 
Disziplinen zueinander ablesen: die Wurzel Diagnose nimmt mit 38 Blättern einen kleinen, die 
Wurzel Therapie mit 98 Blättern dagegen einen relativ großen Raum ein. Diese Zahlen spiegeln 
sich auch in der Praxis wider, d.h. es gibt wenig diagnostische, aber sehr viele therapeutische 
Methoden.- Heilung soll nicht durch symptomatische Behandlung eines Organes erfolgen, 
sondern durch die Wiederherstellung des gestörten Gleichgewichts. 
Es ist ein Merkmal der tibetischen Heilkunde, nicht an materiellen Substraten, sondern 
vorwiegend an Funktionen orientiert zu sein. Die Tibeter stellen sich die Organe nicht nur als 
echte Substrate vor, sondern auch als Reflektion ihrer Funktionen an der Körperoberfläche. Auf 
diese Weise sind Begriffe wie 'zwischenkörperliche Bereiche, Chakras, Lebensfeuer, 
Lebenskräfte' etc. zu erklären, die bei der Darstellung der Anatomie deutlich zum Ausdruck 
kommen. Diese Anschauung ermöglicht es, den Menschen mit seinen Organen in einer sehr 
subtilen und ganz direkten Verbindung mit dem Makrokosmos zu sehen. Da zwischen den 
'Organen' der tibetischen Heilkunde und der westlichen Anatomie keine Identität besteht, 
dürfen wir unsere abendländischen Begriffe nicht auf diese asiatische Heilung übertragen."

[595] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetische Heilkunde, im Westen anwendbar? Contributions on Tibetan 
language, history and culture. Proceedings of the Csoma de Körös symposium held at Velm-
Vienna, Austria, 13-19 September 1981, ed. Ernst Steinkellner and H. Tauscher, vol. 1. (= 
Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde, 10).  (1983), pp. 69-81.
[596] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetan Medicine - Constitutional Types. American Journal of Chinese 
Medicine (Garden City, N.Y.) 12 (1984), pp. 44-49.
 "Right at the start of research into Tibetan Medicine, it is vital to determine the medical 
terminology and the latter has to be taken from sources. The starting-point is the standard 
work of the Tibetan doctors, the book rGyud-bzhi = Four Tantras (abbreviated title). It is from 
the texts of this book that we learn that the basic principle of Tibetan medicine is a three-part 
division. The three humours are wind (rlung), bile (mkhris pa) and phlegm (bad kan). Some of 
the important characteristics of the three humours are to be found in the First Tantra of the 
rGyud-bzhi, in which the system of Tibetan medicine is also described: Chapter 3 (Root A): 
healthy organism, diseased organism. Chapter 4 (Root B): observation, palpation, questioning. 
Chapter 5 (Root C): nutrition, behaviour, medicines, treatments."
[597] Finckh, Elisabeth: Foundations of Tibetan Medicine according to the book rGyud-bzhi. 
Vol. II. Translated from the German by Fredericka M. Houser. 128 p. Robinson Books, London 
 Reedition 1988 by Element Books, Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset.- A detailed academic 
study by a specialist in internal medicine who trained also in neurology and psychiatry. She 
wrote this book in close consultation with the Dalai Lama's personal physician. It is an analysis 
of two chapters of the "rGyud-bzhi", from which the system of Tibetan Medicine (and the first 
two sections of Tibetan medical science, the healthy and the diseased organisms with their 
terminology) can be explained.

[598] Finckh, Elisabeth: Grundlagen der tibetischen Heilkunde. Nach dem Buche rGyud-bzhi. 
Band 2. (Schriftenreihe: Asiatische Heilkunde - Forschung und Praxis). Mit 17 Abb., 128 S. 
Medizinisch Literarische Verlagsgesellschaft, Uelzen 1985.
 In Band 1 (1975) wurde das schwierige Unterfangen begonnen, eine aus dem Originaltext 
abgeleitete Medizinterminologie mit Hilfe tibetischer Ärzte und erfahrener Tibetologen zu 
erarbeiten. Das Anliegen des 2. Bandes ist es, die Medizinterminologie zu erweitern. Zunächst 
wurden die Wurzeln "Gesunder und kranker Organismus"  erarbeitet, jetzt steht die Analyse der 
beiden anderen Wurzeln "Diagnose und Therapie" im Vordergrund. Das Werk vermittelt zudem 
einen wichtigen Aspekt der Lehrmethoden der Tibeter, nämlich den intensiven Kontakt 
zwischen Lehrer und Schüler, denn niemand wird ein tibetisches Medizinbuch verstehen können 
ohne langjährige Erläuterungen von praktizierenden Ärzten; die Texte selbst sind viel zu knapp 
und ohne Kommentar unverständlich.

[599] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetische Heilkunde. Akupunktur: Theorie und Praxis (Uelzen) 1 
(1985), pp. 23-30.
 Grundelement der tibetischen Heilkunde ist das Prinzip der Drei-Teilung, wie die Zwei-Teilung 
(das Yin-Yang-Prinzip) das der chinesischen Heilkunde ist. Wenn die drei "Prinzipien" oder 
"Humores": Wind (rlung), Galle (mkhris pa) und Schleim (bad kan) im Gleichgewicht sind, 
besteht Gesundheit. Wenn aber durch bestimmte Ursachen die drei "Prinzipien" in Unordnung 
geraten, tritt Krankheit auf. Heilung erfolgt durch die Wiederherstellung des gestörten 
Gleichgewichts, und nicht durch die symptomatische Behandlung eines Organes.

[600] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetische Heilkunde. 4 abb. Tibet-Forum (Bonn) 4, Nr. 2 (1985), pp. 3-6.
[601] Finckh, Elisabeth: Studies in Tibetan Medicine. Illustrated. 78 p. Snow Lion Publications, 
Ithaca/New York 1988.
 This scholarly collection of papers on specialized topics in Tibetan Medicine deals with various 
aspects of the medical system, including comparisons with the Chinese system. Contents: 
Tibetan Medicine: Theory and Practice; The System of Tibetan Medicine; Notes on 
sphygmology (=pulsology); Characteristics of Pharmacology; Constitutional Types.

[602] Finckh, Elisabeth: Über tibetische Pharmakologie: Geschmack (ro) und Wirkung (nus pa) 
der Arzneien. In: Studia Tibetica, Band II, pp. 163-169. Kommission für Zentralasiatische 
Studien, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, München 1988.
[603] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Der tibetische Medizin-Baum. In: Inner Asian and Tibetan Studies. 
Papers read at the Bicentenary Csoma de Körös Symposium Visegrád 1984. Acta Orientalia 
Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest) 43 (2-3) (1989), pp. 305-323.
 Diese Arbeit ist eine Zusammenstellung aus mehreren Büchern der Autorin: 'Grundlagen 
tibetischer Heilkunde', Band 1, ML-Verlag Uelzen 1975, und 'Foundations of Tibetan Medicine', 
Vol. 1, Watkins Publishing, London/Dulverton 1978, Vol. 2, 1985. Das gesamte System der 
tibetischen Medizin wird vorgestellt; die Darstellungen sind verkürzt und verbessert.

[604] Finckh, Elisabeth: Der tibetische Medizin-Baum. Texte und Illustrationen. Mit 31 (davon 6 
farb.) Abb., 93 S. Medizinisch Literarische Verlagsgesellschaft, Uelzen 1990.
 Die Tibeter haben für ihre Heilkunde ein eigenes System entworfen, das mit Texten, vor allem 
aber mit Illustrationen, anschaulich dargestellt wird. Der tibetische 'Medizin-Baum' hat drei 
Wurzeln. Die Anatomie (Wurzel A) zeigt abweichend von der westlichen Medizin die enge 
Verknüpfung des grobstofflichen Körpers mit feinstofflichen 'Substraten'. Es folgen die 
Pulsdiagnose (Wurzel B) und die Moxibustion (Wurzel C).

[605] Finckh, Elisabeth: Tibetische Heilkunde. In: Dokumentation der besonderen Therapie-
richtungen und natürlichen Heilweisen in Europa (Hrsg. Zentrum zur Dokumentation für 
Naturheilverfahren e.V.; FFB; Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe). Band 1: Ganzheitliche Medi-
zinsysteme. Halbbd. 2. Weitere Medizinsysteme, pp.1053-1068. VGM-Verlag, Lüneburg 1991.
 "Die tibetische Heilkunde kann auf eine lange Tradition zurückblicken und hat trotz vieler 
Einflüsse schließlich ihr Eigengepräge gewonnen, obwohl eine starke Beeinflussung durch 
indische und chinesische Medizin stattgefunden hatte. Ihre Blütezeit hatte die tibetische 
Heilkunde bereits im 8. Jahrhundert n. Chr. Damals pilgerten tibetische Ärzte und Übersetzer in 
die Nachbarländer, vor allem nach Indien. Die rege Übersetzertätigkeit betraf auch die 
medizinische Literatur. So besaß Tibet, das Land der Bücher, auch sehr viele Medizinbücher. 
Diese mußten auswendig gelernt werden, es war auch Sitte, daß die Lehrer ihr Wissen 
mündlich an die Schüler weitergaben. Die großen Medizinschulen lCags po ri (Eisenberg) und 
sMan rtsis khan in der Nähe der Hauptstadt Lhasa waren die Hochburgen der Lehre. Im 
Mittelpunkt des Studiums stand das Buch rGyud-bzhi = 'Vier Tantras'. Dieses Buch spielt eine 
merkwürdige Rolle: es ist nicht in das sogenannte kanonische Schrifttum aufgenommen und 
Herkunft und Autorschaft sind nicht gänzlich geklärt. Die Texte dieses Buches bleiben ohne 
Kommentare unverständlich. Der Regent Sans rgyas rgya mcho (1653 bis 1705) hat in seinem 
Buche Vaidurya snon po alle vier Teile der rGyud-bzhi kommentiert."

[606] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Tibetische Medizin. Eine Einführung. Salix. Zeitschrift für Ethnomedizin 
(Würzburg) 7 (1) (1991), pp. 7-43.
 Wegen der übersichtlichen Auflistung übernehme ich aus der eindrucksvollen und klaren 
Übersichtsarbeit die folgende Zusammenstellung: "Die folgenden Autoren muß man zur 
Kenntnis nehmen, weil nahezu alle sich mit dem Buche rGyud-bzhi befassen, welches nicht in 
das kanonische Schrifttum aufgenommen worden ist. 
 1. Candranandana schrieb bereits im Jahre 750 einen wichtigen Kommentar zu dem Werk 
Astangahrdayasamhita des indischen Arztes Vagbhata. 
 2. Vairocana soll einer der sieben Mönche gewesen sein, der in bSam yas ordiniert wurde. Er 
wurde später ein großer Übersetzer und soll Candranandana getroffen haben, der ihm die 
rGyud-bzhi mit der Weisung übergeben haben soll, das Buch König Khri sron lde btsan in bSam 
yas zu überreichen.
 3. Yuthog pa, der Ältere [vide dort] soll 125 Jahre alt geworden sein und wird als der 
berühmteste Arzt seiner Zeit bezeichnet. Er war Leibarzt des Königs Khri sron lde btsan (755-
797) und hatte die [im Artikel zuvor] oben beschriebene Debatte geleitet; er lebte im 8. 
Jahrhundert, also zur Blütezeit der Heilkunde.
 4. Yuthog pa, der Jüngere [1112-1203, vide dort] lebte im 12. Jahrhundert, besuchte Indien 
und nahm eine Neubearbeitung der rGyud-bzhi vor. 
 5. Rin chen bzan po (958-1055) ist der berühmteste Übersetzer. Er hielt sich sieben Jahre in 
Kaschmir auf, machte drei Reisen nach Indien und wurde mit 49 Jahren ordiniert. Dieser 
Gelehrte übersetzte zusammen mit dem Inder Jarandhara vermutlich zwischen 1012 und 1015 
das oben erwähnte Werk des Vagbhata. Dieses Werk wurde in den Tanjur aufgenommen. 
 6. Bu ston (1290-1364), der im Kloster Za lu lebte, ordnete das gesamte dogmatische 
Schrifttum und gab dem Tanjur und dem Kanjur die heutige Gestalt. Bu ston führte auch eine 
einheitliche Grammatik ein und verfaßte das hochgeschätzte Buch: 'Geschichte des 
Buddhismus'. Von dieser Zeit an tritt das Schrifttum aus den Bereichen der Legende in die 
historische Realität. 
 7. Chos kyi chod zer übersetzte zu  Beginn des 14. Jahrhunderts die rGyud-bzhi in die 
mongolische Sprache. 
 8. Der Regent Sangye Gyamtso [= Sans rgyas rgya mthso, 1653-1705, vide dort] ist Autor 
der wichtigsten Kommentare der rGyud-bzhi und verfaßte mehrere andere sehr bedeutende 
 9. Deumar Tendzin Phun-tshogs [1672- ??, vide dort] lebte um 1700 und schrieb mehrere sehr 
geschätzte Bücher, unter anderem die drei wichtigsten Pharmakologiebücher, die im Kloster sDe 
dge gedruckt wurden; die Blockdrucke dieses Klosters gelten als besonders zuverlässig. 
10. Jam dpal rdo rje war ein mongolischer Arzt, der im 19. Jahrhundert wirkte. Mit der 
Reproduktion seines Werkes steht uns ein wertvolles Buch zur Verfügung. 
11. mKyen rab nor bu (1883-1962) gründete die Medizinschule sMan rtsis khan, ist der 
Verfasser mehrerer Bücher und der Lehrer von Dr. Yeshe Donden, der 1961 in Dharamsala die 
'Tibetan Medical School' aufbaute."

[607] Finckh, Elisabeth: Practice of Tibetan Medicine: Notes on Moxibustion (me btsa'). With 6 
figs. In: Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the 5th Seminar of the International Association of 
Tibetan Studies, Narita 1989. Edited by Ihara Shoren and Yamaguchi Zuiho. pp.443-450. 
Naritasan Shinshoji, Narita 1992.
 Some interesting remarks are quoted in detail: "Moxa-points (me dmigs): There are two kinds 
of points: 1. Points indicated  by the disease (painful points): The pains are diminished when 
pressure is applied. The impression of the fingertip of the doctor remains. 2. Points that the 
doctor must seek (specific points). These are the points of the solid organs (don), the hollow 
organs (snod) and the specific 'body points'. Tibetan doctors know 72 specific points which are 
precisely located anatomically and have specific indications. I should like to mention the points 
on the vertebral column because (a) a comparison with the Chinese acupuncture-points is 
interesting and (b) I discovered some important facts: I): All Tibetan moxa-points correspond to 
the solid (don) and hollow (snod) organs. 
The sequence is as follows: lungs, heart, liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, kidneys, large 
intestine, small intestine, urinary bladder. The comparison with the Chinese organs points out 
just the same sequence: the Tibetan points correspond to the so-called Chinese 'Shu'-points; 
the positions are along the course of the meridian 'urinary bladder' (vesica urinaria= VU= Pang 
Guang). II): The second discovery is as follows: There is a difference between the enumeration 
of the vertebrae: the first Tibetan point is the C 7 (cervical vertebra). The 'starting points' of 
the Tibetan points are: wind (rlung), bile (mkhris pa) and phlegm (bad kan)-points. III): The 
Tibetan point No. 6 = 'life-vein' (srog rtsa gsang) is related to the Chinese Xin Bao 
(pericardium-meridian) (VU 14=Jue Yin Shu) and corresponds to with D5. This is a very 
important point! The Tibetan symptoms are mental disorders . . .. Treating this point means 
influencing meditation and all psychic disorders. The following points correspond completely 
with the Chinese 'Shu'-points. IV): The next interesting discovery is the Tibetan point number 
13, bsam se gsang. This point is related to the Chinese point San Jiao Shu= VU 22."

[608] Finckh, Elisabeth: Some Characteristics of Tibetan Pharmacology. In: Proceedings of the 
XXXII International Congress for Asian and North African Studies. Hamburg 25th-30th August 
1986. Edited by Albrecht Wezler and Ernst Hammerschmidt. (ZDMG-Suppl. 9), p. 565 (only). 
Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 1992.
[609] Finckh, Elisabeth:  Diagnosis and Therapy according to the rGyud-bzhi. In: Aspects of 
Classical Tibetan Medicine. Bulletin of Tibetology (Gangtok/Sikkim) Special volume (1993), pp. 
 "The starting point is the standard work of Tibetan doctors, the rGyud-bzhi. From the texts of 
this book we learn that the basic principle of Tibetan Medicine is the three-part division. The 
three 'humours' are wind (rlun), bile (mKhris-pa) and phlegm (bad-kan). Some of the important 
characteristics of these three 'humours' are to be found in part 1 of the rGyud-bzhi, the Root 
Tantra, in which the system is described as a tree with : 3 roots, 9 trunks, 47 branches and 
224 leaves. The intention of this paper is to present the terms of the roots 'diagnosis' and 
'therapy' - (Roots B and C) - derived from the texts of the rGyud-bzhi (180 terms = 2 roots, 7 
trunks, 35 branches and 136 leaves). 
It follows that the three 'humours' are recognized through diagnostic methods as types to 
which specific kinds of treatments are assigned, so that one can speak of a doctrine of 
constitution. The description of the types is not an integral part of the subject of this paper : 
only in order to add more colour to the description of the three 'humours', mention is made of 
characteristics which are found in the second part of the rGyud-bzhi, the Explanatory Tantra, a 
commentary on the statements made in part one. The following typology is drawn from 
Chapter 6 ('Nature and Temper') and Chapter 9 ('Conditions which give rise to Diseases') of 
the Explanatory Tantra. Perhaps you can observe very carefully all the characteristics to find 
out your type and to see if Tibetan types correspond to the Western ones."

[610] Finckh, Elisabeth: Behaviour - An Important Part of Tibetan Medicine In: Tibetan Studies. 
Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes 
1992. Edited by Per Kvaerne (2 vols). vol I, pp. 241-246 . The Institute for Comparative 
Research in Human Culture, Oslo 1994.
 "A relatively large proportion of the Tibetans' four-part medical work, the 'Four Tantras' 
(rGyud bzhi) is devoted to behaviour (spyod lam). There is a general description in Part 1 of the 
'Four Tantras', the Root Tantra, in which the system of Tibetan medicine is presented. The 
principle of Tibetan medicine is the tripartite division into wind (rlun), bile (mkhris pa) and 
phlegm (bad kan). The passages mentioned here display the typical characteristics of these 
three 'types': 1. The wind type - keep agreeable company; take a warm place. 2. The bile type 
- sit calmly; have a cool place. 3. The phlegm type - take an energetic walk; have a warm 
place. Detailed information on behaviour is given in Part 2 of the 'Four Tantras', the 
Explanatory Tantra: I. Daily behaviour (Part 2, Ch. 13). II. Seasonal behaviour (Part 2, Ch. 14). 
III. Occasional behaviour (Part 2, Ch. 15). The first two chapters will be briefly outlined here. 
We are particularly interested in the main part of this work, Ch. 15, which deals with 
'occasional behaviour'. That is because this includes some aspects which are particularly 
valuable for our western medicine."

[611] Fishman, Rachelle HB:  Clinical Trial of Tibetan Medicine in Israel. Lancet (London) 343 
(1994), p. 847.
 During his first visit to Israel, the Dalai Lama conferred his blessings on the Natural Medicine 
Research Unit (NMRU) of the Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem. Founded just a few 
months ago, the unit "brings together clinicians, scientists, persons with expertise in natural 
medicines, and companies interested in developing natural medicines, within one 
interdisciplinary framework", says Dr. Sarah Sallon, who founded and heads the unit. The 
Tibetan herbal formulation being tested by the unit is Padma 28, the 28th on the list of 
medicines sold to Padma AG of Switzerland in the early 1960s by the descendants of the 
lamaistic doctors who had journeyed from Mongolia [i.e. Aga, Chita region] to Europe. The 
NMRU has, together with the 'Department of Vascular Surgery', organised a double-blind, 
randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of the efficacy of this natural medicine. Other 
laboratories in the hospital and medical school are studying its anti-inflammatory properties.

[612] Flück, H and Bubb, Werner Ph:  Eine lamaistische Rezeptformel zur Behandlung der 
chronischen Verstopfung. Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin - Praxis (Hallwag) 59, 33 
(1970), pp. 1190-1193.
[613] Foucheur, Th: Tibetanische Mystik und Lama-Weisheit. (Zentralblatt für Okkultismus. III. 
(1910), pp. 391-96, 441-49, 538-43; IV. (1910/11), pp. 99-105, 158-65, 213-20, 269-78, 
343-51, 406-14, 499-503, 542-55, 601-07, 663-69, 731-39). 114 p. Max Altmann, Leipzig 
 Der in Mesopotamien wirkende, später nach Orléans zurückgekehrte Arzt berichtet von 
längeren (fiktiven?) Gesprächen im Orient mit einem blinden tibetischen Lama namens Tschang-
gatze. Fragen nach einer persönlichen Gottheit, Unsterblichkeit, 'Zentralseele' und verwandte 
Fragen werden ebenso behandelt wie eine Heilung von schwerer Krankheit durch den Tibeter 
(mit sehr modern und vernünftig anmutenden Verfahren). Im Gespräch erfährt er auch vieles 
über den Schulunterricht und den Lehrplan in Tibet. Nicht nur auf Lesen, Schreiben und 
Rechnen, sondern auch auf die religiöse und mystische Schulung wird eingegangen.

[614] Fournier, Alain:  Note préliminaire sur le Puimbo et la Ngiami, les chamanes Sunuwar de 
Sabra. Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulindien (Paris) 4,1 (1973), pp. 147-167.
[615] Fournier, Alain: A preliminary Report on the Puimbo and the Ngiami: the Sunuwar 
Shamans of Sabra. In: Spirit possession in the Nepal Himalayas (J. T. Hitchcock & R. L. Jones, 
eds.), pp. 100-123. Aris and Phillips, Warminster 1976.
[616] Fournier, Alain:  Note préliminaire sur le Puembo de Suri (Népal). L'Ethnographie (Paris) 
Sondernummer "Voyages chamaniques" (1977), pp. 239-248.
[617] Fournier, Merlinda:  Tibetan Healing. Medicines of patience and wisdom.  The World & I. 
A chronicle of our changing Era (Washington, DC) 7 (1986), pp. 206-215.
[618] Francke, August Hermann (1870-1930): Tibetische Hochzeitslieder. Übersetzt nach 
Handschriften von Tag-ma-cig. Mit einer Einleitung über die Mythologie der tibetischen 
Sagenwelt und Bildern, meist nach Aufnahmen des Verfassers. Lieder in die ursprünglichen 
Versmasze übertragen von Anna Paalzow. (Schriftenreihe Kulturen der Erde. Material zur Kultur- 
und Kunstgeschichte aller Völker. Abteilung Textwerke). Mit 60 s/w Abb. im Anhang. 71 S. 
Folkwang, Hagen i.W./Darmstadt 1923.
  Auf den Seiten 12, 45, 46, 51 und 52 Verse, die die Medizin-Gottheiten anrufen und 

[619] Francke, August Hermann:  gZer-myig. Rays from the eyes of the Svastika, a precious 
summary of the world (chapter III). Asia Major (Leipzig) 1 (1924); 3 (1926) (1924/1926), pp. 
284-289 (1924); 332-335 (1926).
 An early translation of a passage on Tibetan embryology (the formation of an embryo).

[620] Francke, August Hermann:  Übersetzung eines Briefes aus Turfan, wahrscheinlich aus 
dem 8. Jahrhundert, der von einem Krankheitsfall berichtet.  Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin 
(Leipzig) 17 (1925), pp. 198-199.
 Verbesserte Übersetzung eines Dokumentes, bereits in der Arbeit 'Sitzungsberichte, Berlin 
1924' vorgelegt.

[621] Francke, August Hermann:  Ein Dokument aus Turfan in tibetischer Schrift, aber 
unbekannter Sprache. Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
Philosoph.-histor. Klasse (Berlin). Mit 1 Tafel. XII (1927), pp. 124-130.
 Dieses Dokument ist entsprechend der Bezeichnung im Kanjur in der Bru-ýa Sprache 
geschrieben und durch Vergleich mit bekannten tibetischen Ausdrücken als medizinischer Text 
zu bezeichnen, mit Ausführungen zum bisher Bekannten und verwandten Texten in der Zhan-

[622] Frank, Walter A: Protocol of a spontaneous para-normal healing in Ladakh. In: Recent 
Research on Ladakh. History, Culture, Sociology, Ecology. Proceedings of a Conference held at 
the Universität Konstanz, 23.-26. November 1981. (ed. by Detlef Kantowsky & Reinhard 
Sander. Schriftenreihe Internationales Asienforum, 1.), pp. 135-137. Weltforum Verlag, 
München, Köln, London 1983.

[623] Fruentov, NK: Medical Plants of the Far East (Russian). 398 p. Khabarovsk Book 
Publishing House, Khabarovsk 1972.
 Bibliography pp. 354-380. Enlarged edition, Khabarovsk 1987.

[624] Fruentov, NK: Methods of Collecting Information about Plants used in Folk Medicine. In: 
Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 10th-12th March 1975, on "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty 
Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects of Studying Folk Medicine) 
(Russian). pp.87-88. "Science", Leningrad 1975.
[625] Frye, Stanley:  vide B. D. Badarayev et al. (Glang thabs, 1981).
[626] Fu Fang:  A preliminary study of acupuncture in 'The Four Medical Tantras (rGyud-bzhi)' 
(Chinese, with English abstract). Chinese Journal of Medical History [Beijing] (Chinese) 19, No. 
4 (1989), pp. 234-237.
[627] Gaborieau, M(arc):  La trance rituelle dans l'Himalaya central: folie, avatar, mèditation. 
Purusartha (Paris) 2 (1975), pp. 147-172.
[628] Galántha-Hermann, J(udith):  Alexander Csoma de Körös and the evolution of the 
traditional Tibetan medicine. Geographia Medica (Szeged/Hungary) 24 (1994), pp. 95-112.
 ". . . it was in Ladakh, during Csoma's Tibetan studies where his erudite teacher, Bandé 
Sangye Puntshog gave him a memorized but detailed account of the ancient Tibetan healing 
system. The most amazing aspect of Csoma's translation is that although not being a doctor he 
understood, compacted and synthesised exceptionally well this ancient, for our western mind 
quite alien and in some aspects even now very much inexplicable healing system." - In 
addition, there is a good review on the history and development of Tibetan Medicine up to 
modern times.

[629] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Brief Essay on Medicinal Plants Used in Turkestan Folk 
Medicine. In: Proceedings of the All-Union Pharmaceutical Conference, 25th September - 10th 
October 1926, Moscow (Russian), pp. 210-217.   Moscow 1927.
 Prof. Dr. Gammerman died in 1986.

[630] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna:  The Problem of Studying Medicinal Plants of the Oriental 
Medicine (Russian). Bulleten' Vsesoynsnogo Instituta Eksperementalnoy Meditsiny (= Bulletin 
of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine) (Russian) 3/4 (1934), pp. 43-47.

[631] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Wild Growing Medical and Horticultural Resources of the 
Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In: The Problems of the Buryat-
Mongolian ASSR. Vol. 2 (Russian), pp. 75-90.  Moscow/Leningrad 1936.
[632] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Übersicht über die Arzneipflanzen der Orientalischen 
Medizin. 3 Bände (Russian). Thesis zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde. 480 p. Department of 
Pharmacognosy, Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Leningrad 1941.
[633] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Medicinal Plants of Chinese and Tibetan Medicine and the 
Perspective of Their Use in the USSR. In: Abstracts of the Conference of "Rastitel'nye 
Resursy" = Plant Resources in the USSR (Russian), p. 57.   Moscow/Leningrad 1957.
[634] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: The Chinese and the Tibetan Medicine. In: Current Status 
and Perspective of the Studies of the "Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources of the USSR 
(Russian), pp. 373-377. Academy of Sciences, Moscow/Leningrad 1958.
[635] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Medicinal Plants of Chinese and Tibetan Medicine and the 
Perspective of Their Use in the USSR. In: Materials of the Investigation of Medicinal Plants and 
Raw Material. (Reports of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 8) (Russian), 
pp. 28-33, Leningrad 1959.
[636] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Folk Pharmacy of the Peoples of the USSR (English, sic!). 
In: International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences at Moscow. Section: 
Ethnobotany and Ethnozoology (Section 10). Volume 5, pp.  582-589.  Publishing House 
"Nauka" (=Science), Moscow 1964.
 This article deals with different folk-pharmacies and -medicines of Russia, but mostly with the 
Tibetan-influenced medicine. The author writes: "For a number of years together with the 
assistants and post-graduate students of the chair of Pharmacognosy of the Chemico-
Pharmaceutical Institute of Leningrad I have been studying pharmacy of different nationalities 
of the USSR; the material is collected on expeditions by questioning the population and by 
studying the collections of museums and of the corresponding literature as well. In the 
southern part of Siberia the forest turns into the forest-steppe and steppe. In Transbaikalia is 
the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. As to  the ethnology and mode of life the 
Buryats are closely related to their neighbours, the Mongols; the Buryats in due time migrated 
into the Daurian steppes of Transbaikalia lying to the North. In Buryatia as well as in Mongolia 
quite recently Tibetan medicine prevailed which had penetrated here together with Buddhism in 
the 18th century.
 At the Buddhist monasteries (datsans) also medical schools (manbadatsans) were opened, in 
which the Buryats studied. In order to get a medical education the pupils had to finish a 10-
year school Choira where they studied grammar, philosophy and the Tibetan language. Then 
they took a 
5-year medical course. Afterwards those who wished could prepare a thesis and defend it in 
public to get the degree of doctor of medicine 'Manramba'. In winter the students studied the 
theoretical course, listened to the lectures on the fundamentals of medicine and the causes of 
all the 404 illnesses which were explained with the help of a special drawing - the tree of 
medicine and studied the Tibetan medicine works. There are atlases which portray medicinal 
plants, animals and minerals, anatomy of a man with marked places for determining the pulse, 
bleeding and searing. These parts of the school equipment are reprinted in datsans on  
handmade paper by means of fixed type in the form of xylographs. They are being reprinted 
thus for centuries without any changes, and the necessary additions and explanations are 
written separately. 
The practical studies were carried out in summer and consisted of studying, collecting and 
storing medicinal plants and minerals. The students were present when their teachers received 
visitors and prepared complex medicaments. At the end of the 18th century the Russian 
academician Pallas made the acquaintance of one of the biggest datsans - Gusinoozersky, but 
he does not mention anything about medicine. Doctor Rehmann [1779-1831] was the first 
European scientist, who had described the medicaments of Tibetan Medicine. In 1805 in 
Kyakhta he had bought a Tibetan Medicine chest containing 60 objects. In the end of the 19th 
century and in the beginning of the 20th century some Russian travellers collected and 
submitted to museums samples of medicinal material and a herbarium. There are 3 collections 
in Leningrad in the Museum of Ethnography and Anthropology of the USSR Academy of 
Sciences, one of them was compiled by doctor Kirillov (1903), and there are 8 collections in 
the museum of the Botanical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences named after V. L. 
Komarov, of these the collections of A. D. Rudnev and A. M. Pozdneyev are the largest ones. 
Only the collection of Pozdneyev has been published [vide Pozdneyev, 1908]."

[637] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Situation and Perspective of Scientific Investigation in the 
Field of Studying Medicinal Plants in the USSR. In: Studies and Use of Curative Resources of 
the USSR. Proceedings of the All-Union Pharmaceutical Conference 30th May - 3rd June 1961 
(Russian). Baku 1964.
[638] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: The History of Tibetan Medicine and the Level of its 
Study. In: Eleutherococcus and other Adaptogens from the Plants of the Far East. [Materials of 
the Study of Ginseng [shen-shen u.a.] and other Medicinal Plants from the Far East, issue no. 
7] (Russian), pp. 299-307. Far East Publishing House, Vladivostok 1966.
[639] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna: Substitutes of Medicinal Plants of Indo-Tibetan Medicine 
in Transbaikalia (Russian). In: Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-
Tibetskoy Meditsiny (= Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of 
Indo-Tibetan Medicine) (Russian), pp. 53-61.  Novosibirsk 1982.
 The reasons why Transbaikalian practitioners of Tibetan Medicine search for substitutes of 
Tibetan, Indian and Chinese plants have been discussed, and suitability of 26 species of plants 
are considered. The botanical analysis permits conclusions on possible substitutes from 
Mongolian-Buryatian Materia Medica. The problem of contribution of the Buryats and Mongols 
to the arsenal of Tibetan Medicine has been outlined.
[640] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna, Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna), and Badmayev, 
A(ndreyevich) N(ikolaevich): Antibakterielle Eigenschaften der Arzneipflanzen der Tibetanischen 
Medizin (Russian). In: Materialsammlung über Phytozide, ihre biologische Bedeutung und ihre 
Bedeutung für die Medizin und die nationale Volkswirtschaft (Russian), pp.107-114. Verlag der 
Akademie der Wissenschaften Ukraina SSR, Kiew 1967.
 A. N. Badmayev ist ein Großneffe von Peter A. Badmayev.

[641] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna, Monteverde, NN, and Sokolov, VS: Medicinal Plants of 
the USSR. In: Plant Raw Materials, volume II (Russian), pp. 425-524. Publishing House of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow/Leningrad 1957.
[642] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna and Semenova, MN: Literary Information about 
Anticancerous Plant Drug Material. In: Situatsiya i Perspektivy Izucheniya Rastitelnykh 
Resursov SSSR (= Situation and Perspective of Studying Plant Resources of the USSR). 
(Reports of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 8) (Russian), pp.  3-27. 
Leningrad 1959.
[643] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna and Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich:  A Note about Tibetan 
Medicinal Products (Russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR [=Reports of the USSR Academy 
of Sciences], (Leningrad) V, 12 (1930), pp. 228-232.
 Die deutsche Übersetzung erfolgte durch W. A. Unkrig: Tibetische Arzneistoffe. In: Fortschritte 
der Medizin, 1935, S. 193-196 (siehe dort).

[644] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna and Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich:  Tibetische 
Arzneistoffe. Aus dem Russischen übersetzt von W. A. Unkrig, Berlin/Neuheiligensee. 
Fortschritte der Medizin 53, 10 (1935), pp. 193-196.
 Aus: Doklady Akademii Nauk Sojuza Sovetskich Socialisticeskich Respublik, Leningrad 1930, 
Nr. 12, S. 228-232. Wörtliche Übersetzung des Titels nach Anmerkung von Unkrig: "Notiz über 
tibetische Arzneiprodukte".- Durchaus zu Recht verweisen die Autoren auf die Bedeutung 
russischer Wissenschaftler (übrigens bis heute) für die Erforschung der tibetischen Medizin und 
schreiben unter anderem: "Zu unserer Aufgabe gehört die Untersuchung der Heilmittel der 
tibetischen Medizin, und bevor wir unmittelbar zu ihnen übergehen, müssen wir darauf 
hinweisen, daß diese Frage in erster Linie russische Gelehrte untersucht haben, indes fast alle 
Arbeiten, die von der Medizin selbst, ihren Methoden, bis zu einem gewissen Grade von ihrer 
Geschichte usw. handeln, ausländischen Gelehrten angehören. 
Dank der geographischen Lage ihres Landes haben die russischen Gelehrten die Möglichkeit 
gehabt, in nähere Beziehungen zu den burjatisch-mongolischen Völkerschaften zu treten, die im 
Laufe einer langen Zeit ihre Kultur aus der tibetischen geschöpft haben, woraus sich auch 
vollkommen natürlich das Studium und die Anwendung der tibetischen Heilmethoden seitens 
der burjatisch-mongolischen Ärzte ergibt. Ebenso natürlich ist es darum aber auch, wenn die 
russischen Gelehrten über eine beträchtliche Menge von faktischen Materialien, d.h. 
Arzneistoffen, verfügen, und sich nicht nur auf das Studium von literarischen Quellen 
beschränken, wie das die westeuropäischen Gelehrten zu tun gezwungen sind. Als 
grundlegende Arbeit beim Studium dieser Medikamente hat eine genaue Bestimmung der 
Arzneistoffe und der Zusammensetzung der zur Verwendung gelangenden Mischungen zu 
gelten. Es ist das der erste Schritt zu praktischen Resultaten und zur Klärung der Möglichkeit, 
über Nutzen oder Schaden der tibetischen Heilkunde ein Urteil abzugeben."

[645] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna and Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich: Slovar' Tibetsko-
Latino-Russkich Nazvaniy Lekarstvennogo Rastitel'nogo Syr'ya Primenyaemogo v Tibetskoy 
Meditsine [Wörterbuch der tibetisch-lateinisch-russischen Bezeichnungen der Arzneipflanzen-
Rohstoffe, die in der tibetischen Medizin verwendet werden.- Dictionnaire des noms tibétains-
latins-russes des plantes médicinales utilisées en médicine tibétaine.- Tibetan-Latin-Russian 
Dictionary of the Names of Medicinal Plants applied in Tibetan Medicine]. 162 (unpaginiert) p. 
Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Sibirskoe Otdelenie [= The USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian 
Division. The Buryat Complex Scientific Research Institute], Ulan-Ude 1963.
[646] Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna and Shupinskaja, MD:  Preliminary Chemical Investigation 
of Medicinal Raw-Material of Tibetan Medicine, collected by the Transbaikalian Expedition of 
the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine (Russian). Farmachiya i Farmakologiya (= 
Pharmacy and Pharmacology) (Moscow) 3 & 4 (1937), pp. (3) 20-26, (4) 20-31.
[647] Gangchen Tulku Rinpoche (1941- ): Autocura, proposta de un mestre tibetano. Editora 
Sherab, Sao Paulo 1991.

[648] Gangchen Tulku Rinpoche: Ngal.so.- How to Relax Body, Speech and Mind. Self-Healing 
I. Advice from a Tibetan Master Healer. Translated from Italian (Sao Paulo 1991).
116 p., with 16 illustr. Sung Rab Editions, Milano 1993/1994.
[649] Gangchen Tulku Rinpoche: Ngal.so.- How to Relax Body, Speech and Mind. Self-Healing 
II. Tantric Self-Healing of Body and Mind, Inner World Peace Method linking this World to 
Shambala. 256 p.,  and annex pp. 1-47 with illustr. Sung Rab Editions, Milano 1993.
[650] Gangchen Tulku Rinpoche: Ngal.so.- How to Relax Body, Speech and Mind. Self-Healing 
III. Vol. I: Guide to the Good Thought Supermarket. 457 p. Lama Gangchen Peace Publications, 
Milano 1994.
[651] Gangchen Tulku Rinpoche: Ngal.so.- How to Relax Body, Speech and Mind. Self-Healing 
III. Vol. II: The Eight Clear Lights. The Way of Enlightement.  Lama Gangchen Peace 
Publications, Milano 1994 (?).
[652] Gan Qingmei and Yang Wenlian:  Microscopical Identification of the powder of 
"Meconopsis" - a Tibetan Drug (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and 
Ethnopharmacy [Kunming] (Chinese) 3 (1995), pp. 38-40.
 The traditional Tibetan drugs mentioned in the article include the following species from 
Meconopsis, viz. M. superba, M. argemonantha, M. punicea, M. guintublinervia. Methods for 
their identification are given.

[653] Gan Qingmei, Zuo Zhenchang, Chang Yeping, and Yang Wenlian:  Textual research and 
study on pharmacognosy of Tibetan Medicine Pangma (sic! referring to Lycium ruthenicum 
Munr. [Cai Jingfeng]) (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy 
[Kunming] (Chinese) 12 (1995), pp. 31-39.
 This paper gives the pharmacognosy, property, structure and chemical constituents of the 
herbal plant Lycium ruthenicum Munr.

[654] Garmayev, RB: The Technology of Preparation of some Plant Drugs of Oriental [Tibetan] 
Medicine. In: Abstracts of the Vth Conference of Young Scholars, dedicated to the 50th 
Anniversary of the Establishment of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 24./25. 
April 1973 in Ulan-Ude (Russian), pp. 39-40. Ulan-Ude 1973.
[655] Garmayev, RB: The Pharmacotechnological Investigation of the Tibetan Drug Ba-sha-ga: 
the Herb Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum. Autoreferat of the Thesis of the Candidate of 
Pharmaceutical Sciences (Russian).  20 p.  Khar'kov 1983.
 The aim of investigation was to test instructions of Tibetan original sources for cholagogic 
action of the herb Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum., to compose the corresponding drug and to 
work out recommendations for its introduction into scientific medicine.

[656] Garmayev, RB and Nagaslayeva, LA: Pharmacognostical Investigation of Extracts from 
Plants of Scrophulariaceae (Russian). Estimation of Biological Activition of Plants of 
Transbaikalia (A Collection of Articles) (Russian), pp.  84-89. Ulan-Ude 1985.
 A few plants from the family Scrophulariaceae - used in Tibetan Medicine - are described. 
Brief botanical characteristics of the studied plants are given. General indexes of commodities 
and qualitative analysis of available biologically active substances in the aerial parts of 
Pedicularis palustris L., Linaria buriatica Turcs., and Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum. have been 
experimentally defined.
[657] Garmayev, RB and Nikolayev, SM: Results of Pharmacotechnological Studies of the Dry 
Extract from Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum (Russian). In: The Materials of the Xth Scientific-
Practical Conference of Pharmacists (Russian), pp. 105-107. Irkutsk 1978.
 The results of investigation of extracts from Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum. with main 
characteristics of their preparation have been presented.

[658] Garmayev, RB, Nikolayev, SM, and Naydakova, TsA: Odontites serotina (Russian). 73 p. 
Department of the Biologically Active Substances, Buryat Branch, Siberian Department of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 1982.
 In this monograph the results are presented of different investigations of the plant and dry 
extract from Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum. - often used in Tibetan Medicine - by present-day 
scientific techniques. The data of phytochemical analysis of the plant and dry extract as well 
as methods of obtaining it have been described. The pharmacological investigation has shown 
complex action of the extract and its advantages. The authors discuss possible mechanisms of 
the action of the dry extract on the human body.

[659] Garmayev, RB, Rakshain, KV, and Khundanova, Lydia L: Phytochemical and 
Pharmacological Study of Odontites serotina L. [used in Tibetan Medicine]. In: Izuchenie 
Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= Studies of Treatments of 
Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian), pp. 148-149. Tomsk 1978.
[660] Garmayeva, ChTs, Radnayeva, TsB (Compilers), Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich) 
(Chief Editor): Tibetan Medicine. Annotated Bibliographical Index 1980-1988 [Russian & partly 
English]. Edited by co-operative society "Taiga" with an introduction by E. G. Bazaron. 277 p. 
The USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division. Buryat Scientific Centre. The Institute of 
Biology, Ulan-Ude 1989.
 The Index contains 316 titles. All relevant articles and books are listed seperately in my 
current bibliography, with corrections and annotations by N. Bolsokhoeva (many thanks to 

[661] Gelder, Stuart and Gelder, Roma: The Timely Rain. Travels in New Tibet. Foreword by 
Edgar Snow. 248 p., ill. Hutchinson & Co., London 1964.
 Parallel published by 'Monthly Review Press', New York.- Chapter 10: New and old medicine.

[662] Gelder, Stuart and Gelder, Roma: Visum für Tibet. Eine Reise in das geheimnisvollste 
Land der Erde. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Annelore Kleinlein. Mit Karte im Vorsatz, 5 
farb. Abb., 28 s/w Abb. auf Tafeln, 345 S.  Econ, Düsseldorf/Wien 1965.
 (The timely Rain. Travels in New Tibet. Hutchinson & Co, London 1964).- Bericht eines China-
freundlichen Journalisten, der nach 1950 als einer der ersten Ausländer Tibet besuchen durfte 
(Reise von 1962). Dokumentarisch wertvoll, da hier vieles erstmals wieder beschrieben und 
fotografiert wurde, auch erstaunlich viel praktizierte Religion gezeigt wird. Kapitel 10: Neue und 
alte Medizin.

[663] Gerasimova, KM (1919- ): About the Structure of the Traditional Spiritual Culture based 
on the Materials of Tibetan Medical Sources. In: Izuchenie Traditsionnoy Kultury Naradov 
Tsentralhoy Asii  (= Traditional Culture of the People of Central Asia) (Russian), pp. 34-68. The 
USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, Buryat Scientific Centre. The Institute of Social 
Sciences, Novosibirsk 1986.
[664] Gerasimova, KM: Peculiarities of Sign System of The Atlas of Tibetan Medicine. In: 
Novoe v Izuchenii Kitaya (= News in Studies of China). Part I: Culture, Linguistics, Sign 
System (Russian), pp. 212-223. The All-Union Association of Sinologists, published by 
"Science", Moscow 1987.
[665] Gerasimova, KM: The Traditional Religous Beliefs of the Tibetan People in the Cult 
System of Lamaism (Russian). 319 p. "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1989.
 On Tibetan medicine (pp. 59-96) the chapter: "The internal structure of the human being 
according to the Tibetan medical sources of the XVII century".

[666] Gieldanowski, Jerzy, Dutkiewicz, Tomasz, Samochowiec, Leonidas, and Wojcicki, Jerzy:  
Padma 28 Modifies Immunological Functions in Experimental Atherosclerosis in Rabbits. 
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 40 (1992), pp. 291-295.
 The effect of Padma 28 on selected parameters of humoral and cellular immune reactions in 
rabbits subjected to experimental atherosclerosis was studied. The drug significantly reduced 
the size of atherosclerotic plagues in the aorta and restored to a varying extent the immune 
functions studied. The possible mechanism by which Padma 28 may exert its anti-
atherosclerotic action is discussed within the scope of the immunological theory of 

[667] Gladkikh, AS, Gubanov, IA, and Rabinovich, IM:  Pharmacological Research of Medicinal 
Plants of India (Russian). Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (= Pharmacology and Toxicology) 
(Russian) 31, 1 (1968), pp. 120-122.
[668] Gladysz, Andrzej, Juszczyk, Jacek, and Brzosko, Witold J:  Influence of Padma 28 on 
Patients with Chronic Active Hepatitis Type B. Phytotherapy Research (London) 7 (1993), 
pp. 244-247.
 Thirty-four patients with chronic active hepatitis B were treated with Padma 28, a herbal 
remedy with immunocorrective properties. The patients were monitored by clinical and 
biochemical testing, as well as by serological, immunological and histological techniques.
After treatment lasting 1 year, 26 of 34 patients (76.5%) improved or normalized in bio-
chemical parameters as well as in total T-cell count (CD3) and CD4/CD8 index.

[669] Glang thabs: vide Badarayev et al., Ulan-Ude 1976 (Russian), and Dharamsala 1981 
[670] Goerke, Heinz:  Franz Hübotter [Nachruf] Forschung - Praxis - Fortbildung (Berlin) 18, 
Heft 8 (1967), pp. 244-245.
 "Als Medizinhistoriker und Sinologe hat Franz Hübotter (1881-1967) einen hervorragenden Ruf 
gehabt und über ein halbes Jahrhundert auf seinem Spezialgebiet der Geschichte der fern-
östlichen Medizin mit großer Hingabe und zäher Leidenschaft gearbeitet. Er gehörte zu den ganz 
wenigen Kennern der fernöstlichen Medizin, die er neben der praktischen Berufsausübung als Arzt 
bearbeitet und durchforscht hat. Wie kaum ein zweiter europäischer Gelehrter hat er die 
chinesische Medizin gekannt, und seinen wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen ist es zu danken, 
daß Ärzte und Medizinhistoriker der westlichen Welt Zugang zum Wissen der alten chinesischen 
Heilkunst gefunden haben. Seine 1913 erschienenen 'Beiträge zur Kenntnis der chinesischen 
sowie der tibetisch-mongolischen Pharmakologie', das im gleichen Jahr erschienene Buch 'Shou-
Shi-Pien', das Werk '3000 Jahre Medizin' (1920), seine 1927 veröffentlichte Monographie über 
zwei berühmte chinesische Ärzte des Altertums, die 1953 herausgebrachte 'Chinesisch-
tibetische Pharmakologie und Rezeptur' und vor allem sein Hauptwerk, die 1929 erschienene 
'Chinesische Medizin zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts und ihr historischer Entwicklungsgang' sind 
bleibende Zeugnisse für diese einzigartige Vermittlerrolle, die Franz Hübotter als seine 
Lebensaufgabe empfunden hat."

[671] Golemann, David:  Fernöstliche Psychologie weckt Aufmerksamkeit im Westen. 1 Abb. 
Tibet-Forum (Bonn) 2 (1985), pp. 15-17.
 Aus New York Times, 9. 10. 84.- "Ein klinischer Psychologe, Dr. Kenneth Pelletier von der 
medizinischen Fakultät der University of California in San Francisco, berichtete auf einer 
Konferenz über Versuche mit einer neuen Behandlungsmethode für Asthmatiker. Man arbeitete 
mit einer Visualisierungstherapie, die auf eine tibetische Methode zurückgeht, mithilfe welcher 
der Patient sich vorstellt, 'als Lichtstrahl durch seinen Körper zu reisen, etwa vergleichbar 
einem Bergmann in der Grube'."

[672] Gomboyev, G:  On Ancient Mongolian Customs and Superstitions described by Plano 
Carpini (Russian). Proceedings of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society (Russian) 13 
(1859), pp. 236-257.
 This article represents a commentary to the works of John of Pian de Carpine (Plano Carpini) 
and Ascelin, published in the Collection of Travels to the Tatars and Other Eastern Peoples in the 
13th, 14th and 15th Centuries at St. Petersburg in 1859.- According to the author, the modern 
Mongols have not changed very much in comparison with those described by Plano Carpini. This 
shows the character of the Asian peoples and underscores the fact that the Mongols, or Tatars, 
according to Plano Carpini, do not comprise a united ethnic group but rather a united family of 
related tribes.

[673] Gomboyeva, ASh: On Studies of Original Sources of Traditional Indo-Tibetan Medicine in 
the Mongolian Peoples Republic (Russian). In: Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov 
Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny (= Materials on Studying Original Sources of 
the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) (Russian), pp. 70-72.  Novosibirsk 1982.
 Brief characteristics of the Mongolian scholarly works "Medicinal Plants of Mongolia" and "The 
Review of Oriental Medical Literature". These texts were studied as sources of Indo-Tibetan 
Medicine in the MPR.

[674] Gomboyeva, ASh and Nagaslayeva, LA: The Study of Conditions of Extraction from Leaves 
of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng (Russian). In: Vklad Molodykh Biologov Sibiri v Reskenie 
Voprosov Prodovol'stvennoi Programmy i Okhrany Okruzhayushehey Sredy (= The Contribution of 
Young Biologists of Siberia to the Solution of Questions of the Food Programme and Preservation 
of Environment). Abstracts of the Conference (Russian), pp. 105-106.  Ulan-Ude 1984.
 In this abstract the search for optimal conditions of extraction of biologically active substances 
from leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng has been described. A list of the products 
made of the plants used in Tibetan Medicine as a diuretic and cholagogic agent have been 

[675] Gonbu Dongzhi:  An Outline for the Research on Tibetan Medicine by Modern Scientific 
Methods (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy [Hohhot] (Chinese) 
inaugural issue.  (1995), pp. 34-35.
 Retrospects and the present status of studies on Tibetan traditional medicaments are 

[676] Gould, Sir Basil John (1883-1956) and Richardson, Hugh Edward: Tibetan Medical 
Words. sMan dan nad la gtogs pa'i min tshig dByin Bod shan sbyor nyer mkho bzhugs so 
(Tibetan-English). 32 p., Kalimpong/India 1947 (49?).
 Revised and published again by E. Tharchin 1960; 1968 ('Medical Vocabulary', 54 p.).- 
Tibetan-English medical dictionary with some annotations. printed "by order of His Highness 
the Maharaja of Sikkim" in Gangtok.

[677] Grechikhin, A:  The Tears of the Stone Giants. Mumiyah (Zhun): The Legends and the 
Reality (Russian).  Tekhnika Mologyozhi (= Technique of Youth) (Russian) 11 (1971), pp. 56-
 Mumiyah is one of the most mysterious remedies of Tibetan medicine. Nobody knows exactly 
what is the origin of the mumiyah. There are different versions of its origin: mineral one, animal 
one, vegetable one etc. In the commentary to the manual of Indian and Tibetan doctors "rGyud-
bzhi" there was found an information that mumiyah originated from the excrements of mice, who 
dwelt in the caves where the deposits of rare metals were located. Biruny in his book 
"Mineralogy" shows that mumiyah is the result of fermentation and processing of the 
excrements of wild and domestic animals by bacteria. Shakirov thinks that mumiyah is a mineral 
from the rocks. He describes mumiyah as hard formation with yellow, brown and black 
coloration, with glitter surface. It has a bitter taste. When the temperature rises or falls it 
becomes soft. The investigators of the East wrote that the creation of mumiyah involves the 
excrements of different animals or droppings of the wild melliferous bee. A. Grechikhin draws a 
conclusion that mumiyah is the natural alloy of mineral, vegetable and animal substances. He 
writes about medicinal characteristics of the preparation; due to the fact that it has calcium 
oxide, potassium oxide, phosphorus oxide, as well as strontium and beryllium mumiyah quickly 
restores tissue when the bones were broken. Mumiyah is baneful even for those microbes which 
are not affected by penicilline.

[678] Greve, Reinhard:  A Shaman's Concepts of Illness and Healing Rituals in the Mustang 
District, Nepal. 8 plates. Journal of the Nepal Research Center (Wiesbaden/Kathmandu) 5 
(1981), pp. 99-125.
 "There are two traditions which essentially dominate the religious life of the Thakali: 
1) local versions of the chos-pa (Tib) (Lamaistic) schools as rNying-ma-pa (Tib) and Ngor-po 
(Tib), and the Bon-po (Tib). [Ngor is a subsect of the Sakya, and Sakya is one of the four main 
sects of Tibetan Buddhism. The first Sakya monastery was founded in 1073.  In the 15th 
century two subsects were created, the Ngor and the Tsar tradition. The founder od the Ngor 
tradition was Ngor Chen Kunga Sang-po (1382-1444), who established Ngor monastery in 
Tsang, located between Nartang and Zhalu].  
2) the old tribal-priest tradition of the Thakali. The priests are called 'Aya-Lama' in Pacgau, and 
'Dhom' in Thaksatsae. Both traditions practise healing rituals besides their religious tasks. The 
specialist for magical healing rituals is the shaman or Jhakri, he is in a proper sense an aspect 
of the non-Thakali Nepali society. There are two Jhakris in the Mustang District; one in the 
village 'A' in Pagau and the Jhakri of Lete (Thaksatsae), who at the same time is a Dhom.- The 
Jhakri regards himself as a specialist for 'spirit sickness'. When a patient comes to him with a 
physical disease, he either will send him to the hospital or will treat him with phukne (phuknu 
= to blow): he 'blows' his mantras in the body of the sick person. Suspecting a 'spirit 
sickness', the Jhakri has a variety of diagnostic methods to find out what kind of illness the 
person has contracted".

[679] Greve, Reinhard: "Deu basne" und Antibiotika: Schamanistische Heilrituale und westliche 
Medizin im Austausch. In: Nachtschatten im weißen Land: Betrachtungen zu alten und  neuen  
Heilsystemen (ed. Manfred Brinkmann), pp. 257-268. Verlagsgesellschaft Gesundheit, Berlin 
 Bericht aus dem südlichen Mustang: "Das Angebot an 'ausgebildeten Therapeuten' ist groß. 
Aus der traditionellen Medizin die buddhistischen Priester (Lamas) und Stammespriester (Aya 
Lamas) mit ihren Ritualen, ein tibetischer Medizinlama und der Schamane. Die westliche 
Medizin bietet kostenlose Behandlung im Hospital. Medikamente werden außerdem noch von 
'fliegenden Händlern' verkauft oder von Touristen verschenkt.- Aufgabe der traditionellen 
Heiler ist es, die Harmonie, das ausgewogene Verhältnis zwischen gut und böse wieder 
herzustellen. Von westlichen Ärzten wird das 'Kranksein' häufig in die bekannten 
Symptomkataloge eingeordnet und entsprechend therapiert. 
Die andere Dimension der Krankheit - die Konfliktsituation - wird jedoch erst dann aufgehoben, 
wenn ein traditioneller Heiler in einem Ritual die kosmische Ordnung wiederherstellt. Ziel der 
Therapie ist die Lösung der kranken Person aus der Umklammerung der angreifenden Macht; 
oder bei einer Besessenheit die Austreibung der Hexe. In keinem Fall wird eine Vernichtung 
angestrebt, da dies wiederum eine Störung im Kräfteverhältnis 'gut - böse' nach sich ziehen 
würde. Die guten und bösen Mächte von Ober-, Mittel- und Unterwelt müssen sich die Waage 
halten. Dies klingt auch im 'Lied der neun Urschamanen und neun Urhexen' an, das bei jedem 
großen Heilritual (Deu basne) vom Jhakri gesungen wird. Folgerichtig besteht die erste 
Maßnahme des Schamanen darin, der gegnerischen Macht ein angemessenes Opfer anzubieten: 
ein Kilo Reis, ein Huhn oder etwas Stoff. Wird das Opfer nicht angenommen, kommt es zum 
Kampf: ein Deu basne-Ritual wird durchgeführt.-
 Die Methode des Schamanen ist dagegen 'scharf, hart, schnell und blutig', wie es ein Thakali 
einmal treffend formulierte. Die westliche Medizin ähnelt in der Vorstellung der Thakali der 
Methode der Schamanen. Antibiotika - als magische Medizin angesehen - erzielen einen 
raschen Heilerfolg und werden daher gerne mit dem Heilritual des Jhakri kombiniert 'Deu basne 
und Antibiotika - das muß einfach helfen' ist ein häufig gehörter Ausspruch. Von diesem 
Gesichtspunkt aus gesehen ist die westliche Medizin in Gestalt des Hospitals oder von 
Medikamenten eine Bereicherung der Angebotspalette, die den kranken Thakali zur Verfügung 
steht. Auch der traditionelle Heiler steht der Verwendung von westlichen Medikamenten in 
seinem Heilritual positiv gegenüber: Er macht sie sogar noch wirksamer, indem er sie durch 
Einblasen von Mantras magisch auflädt. Umgekehrt kann der Arzt den Schamanen nicht 
ersetzen: er ist kein Mittler zwischen Dorfgemeinschaft und kosmischen Mächten."

[680] Greve, Reinhard: Processes of change and regression in shamananistic practice. The 
"Dhom" of the Thakali people in North-West Nepal. In: Ruth Inge Heinze (ed.), Proceedings of 
the International Conference on Shamanism, San Rafael, CA, Univ. of California, Berkeley,
pp.  157-168. University of California, Berkeley 1984.
 Bibliography pp. 165-168. "There are various religious specialists in the Tibeto-Burmese 
societies of Nepal, some practise in ecstasy, some without. Some tribes may have up to five 
specialists, each true to his own oral tradition and some only one or two. Of the above cited, it 
is those practising ecstasy that are classified as shamans. And in common parlance (or usage), 
these even are compared or called alike the Jhakri, dhami or lha-pa. The non-ecstatic religious 
specialists are, on the other hand, classified as 'tribal priests' and are compared with the 
Hinduistic Brahmans or Buddhistic priests (commonly called 'Lamas'). In the following 
discussion, I will outline the difficulties of classifying and defining the terms 'shaman' and 
'priest' in the Tibeto-Burmese traditions using the dhom of the Thakali as an example. 
The ritual language of the Aya-lama is a mixture of an old Thakali dialect (Old Thakali), Tibetan 
and possibly Zan. During the apprenticeship, it is often only phrases and not their meaning that 
are learned: hence, the not uncommon inability of the Aya-lama to provide clear information on 
the meaning of the ritual language. All three divisions of the Thakali have different kinds of 
dhom. There is no living practitioner of the bro-dhom tradition of the Mhowatan-Thakali, and 
there is one remaining practitioner of the mhang-dhom tradition of the Tamang-Thakali. Still 
alive is the tradition of the lha-dhom of the Thin-Syangtan-Chimtan-Thakali. There are six 
remaining dhom, likewise called Aya-lama, practising in two villages."

[681] Grinevich, MA: Some Results of Studying Traditional Oriental Medicine with the Help of 
Computers. In: Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 10th-12th March 1975, on 
"Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects on 
Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian), p. 86.  "Science", Leningrad 1975.
[682] Grinevich, MA, Kim Ben Kyu, and Khmarun, VS: Medicinal Animals in Oriental Countries. In: 
Biologicheskie Resursy Vostochnoi i Yugo-Vostochnoi Asii i ikh ispol'sovanie (= Biological 
Resources of East and South-East Asia, and their Use) (Russian). 74 p., Vladivostok 1978.
[683] Gromov, P:  The Curative Properties of guzhir (Russian). Irkutskie Eparchial'nye 
Vedomosti [= Irkutsk Eparchial Review] (Russian) issue 40-49 (1864), pp. 627-628.
[684] Gubanov, IA, Gladkikh, AS, and Rabinovich, IM:  The Study of Medicinal Plants of India 
(Russian). Pharmacy [Moscow] (Russian) 16, 4 (1967), pp. 81-86.
[685] Guenther, Herbert V: The Life and Teaching of Naropa. Translated from the original 
Tibetan with a Philosophical Commentary based on the Oral Transmission. (UNESCO Collection 
of Representative Works. Tibetan Series). 292 p. Oxford University Press, at the Clarendon 
Press, Oxford 1963.
 H. V. Guenther points out "that between this picture of man's being and that of  medicine 
there is a certain similarity. But this is not so much a problem of anatomy as of function. The 
fact that a term can be used both in a mental-spiritual and physiological sense shows that we 
move in a world which is neither physical nor mental, but may partake of both. This pattern is 
both within man and beyond him. What is presented here is one of the most daring and 
ingenious conceptions of human mind. This great adventure in consciousness deals with the 
sole aim of arriving at its own essence-pure consciousness."

[686] Guenther, Herbert V and Kaw Priamura, Leslie S: Mind in Buddhist Psychology. 
Translated from the Tibetan. A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear 
Understanding". (Tibetan Translation Series). 133 p. Dharma Publishing, Emeryville, CA 1975.
 Second revised edition 1975.- Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche points out that "The subject of this 
book is self-knowledge. That is, until we thoroughly examine the nature of our mind, we cannot 
really be aware of who we are or why we are here. Just as an intoxicated man, lost in his own 
mind-created distortions, is unable to judge or control his actions, without an awakening into 
true knowledge we can only continue to create problems for ourselves and others. The 
complexities of our mental patterns and the turbulence of upsetting emotions join like earth and 
water to create a kind of mud which we call 'samsaric mind'. Until we can cleanse ourselves of 
inner confusion and penetrate the various 'layers' of this mind, our judgements and actions will 
only reflect our inherent restlessness, like bees trapped in a jar. We can see them moving 
around in certain patterns, but without understanding their situation they can only move in 
samsaric realms - each with its own unique loss of freedom. On the other hand, by properly 
investigating our immediate situation, we can learn how an integrated patterning of mind can 
totally free us from our self-imposed restrictions."

[686a] Guide to the Exhibition of Tibetan Medicine & Astrology.  With contributions by Dr. 
Tenzin Choedrak, Dr. Lobsang Wangyal, Dr. D. Dawa, Dr. Thokmay Paljor, Dr. Tenzin Dakpa, 
Mrs. Tsering Choezom, Mr. Tseten Dorjee. 122 p. Published by the Men-Tsee-Khang (Tibetan 
Medical & Astrological Institute. Dharamsala 1995.
With a message of H.H. the Dalai Lama (pp. I-II), and with a list of the most important Tibetan 
original works on Tibetan Medicine which are indespensable for the study, research and 
promotion of the Tibetan Medical Scince, on pp. 94-110. -  
"The approaches of Tibetan medicine offer both valuable and unique ways of understanding 
people and illness, as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment. The holistic theory of 
Tibetan medicine states that all animate and inanimate phenomena are composed of the same 
five cosmological elements. These elements of earth, water, fire, air and space make up the 
body, but also a person's environment, the food he eats, the climate he lives in and the medical 
remedies he may turn to at a time of illness. In the body each element gives rise to the three 
principle energies, rLung, mKhris-pa, and Badkan, which regulate the different functions of the 
body and the mind. The healthy functioning of the body and mind is reliant on a balanced 
working of these energies.- 
However, according to Tibetan medicine there are a multitude of reasons why a person's 
energies may become imbalanced. In particular these include the harmful effects of extreme 
behaviour and unsuitable consumption of food and drink. However, energy in the body is also 
related to the age of the person, the time of day, the season of the year and climate, as well as 
the persons social environment and past karma. An important attribute of Tibetan medicine is 
its appreciation of all possible effects on a person's health, which includes the state of both a 
person's body and mind. Illness, it recognizes, can result from more than just biological causes 
and so a holistic understanding is essential . . . - 
 Above all what the doctor offers his patient through his approach is compassion in the face of 
suffering, an ideal which is also a central teaching of Mahayana Buddhism. Indeed the primary 
aim of Tibetan medicine, to relieve people from suffering, is also the primary aim of Buddhist 
teaching. Medical theory begins with the understanding of suffering as taught by the Lord 
Buddha and so to understand it is to grasp the foundations of medical theory too."

[687] Guo Jiening, Tao Wenruo, and Guo Hua:  Developmental History of Tibetan Medicine and 
its Theoretic System (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy 
[Kunming] (Chinese) 3 (1995), pp. 1-7.
 After a brief history of Tibetan medicine the main theme of this article is devoted to the 
theoretical aspect of Tibetan medicine, including fundamentals, anatomy and physiology, 
diagnostics, therapeutic principles and measures, and Tibetan pharmacology.

[688] Gusyeva, A(ida) P(etrovna): The Use of Transbaikalian Plants in Tibetan Medicine. In: 
Problemy Farmakognozii  (= Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 1 (Publications of the 
Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 12) (Russian), pp.  363-366. Leningrad 1961.
A(ida) P(etrovna) Gusyeva is the doughter of Peter A. Badmayev.
[689] Gusyeva, A(ida) P(etrovna): The Use of the Most Important Medicinal Plants of Tibetan 
Medicine According to the Prescriptions of Doctor P. A. Badmayev. In: Eleutherococcus and 
other Adaptogens from the Plants of the Far East [= Materials of the Study of Ginseng [shen-
shen u.a.] and other Medicinal Plants from the Far East, issue no. 7] (Russian), pp. 309-323. 
Far East Publishing House, Vladivostok 1966.
 In Tibetan medicine prescriptions contain plants, but there are also some minerals and objects 
of animal origin. More than 100 medicinal plants are known to be used in Tibetan medicine and 
related to the flora of India, China, Mongolia and East Siberia. All medicinal means are applied 
in a kind of complex mixes. The prescriptions have 10 to 20 and more ingredients, sometimes 
there are very complex structures, containing 40-60 ingredients. Prescriptions with only 2, 3 or 
4 substances are rarely used. Tibetan medicine, in difference from Chinese doesn't apply 
ginseng (= shen-shen) and opium. Favourite medicine forms are powders and decoctions. The 
article lists the names of the plants most frequently used in the prescriptions of Doctor P. A. 
Badmayev, who died in 1923.

[690] Gusyeva, A(ida) P(etrovna): On Some Problems of the Ancient Indian Medicine. In: 
Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 10th-12th March 1975, on "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty 
Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects on Studying Folk Medicine) 
(Russian), pp.  42-43. "Science", Leningrad 1975.
[691] Gusyeva-Badmayeva, A(ida) P(etrovna), Gammerman, Adel' Fedorovna, and Sokolov, 
WS:  Heilmittel der tibetischen Medizin (Deutsch, sic!). Planta Medica (Stuttgart) 21, 2 (1972), 
pp. 161-172.
 (Aida Petrovna Gusyeva-Badmayeva, gestorben 1971, ist eine Tochter von Peter 
Alexandrovich Badmayev).- An assessment of Tibetan drugs, their history and present status 
is presented. The Tibetan system originated from the Materia Medica (Ayurveda) of neighboring 
India and relies mostly on medicinal plants. Prescribed remedies are usually mixtures of 10 to 
20 ingredients; they may contain up to 60 (Chinese influence). Mainly they promote 
metabolism, but some of the ingredients may also aim at specific diseases. Few toxic plants 
(aconite is one) are among the more than 400 recorded Tibetan drugs. Opium and ginseng, 
Chinese favourites, are not used. The theory is that healing with plants may be slower than 
that with chemicals and antibiotics, but it is safer. A number of the Tibetan drugs are being 
tested at the Academy in Leningrad. Many are part of our Western pharmaceutical heritage: 
rhubarb, gentian, ginger, camphor, styrax, sandalwood, plantain, valerian.

[692] Gyal-wa dGe-'dun Gya-mtsho, the Second Dalai-Lama (1475-1542):  Extracting the 
Essence (bCud-Len). Translated by Tsepak Rigzin. English text with notes p. 85-92; Tibetan 
text pp. 93-104. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
(Dharamsala) Series No. 5 (1982), pp. 85-104.
 "There are many texts in Tibetan Buddhist literature related to meditations and yogic practices 
aimed at improving health, establishing longevity and influencing the bodily energies in such a 
way as to provide the practitioner with a more subtle and clear level of consciousness. One 
such cycle of texts is called bCud-len, or 'Extracting the Essence'. In this system the meditator 
temporarily avoids eating food and instead, as stated in the sub-colophon, relies upon pills 
made from medicinal plants, minerals, pebbles, etc., or merely on water, pebbles, or the like, 
which are consecrated by yogic means. The text that follows concerns the tradition of relying 
on pills made from non-toxic flowers. Called me-tog bCud-len, or 'Taking the essence of 
flowers', this is one of the most popular ones of the Extracting Essence-tradition. It was 
brought to Tibet in the mid-eleventh century by the renowned Pa-dam-pa Sang-gye, forefather 
of the Zhi-je (Tib. zhi-byed) lineage of the Nying-ma sect, to which the father of the Second 
Dalai Lama belonged. It may be relevant to note here that the tradition of 'Extracting Essence 
from Flower' is every bit as alive today as it was during the time of the Second Dalai Lama. 
The early history of the lineage is given by the Second Dalai Lama in his introduction; an 
updated account by Jam-yang Trin-lay is given in the Guru lineage prayer which is appended to 
this volume."

[693] Gyatso, Yonten:  The Medical College of Labrang Monastery. Introduction and 
Annotations by Katia Buffetrille. Newsletter of the International Association for the Study of 
Traditional Asian Medicine (IASTAM), Centre d'Etudes de l'Inde et de Asie du Sud (Paris),  No. 
10 (1987), pp. 7-10, 1 map.
[694] Gyatso, Yonten:  The Secrets of the Black Pill Formulation. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 13 (1991), pp. 38-55.
 "The preparation of this precious pill, known as 'Precious Black Pill' (Rin-chen ril-nag), is the 
highest form of pharmacological practice in Tibetan Medicine. It involves a wide range of 
techniques which require patience, precision and utmost care. In this formulation the most 
important and complicated part is the preparation of btso-thal, a mixture of refined and 
detoxified powders of mercury, eight metals and eight rock minerals which are themselves 
processed individually with specific techniques. This powder is the basic compound to which 
various other ingredients are added. There are other kinds of precious pills, namely rat-na bsam-
'phel, btso-bkru zla-shel and mang-sbyor chen-mo, to which btso-thal is added, but these have 
fewer ingredients. There were other forms of mercury formulation prevalent in Tibet before the 
advent of the btso-thal practice. They are less complicated. 
The simpler and less celebrated method of mercury formulation is taught in the Tibetan medical 
text (rGyud-bzhi), which devotes a detailed chapter to this. The time and origin of this text, 
despite being shrouded in mystery, undoubtedly predates the btso-thal practice. The btso-thal 
practice came to Tibet in 13th century. It was brought by O-rgyan-pa rin-chen-dpal (1230-
1303) who is said to have received its instructions from Vajra dakinis and he passed it on to 
Karma-pa rang-byung rdo-rje, the 3rd Karma-pa (1284-1339), and transmission of the 
instruction from master to disciple was carried on uninterruptedly, and it then came to Zur-
mkhar mnyam-nyid rdo-rje (1439-1475) over one hundred years after the death of Karma-pa 
rang-byung rdo-rje. Zur-mkhar mnyam-nyid rdo-rje, the founder of Zur tradition (Zur-lugs) which 
was one of the two main medical traditions that evolved in 15th century, is one of the greatest 
exponents in the history of Tibetan Medicine. Since he was one of the earliest in the lineage of 
instruction in Black Pill formulation, it is tempting to believe his claim, that his text 'Eternal 
Gem for the Clear Revelation of the Secrets of the Black Pill Formulation' (ril-nag gsang-ston 
gsal-byed 'chi-med nor-bu) is the first written instruction on the Precious Black Pill formulation. 
I regard myself fortunate to have been entrusted with the task of translating this text. The 
translation is from the text found in Rin-chen dngul-chu sbyor-sde phyogs-bsdebs (Collected 
Works on Mercury Formulation), published by the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 
Dharamsala, 1986, ff. 1-20. It can also be found in Zur-mkhar mnyam-nyid rdo-rje's Man-ngag 
bye-ba ring-bsrel (his Collected Works), published by three different publishers from different 

[695] gYu-thog Yon-tan mGon-po: vide Yuthog Yontan Gonpo the Elder, and the Younger.
[696] Gyurme Dorje: vide Sangye Gyamtso, London 1992. 

[696a] Habersattter, Christina: Zur Kenntnis Tibetischer Arzneidrogen. Diplomarbeit zum 
Magister der Pharmazie, durchgeführt am Institut für Pharmakognosie (Prof. Dr. W. Kubelka). 
Formal- und Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität Wien. 130 S. (unveröffentlicht; 
Standortnachweis: Universitätsbibliothek Wien). Wien 1990.
Die Aufgabe der Diplomarbeit bestand darin, tibetische Drogen zu beschreiben und an Hand der 
verfügbaren Literatur festzustellen, welche Pflanzen als mögliche Stammpflanzen in Frage 
kämen. Weiters war festzustellen, wie die jeweilige Droge in der tibetischen Medizin 
angewendet wird. Als Grundlage diente eine Liste des Tibetan Medical and Astro Instituts von 
54 Drogen, in tibetischen Schriftzeichen verfaßt, die 1972 aus Dharamsala nach Österreich 
gelangt war. Wertvolle Arbeit in Hinblick auf die Pharmacognosie tibetischer Medizinen.

[697] Hässig, A:  Was lehrt uns die traditionelle Medizin des fernen Ostens? Schweiz. 
Zeitschrift für GanzheitsMedizin 7/8 (1991), pp. 326-327.
[698] Hässig, A und Stampfli, K:  Hinweise auf therapeutische Wirkungsmechanismen eines 
tibetischen Pflanzenpräparates. Schweiz. Zeitschrift für GanzheitsMedizin 5 (1990), pp. 234-
[699] Hammer, Christiane:  Der "Menzekhang" in Lhasa. Institut für traditionelle tibetische 
Medizin und Astrologie. 1 Abb. Tibet-Forum (Bonn) 3 (1987), p. 12.
 "Daß die Politik der Volksrepublik China in mehr als einer Hinsicht widersprüchlich und 
sprunghaft war und ist, dafür liefert gerade Tibets jüngere Geschichte Belege mehr als genug. 
War es in den Jahren von 1959 bis 1980 oberstes Anliegen der chinesischen 
Besatzungsmacht, in Tibet 'der vier alten Übel' (d.i. Gedankengut, Sitten, Kultur und 
Gebräuche) zu bekämpfen und ihre architektonischen Zeugnisse zu zerstören, so kann es den 
Chinesen inzwischen gar nicht schnell genug mit dem Wiederaufbau gehen. Freilich trifft dieser 
Eifer nur bestimmte Projekte, von denen man sich eine Prestigeerhöhung oder größere 
Deviseneinnahmen, etwa durch steigende Touristenzahlen, verspricht. Ein Beispiel hierfür ist 
der Menzekhang, das tibetische Zentralkrankenhaus von Lhasa. In Sichtweite des Jokhang-
Tempels gelegen, wurde es in seiner jetzigen Form gerade rechtzeitig zu den Feierlichkeiten zum 
20. Jahrestag der Gründung der 'Autonomen Region Tibet' im Herbst 1985 fertiggestellt. Ein 
von den Chinesen verfaßtes englischsprachiges Informationsblatt, das im kleinen Haustempel in 
Dachgeschoß des dreistöckigen Gebäudes ausliegt, lobt die in dieser Klinik praktizierte 
Heilkunde als 'großartiges Juwel in der medizinischen Schatzkammer unseres Heimatlandes', 
und fährt dann fort: 'Um dieses kostbare nationale kulturelle Erbe zum Wohle des Volkes zu 
entwicklen, wurde das tibetische Hospital der Stadt Lhasa, fußend auf der Medizinschule am 
Eisenberg (gegründet 1696) sowie des Menzekhang (gegründet 1916), mit Unterstützung der 
Volksregierung im Jahre 1959 eingerichtet'. Kein Wort wird hier freilich darüber verloren, daß 
eben jene berühmte Medizinschule am Chagpori während des Volksaufstandes vom März 1959 
nach Artilleriebeschuß dem Erdboden gleichgemacht und dabei in Jahrhunderten gesammelte 
Medizinbücher vernichtet wurden. Jetzt wird Wiedergutmachung geübt und 'immense Arbeit in 
die Wiederauffindung, Erhaltung und Herausgabe alter Schriften' gesteckt, so für das rGyud 
bzhi, das erste herausragende Werk über tibetische Medizin aus dem 8. Jahrhundert, und 
seinen Hauptkommentar 'Be sNgon' aus dem 17. Jahrhundert. Außerdem wurden bereits 
zahlreiche kolorierte Medizin-Thankas kopiert, anhand derer die zukünftige tibetische 
Ärztegeneration vor allem die Behandlung von Bluthochdruck, Herz- und Magenleiden, Epilepsie 
und Schlaganfälle erlernen soll".

[700] Hammerman, AF: Gelegentlich in dieser Schreibweise so zitiert oder bibliographisch 
gelistet entsprechend der russischen Phonetik. In der vorliegenden Bibliographie grundsätzlich 
unter Gammerman, A. F. entsprechend der deutsch/englischen Schreibweise. 

[701] Hanchett, Effie S:  Concepts from Eastern Philosophy and Rogers' Science of Unitary 
Human Beings. Nursing Science Quarterly (Baltimore) 5 (1992), pp. 164-170.
 Four concepts from early Indian philosophy are presented here: action (karma), direct 
perception, emptiness, and dependent arising. They are discussed from the perspective of the 
middle way consequence (Madhyamika Prasangika) school of Tibetan Buddhist philosophy and 
compared to concepts within Rogers' science of unitary human beings. The concepts of action, 
direct perception, and emptiness are discussed in relation to Rogers' building block of energy 
field. The concept of dependent arising is discussed in relation to the principle of integrality, 
"the continuous mutual human field and environmental field process" (Rogers, 1990, p.8).

[702] Hanmer, Adrienne: Rejuvenation: Tibetan Rites & More Techniques. Nutrition, Meditation, 
Breath Control. 58 p., ill.  Hanmer Enterprises, Austin,Tx (USA) 1991.
[703] Hasik, J, Klinkiewicz, H, Linke, K, Stachowiak, Cz, and Brzosko, Witold J:  Efficacy of 
Padma 28 and Padma 137 in Treatment of Patients with Peptic Duodenal Ulcer (Polish). 
Akademia Medyczna im k. Marcinokowskiego w Poznaniu Nowiny Lekarskie (Poznan) 8 (1992), 
pp. 40-44.
[704] Haulleville, Olivia de:  Secrets of a 100 year old Mongolian Physician [Portrait]. Tibetan 
Review (Delhi) IX, 4-5 (1974), pp. 18-19.
 Biography of Amchi-la Tsul-tim born in Kuan Tung (Inner Mongolia): "He lives on Chu-len (tib. 
bCud-len); a 'food-pill' composed of plant and mineral essence and gross parts. The essence 
itself is drawn from earth, water, air, and heat (sun). Being 100 years old, he is looking more 
sprightly than most middle-aged men, evidently a result of his single minded concentration in 
meditation. For his age he is healthy. Having no one to look after him, he does all by himself: 
collecting firewood from the nearby woods, cooking, digging his small vegetable garden, and 
occassionally treating patients who might have heard the fame of this obscure 'Sokpo Amchi'. 
This phrase in Tibetan means Mongolian doctor of Tibetan Medicine. Amchi-la has received the 
initiations of this practice and is thoroughly acquainted with the preparation of Chu-len (tib. 
bCud-len). He can still make these pills today, the ingredients not exclusively existing only in 
his homeland but easily obtainable from the local non-poisonous flowers found in the 
Himalayas. The chances seem few, however, that he might impart this precious knowledge to 
modern aspirants who hanker only after material benefits. The doctors of Tibet were under oath 
never to charge for their services. However, satisfied patients generally rewarded their doctors 
in cash, clothes or food. Other vows taken by a doctor were: not to incorrectly state the 
contents of a medicine, not to give medicine for the purpose of killing a creature, to make the 
quality uniform (i.e. not giving 'good' medicine to some and 'bad' to other), to refrain from 
intoxicating drinks and to maintain equal compassion towards all beings."

[705] Hedman, David:  Human Musical Instruments - Some Medical Historical Views of 
Exorcism in Lamaism (Swedish, with Engl. abstract). Nordisk Medicinhistorisk Aarsbok 
(Stockholm)  (1978), pp. 42-47 (Swedish), pp. 199-200 (Engl. abstr.).
[706] Heller, Gerhard: Krankheitskonzepte und Krankheitssymptome. Eine empirische 
Untersuchung bei den Tamang von Cautara, Nepal. Zur Frage der kulturspezifischen Prägung 
von Krankheitserleben. (Medizin in Entwicklungsländern, 18).  xiv, 255 S., ill. Peter Lang, 
Frankfurt/M 1985.
 "Einleitend wird die Lebenswelt der Tamang von Cautara skizziert. Der Darstellung von 
Untersuchungssituation und Untersuchungsmethoden im ersten Hauptteil folgt die Deskription 
der lokalen Krankheitskonzepte und therapeutischen Verfahren. Im zweiten Hauptteil wird 
mittels einer Analyse der am häufigsten genannten Krankheitssymptome der Zusammenhang 
zwischen den lokalen kulturspezifischen Krankheitskonzepten und der Selbstwahrnehmung der 
Kranken aufgezeigt.- 
Neben der weitaus wichtigsten Methode, der Diagnostik aufgrund der Analyse von 
Symptomatik, ätiologischen Faktoren, Anamnese etc., die ausführlich dargestellt wird, werden 
einige spezielle diagnostische Techniken angewendet. Die Pulsdiagnostik wird sowohl zur 
Feststellung [von Krankheiten] übernatürlicher als auch natürlicher Ursachen benutzt. Der 
Tamang-Heiler fühlt den Puls immer an beiden Armen: ist der Puls auf beiden Seiten gleich, hat 
die Krankheit eine natürliche Ursache, wenn nicht, eine übernatürliche. Bei Männern sei der 
'falsche', d.h. pathologische Puls rechts, bei Frauen links zu tasten. Für die Feststellung großer 
Geister genügt Leksare Bombo ein Griff: Jeder von ihnen habe einen besonderen Puls, den er 
sofort erkennen könne. Andere Geister muß er erst 'herausfragen'. Differentialdiagnostische 
Merkmale: Große Geister hätten einen großen Puls, bei 'Boksi' (Vergiftung durch Hexerei) sei er 
klein. Bei Geistern sei der Puls 'unten', d.h. proximal Richtung Ellenbogen zu fühlen, am 
Handgelenk könne er dann ganz verloren gehen. Bei Sarti sei der Puls gleichmäßig, nicht 
schnell, bei Kharo sei er gleichmäßig und stark, bei Fieber ebenfalls. Bei Fieber sei der Puls 
schnell, wie bei jedem Essensschaden auch. Der Puls schieße dann nach 'oben', d.h. Richtung 
Hand. Wichtig sei es, die Richtung der Pulswelle festzustellen: schieße der Puls im Wechsel 
nach oben und nach unten, dann sei die Lage hoffnungslos."
[707] Hermanns, Matthias:  Rezension: Cyrill von Korvin-Krasinski, Mikrokosmos und 
Makrokosmos. Anthropos 56 (1961), pp. 648-650.
[708] Hermanns, Matthias: Schamanen - Pseudoschamanen, Erlöser und Heilbringer. Eine 
vergleichende Studie religiöser Urphänomene. 3 Bände. (I: Schamanen; II: Pseudoschamanen; 
III: Erlöser und Heilbringer der Tibeter). 727/355/249 S.  Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 1970.
 Der Begriff vom Heilbringer und Erlöser droht im vorliegenden Werk zu verblassen. In einer fast 
verwirrenden Fülle kultur- und religionsgeschichtlicher, kirchen- und sektengeschichtlicher 
Exkurse wird er eher undurchsichtiger, statt daß diese doch nur den vielschichtigen Hintergrund 
zeichnen sollen, vor dem sich dann die Gestalten der Heilbringer und Erlöser profiliert abheben 
müßten. Hier könnte vor allem eine straffere Eingrenzung des Begriffes vom Erlöser und 
Heilbringer helfen und den Leser davor bewahren, sich in einem Gewirr von Namen zu verlieren 
(Siegbert Hummel, in Monumenta Serica 30.).

[709] Herrmann, Gabriele:  Heilt der Wind, die Nahrungsfaser oder das Lichtsignal? Versuche, 
die Wirkung eines tibetischen Hausmittelchens wissenschaftlich oder sonstwie zu erklären. Die 
Weltwoche (Zürich), vom 19. Juli 1990.
[710] Herrmann, Gabriele: Der innere und der äussere Weg einer tibetischen Arznei in den 
Westen. 2 Abb. In: Vom Dach der Welt. Tibeter in der Schweiz. Hrsg. Albers & Fuchs, in 
Zusammenarbeit mit der "Weltwoche", pp. 93-94. Die Weltwoche, Zürich 1993.
 "Die Oktoberrevolution in Rußland zwingt die Familie Badmayev zur Flucht nach Warschau, wo 
Wladimir Badmayev seine Praxis einrichtet. Er schreibt Rezepte, die er von seinem Onkel, einem 
berühmten die tibetische Medizin ausübenden Arzt in Moskau, erhalten hat, auf europäische 
Kräuter um, da der Rohstoff aus dem Himalaja nicht erhältlich ist. 'Er hat sie mit der Zunge 
angepaßt. Es gibt streng genommen keine andere Möglichkeit', sagt Karl Lutz, der Hersteller 
von Padma 28. Denn nach tibetischer Lehre zeigt der Geschmack einer Arznei, wie sich die fünf 
Elemente in ihr mischen. Und aus dieser Mischung ergibt sich dann ihr Anwendungsspektrum, 
d.h. ihre Fähigkeit, die drei Säfte - Galle, Wind und Schleim - wieder in Harmonie zu bringen. 
Die tibetischen Ärzte gehen dabei sehr systematisch vor. Sie unterscheiden sechs 
Geschmacksrichtungen: sauer, salzig, scharf, süß, bitter und herb (zusammenziehend). Jede 
entspricht einer Kombination zweier Elemente, süß zum Beispiel Wasser und Erde und dem Saft 
Schleim; behandelt wird mit Substanzen, deren Eigenschaften der Krankheit entgegengesetzt 
sind. Je nach Krankheitsbild braucht es dazu sehr komplexe Arzneimischungen, die erst in der 
Kombination wirken, während die einzelnen Substanzen allein unter Umständen wirkungslos 
bleiben. Dies gilt beispielsweise für Padma 28, einer Mischung von 21 getrockneten Kräutern, 
die mit Kampfer zur Pille gepreßt werden. Wladimir Badmayev verschrieb es gegen chronische 
Entzündungen und arteriosklerotische Durchblutungsstörungen. Von Karl Lutz [gest. 1995] 
angeregte klinische Forschungen zeigen, daß Padma 28 das Immunsystem stimuliert und 
[711] Hetényi, Ernö:  A tibeti buddhizmus kozmológiája; Makro-és mikrokozmosz a lamaizmus 
szemlétében. Mitteilungen des Alexander von Körös Instituts für Buddhologie 7 (23/24) (1978), 
pp. 26-53.
[712] Heubner, Ann M and Garrod, Andrew C:  Moral Reasoning among Tibetan Monks. A 
Study of Buddhist Adolescents and Young Adults in Nepal. Journal of Cross-Cultural 
Psychology (Newbury Park) 24, No. 2 (1993), pp. 167-185.
 "This cross-cultural pilot study of moral reasoning had a twofold purpose: (a) to examine 
Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning in a non-Western, historically independent society; and (b) 
to explore its adequacy for representing comprehensively the moral domain of a Buddhist 
culture. Twenty adolescent and young adult monks from a Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Nepal 
were questioned in culturally adapted Kohlberg interviews. The findings support certain 
assumptions underlying Kohlberg's claim to universality, but raise doubts about the ability of 
his theory to encompass concepts fundamental to a Buddhist worldview and morality".

[713] Hilbert-(Bormann), Cornelia: Traditionelle Medizin und staatliche Gesundheits-
versorgung in Nepal. Herkömmliche Krankheitsvorstellungen und Behandlungsformen in 
Ergänzung zu modernen medizinischen Versorgungsdiensten unter Berücksichtigung von 
sozio-kulturellen, ökonomischen und ökologischen Bedingungen bei den Tamang. 
(Promotionsarbeit, Universität Hamburg). Mit zahlreichen Tabellen und Skizzen. 415 S. 
Standortnachweis: Universitätsbibiliothek. Hamburg 1981.
[714] Hildburgh, Walter Leo:  Notes on some Burmese amulets and magical objects. Journal of 
the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (London) 39 (1909), pp. 397-407, 
1 plate.
[715] Hildburgh, Walter Leo:  Notes on some Tibetan and Bhutia amulets and folk-medicines, 
and a few Nepalese amulets. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland (London) 39 (1909), pp. 386-396, 3 plates.
 ". . . from the medicine-sellers before referred to a number of medicinal substances, for 
popular use and of the same nature as the amulets which have been described, were obtained. 
In addition to these substances a number of packets of medicines composed, apparently, 
mainly of vegetable products, and similar, in their methods of application, to European 
medicines, were obtained from a former Lama, educated at Lhasa and living at some distance 
from Darjeeling, who is consulted by patients from the whole district thereabout, but since 
these specimens lie without the province of folk-medicine they are not described below. As in 
the case of the amulets, the descriptions and intentions of the various substances are as given 
by their vendors.-
 For 'Fever': The hoof and bones of the foot of the musk-deer are to be finely powdered and 
drunk in water, as a cure for Plains' fever; or small pills, said to be from inside the testicles (? 
the musk-sac, since musk acts strongly medicinally) of the same animal are to be drunk in 
water. The hairs of the musk-deer are carried as amulets curative of fever, often in connection 
with the use of the medicines to be taken internally.- 
For 'Coughs or Sore Throats': A bone of a large white sea-bird is rubbed in water and drunk, as 
a cure for a child's coughing sickness. For a cough, there are pills to be taken in hot water. A 
piece of a tiger's tongue is to be rubbed in water and drunk, for the cure of a throat so sore 
that swallowing is difficult.- 
For 'Maladies of the Tongue': A piece of rhinoceros' tongue is to be ground in water, which is 
then used as a mouth-wash (and spat out, not swallowed) . . .."  

[716] Hilgenberg, Luise und Kirfel, Willibald (1885-1964): Vagbhata's Astangahrdayasamhita. 
Ein altindisches Lehrbuch der Heilkunde. Aus dem Sanskrit ins Deutsche übertragen mit 
Einleitung, Anmerkungen und Indices von Luise Hilgenberg und Willibald Kirfel. 855 p. 
E. J. Brill, Leiden 1941.
 Neben der hier gelisteten deutschen Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit wurden von Claus Vogel 
(vide dort) die ersten fünf von insgesamt 120 Kapiteln der tibetischen Version dieses 
medizinischen Lehrbuches kritisch bearbeitet und ins Englische übersetzt. Die 
Astangahrdayasamhita ist in tibetischer Fassung im Tanjur, und zwar in der Abteilung für 
medizinische Texte enthalten. Hilgenberg und Kirfel machen folgende Angaben in ihrer 
Einleitung: "Unserer Übertragung haben wir folgende Ausgabe zugrunde gelegt: The 
Astangahrdaya. A compendium of the Hindu system of medicine composed by Vagbhata. With 
the commentary of Arunadatta. Revised and collated by Anna Moresvar Kunte. 2. rev. ed., 
Bombay: Nirnayasagar Press 1891. Wenn sie auch manche Ungenauigkeiten und Druckfehler 
aufweist, so lassen sich diese doch anhand der Paralleltexte leicht berichtigen. Die Übersetzung 
ist eine wörtliche, und erläuternde Zusätze aus dem Kommentar und dgl. werden durch eckige 
Klammern gekennzeichnet.
 Zur Feststellung einzelner medizinischer Begriffe, insbesondere der botanischen Äquivalente - 
so weit sich dieses eben ermöglichen läßt - diente uns in erster Linie Uday Chand Dutt: Materia 
medica of the Hindus. With a glossary of Indian plants by George King, rev. ed. with additions 
and alterations by Kaviraj Binod Lall Sen, Kaviraj Ashutosh Sen and Kaviraj Pulin Krishna Sen 
(Kavibhushan), Calcutta 1922.- Von den großen Handbüchern altindischer Heilkunde 
(Ayurveda, d.h. 'Das Wissen vom Leben') ist die Astangahrdayasamhita oder kurz das 
Astangahrdaya des Vagbhata den Kreisen, die der Geschichte der Medizin und der 
Naturwissenschaften ihr besonderes Interesse entgegenbringen, bisher am unbekanntesten 
geblieben; die Werke, die den Namen des Suæruta und Caraka tragen, wurden bereits vor 
Jahren in europäische Sprachen übertragen. 
Und doch hat das Lehrbuch eines Vagbhata - die Wissenschaft nimmt für seine Abfassung 
bisher als terminus ante quem spätestens das 8. Jahrh. n.Chr. an - schon seit altersher in 
Indien ein nicht geringeres Ansehen genossen als die beiden anderen. Es zeigt nicht nur eine 
klarere und konkretere Anordnung des Stoffes, sondern scheint auch nach Theodor Aufrechts 
'Catalogus Catalogorum' und späteren Handschriften-Katalogen in einer größeren Anzahl von 
Handschriften überliefert zu sein und weit mehr Kommentatoren gefunden zu haben als jene 
beiden. Als einziges Werk seiner Art wurde es mit einem Kommentar seines Verfassers, dem 
Astangahrdaya-nama-vaiduryakabhasya, von den Mönchen Jarandhara bzw. Dharmasrivarma 
(Æakya) ins Tibetische übertragen und dem buddhistischen Kanon der lamaistischen Kirche 

[717] Hitchcock, John Thayer (1917- ) and Jones, Rex L (eds.): Spirit Possession in the Nepal 
Himalayas. Translation of French Articles by Harriet Leva Beegun. xxxviii, 401 p., illustr.  
Aris & Phillips, Warminster/England 1976.
 Also Vikas Publ. House, Delhi 1976.- 'Spirit Possession in Nepal' is composed of 19 articles 
written by anthropologists who have conducted field work in Nepal - together with an 
introduction by John Hitchcock, the doyen of anthropologists - and are concerned with spirit 
possession among ethnic groups in Eastern Nepal (Korz Jones, R.L. Jones, and P. Sagant 
among the Limbu; A. Fournier among the Sunuwar; N. Allen among the Thulung Rai; and R. 
Paul among the Sherpa); and another six authors write on spirit possession among communities 
in Western Nepal (W. Michel among the Chantel; Hitchcock among the people of the Bhuji 
Khola; D. Messerschmidt among the Gurung; M. Gaborieau and W. Winkler among the Hindu 
populations of the Karnali and Mahakali Zones respectively; and J. Reinhard among the Raji).- 
Turning from the ethnographic value of the volume to its theoretical contribution requires that 
the readers focus on the works of I. M. Lewis (1972) and Mircea Eliade (1964). Not only do 
these two scholars form the primary focal point of R. Jones' and Reinhard's theoretical articles 
respectively, but, by and large, they represent the only theoretical works which are 
consistently mentioned in the individual articles.- In assessing the value of this volume, it is 
also important to draw attention to the psychotherapeutic features of shamanism discussed by 
Hitchcock in his introduction. Utilising the findings of a scholar named Torrey (a bibliographical 
reference which is unfortunately missing in the volume), Hitchcock elaborates on the 
therapeutic effectiveness of shamanism in relieving psychic illness and anxiety as well as some 
physiological illnesses. 
In addition to specific therapeutic techniques, Hitchcock notes that the proven effectiveness of 
shamans is dependent on a shared world view, the personality of the shaman, and a client's 
high expectations. He then points out the implications of this therapeutic effectiveness both for 
the West, and for medical development in Nepal. For the former he suggests that: a) no medical 
degree should be required for psychiatric workers, and b) that psychiatric personnel should pay 
more heed to the need for sharing world views with patients. In the case of Nepal, he suggests 
that: a) western psychiatric methods need to be modified and take cognizance of Nepali 
shamans before they can be most effective, and b) the use of shamans for paramedical 
workers or for dealing with certain kinds of anxiety and psychic ills should be encouraged.

[718] Hoffmann, Helmut: Die Beziehungen zwischen Geistern und Menschen. In: Quellen zur 
Geschichte der tibetischen Bon-Religion. (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und 
der Literatur in Mainz, Geistes- u. sozialwissenschaftl. Klasse, Jg. 1950. Nr. 4.), pp. 174-186, 
bzw. 50-62 der Buchausgabe. Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 1950.
 Die erste umfassende Quellensammlung zur Bon-Religion mit Textauszügen und 
Übersetzungen. Mit ausführlichen Kapiteln über die ursprüngliche Bon-Religion und die 
geschichtliche Entwicklung, mit zahlreichen Hinweisen zur Medizin und zu Heilungsritualen. Im 
oben genannten Kapitel u.a. beispielhafte Schilderung einer schamanistischen Heilung im 
heutigen Westtibet.

[719] Hoffmann, Helmut: Erscheinungsformen des tibetischen Schamanismus. In: Ergriffenheit 
und Besessenheit; ein interdisziplinäres Gespräch über transkulturell-anthropologische und 
psychiatrische Fragen. Herausg. von Jürgen Zutt, pp. 95-104. Francke, Bern und München 
 Unter Auswertung von Berichten von Missionaren und Forschungsreisenden, die Orakel-
Seancen persönlich miterlebt haben (Ribbach, Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Schäfer und Harrer), führt 
der Autor durch die verschiedenen Phasen eines solchen Rituals hindurch, wobei er immer 
wieder auf das kasuistische Material zurückgreift. Tibetische Schamanen sind im Privatleben 
normale Menschen ohne psychotische Züge, die auch im Zustand der Hochtrance innerhalb des 
Geschehens des festgelegten Ritus verbleiben und nicht in irgendwelche psychotische 
Symptome abgleiten. Man kann - wie Hoffmann schreibt - "diese Schamanen also 
ebensowenig wie die Mystiker aller Kulturen und Zeiten als Abnormale, als Verrückte 
klassifizieren, wie dies die durch die extrem bürgerliche Gedankenwelt geprägte Wissenschaft 
vergangener Jahrzehnte gerne tat".

[720] Hoffmann, Helmut:  Manifestations of Tibetan Shamanism. (English translation of: 
Erscheinungsformen des tibetischen Schamanismus. In: Ergriffenheit und Besessenheit; ein 
interdisziplinäres Gespräch über transkulturell-anthropologische und psychiatrische Fragen. 
Herausg. von Jürgen Zutt, pp. 95-104). The Tibet Society Bulletin (Bloomington) 10 (1976), pp. 
[721] Hoffmann, Helmut: Tibet. In: Krankheit, Heilkunst, Heilung. Hrsg. Heinrich Schipperges, 
Eduard Seidler, Paul U. Unschuld. [= Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Historische 
Anthropologie e.V. 1], pp. 179-192. Karl Alber, Freiburg/München 1978.
[722] Hong Wuli (1953- ):  gYu-thog Yon-tan mGon-po, a distinguished Tibetan Doctor 
(Chinese). Chinese Journal of Medical History [Beijing] (Chinese) 12, Nr. 2 (1982), p. 94.
 This is a short biography of the saint of Tibetan medicine.

[723] Hong Wuli:  Medical historical value of the "Sundry Tibetan prescriptions" excavated in 
Dunhuang Grottoes (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Medical History [Beijing] (Chinese) 12, No. 4 
(1982), pp. 251-253.
 "Sundry Tibetan prescriptions", a scroll written in Tibetan language, was excavated from 
Dunhuang in Northwest China's Gansu Province. The scroll carries a large number of 
prescriptions for all kinds of diseases, mostly internal diseases. The prescriptions include 
compound remedies composed of several ingredients as well as single-ingredient prescriptions, 
moxibustion and other external forms of therapeutic measures. Through investigations by 
specialists, this scroll was ascertained to be written around 8th century AD. It reflects the 
early stage of Tibetan medical development and is therefore of historical significance (Cai 

[724] Hong Wuli:  Medical Tangkas: The Gem of Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). Unity of 
Nationalities [Beijing] (Chinese) Nr. 7 (1986), p. 23.
[725] Hong Wuli:  Tibetan sphygmology (=pulsology) from a Viewpoint of Medical History 
(Chinese). Series of History of Science & Technology of Chinese Minorities [Hohhot/Inner 
Mongolia] (Chinese) No. 2 (1988), pp. 138-145.
 By making comparison between the pulse-taking art of Tibetan and Chinese medicine the 
author draws a conclusion, claiming that Tibetan sphygmology (=pulsology) is mostly derived 
from its Chinese counterpart, but with certain modifications.

[726] Hong Wuli:  A Review on the Studies of Modern History of Tibetan Medicine in China 
(Chinese). Series of History of Science & Technology of Chinese Minorities [Hohhot/Inner 
Mongolia] (Chinese) 4 (1990), pp. 129-147.

[727] Hong Wuli:  Therapeutic Measures in Tubo Medical Scrolls Unearthed in Dunhuang 
(Chinese). Tibetological Research Series [Lhasa] (Chinese) No. 2 (1990), pp. 686-694.
[728] Hong Wuli:  A Comparative Study on Moxibustion in the rGyud-bzhi and Scrolls of 
Tibetan Moxibustion Unearthed in Dunhuang (Chinese). Series of History of Science & 
Technology of Chinese Minorities [Hohhot/Inner Mongolia] (Chinese) No. 6 (1991),
pp. 100-107.
 The art of moxibustion, when compared with that of the Dunhuang Scroll, is much more 
systematic and far advanced in its theory and technical knowhow. Moreover, the author 
expounds and proves that Tibetan moxibustion might have a separate origin other than to share 
a common origin with Chinese moxibustion.

[729] Hong Wuli:  Über die Verbreitung und Kenntnis der Gyüschi wie auch über die 
wissenschaftliche Bearbeitung der tibetischen Medizin außerhalb Chinas - Spreading of rGyud-
bzhi and its Research Outside China (Chinese). Series of History of Science & Technology of 
Chinese Minorities [Hohhot/Inner Mongolia] (Chinese) Nr. 7 (1992), pp. 106-111.
 Historischer Abriß von Csoma de Körös, die Übersetzungen der Gyüschi durch Badmayev, 
Ulyanov und Pozdneyev, sowie die Arbeiten von Unkrig und Semichov. In der modernen Zeit 
wird auf die Bedeutung von Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzangs Buch "Tibetan Medicine" 
(1973) hingewiesen.

[730] Hong Wuli:  Studie zu physiologischen Vorstellungen von Schwangerschaft und 
Embryologie in der tibetischen Medizin - Exploration on Physiology of Pregnancy and 
Embryology in Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Medical History (Chinese) 24, Nr. 
3 (1994), pp. 172-174.
 Der Autor untersucht vergleichend die Vorstellung zu Menstruation, Schwangerschaft, 
embryonaler Entwicklung und Geburtsvorgängen in der traditionellen tibetischen und 
traditionellen chinesischen Medizin.

[731] Hong Wuli:  Study on sMan-thang Allegorical Tree in Tibetan Medicine (Chinese, with 
English abstract). Studies in the History of Natural Sciences (Chinese) [Beijing] 14, No. 3 
(1995), pp. 280-286.
 "This article mentions that the basic theory, diagnosis, and treatment prognosis of all clinical 
science, drug & life preservation etc. are described in Tibetan medicine presented in the form of 
three trees with roots, trunks, branches, leaves, flowers & fruits in the sMan-thang. Secondly, 
the author describes that all contents of Tibetan medicine are shown in this style of an 
allegorical tree in the sMan-thang, and she further points out that this is a feature different 
from the medical systems of other nationalities and also is an unparalleled teaching tool in the 
world. Finally the paper presents briefly studies on this 'Allegorical Tree' in Tibetan science & 
medicine abroad."

[732] Hong Wuli and Cai Jingfeng:  Über die früheste Monographie zur Moxibustion, 
ausgegraben in den Höhlen von Dunhuang - The Earliest Monograph on Moxibustion: A Scroll 
of Tibetan Moxibustion Unearthed in Dunhuang (Chinese). Studies of Tibetology [Lhasa] 
(Chinese) Nr. 3 (1983), pp. 48-55.
 Die Arbeit berichtet über den Inhalt der "Rezeptur zur tibetischen Moxibustionsbehandlung" 
(Schriftrolle Nr. P.T. 127 und P.T. 1044).

[733] Hong Wuli and Cai Jingfeng:  A Review of Studies of Tibetan Medicine Outside China 
(Chinese). Studies of Tibetology [Lhasa] (Chinese) No. 10 (1990), pp. 112-124.

[734] Honigberger, Johann Martin (1795-1869): Früchte aus dem Morgenlande, oder Reise-
Erlebnisse, nebst naturhistorisch-medizinischen Erfahrungen, einigen hundert erprobten 
Arzneimitteln und einer neuen Heilart dem Medial-Systeme. Mit vierzig lithographierten Tafeln: 
Porträte, Pflanzenabbildungen; sonstige Natur- und Kunstprodukte, Facsimile, Landkarte und 
Ansicht der Citadelle von Lahor; endlich als Anhang ein medizinisches Wörterbuch in mehreren 
europäischen und orientalischen Sprachen. 590 S.  Carl Gerold und Sohn, Wien 1851.
 Der Apotheker Honigberger kam bei zwei seiner Reisen auch nach Afghanistan und Kaschmir. 
Von den dortigen Herrschern zum Leibarzt ernannt, beschreibt er aufgrund seiner Erfahrungen 
mit einheimischen Ärzten Behandlungsmethoden und Arzneien der dortigen Gegend. 
Wichtig ist sein "Medizinisches Wörterbuch" mit Begriffen für Krankheiten, Arzneien und 
Behandlungsmethoden auf Lateinisch, Deutsch, Französisch, Englisch, Türkisch, Arabisch, 
Persisch, Indisch und Kaschmirisch. Seine geographischen Beobachtungen bzw. Mitteilungen 
sind eher dürftig, doch ist der Bildanhang mit 13 Portraits hochgestellter Persönlichkeiten und u. 
a. 30 Tafeln mit Heilkräutern durchaus interessant.
Sein Buch möchte er als Hilfe für die im Norden des Indischen Subkontinents tätigen englischen 
Ärzte verstanden wissen. Als Arzt und Wissenschaftler vertritt er modernste Erkenntnisse über 
Homöopathie und Allopathie, Hygiene, Psychosomatik und auch über notwendige 
Selbstbeschränkung ärztlichen Handelns. Als besonders wirksam erkannte er Heilpflanzen 
(entsprechend sorgsam zubereitet, bei richtiger Indikation und Dosis) aus den Hochtälern 
Kaschmirs und des Himalaya, von wo auch die Heilmittel für die tibetische Medizin stammen.

[735] Honigberger, John Martin: Thirty-Five Years in the East. [= Materia Medica. Discoveries 
and Experiments Relating to Medicine, Botany, Pharmacy, etc. and a Medical Vocabulary]. 2 
vols., bound in 1. xxix, 206 (vol. 1); xvi, 448 (vol. 2) p. H. Baillière, London 1852.
 Reedition in 2 separate vols. by Low Price Publications, Delhi 1986, 1993.

[736] Hosscini, Mahmoud: The Demise of Intuition in Modern Tibetan Medicine. M. A. Thesis, 
University of Denver/Colorado. Denver 1994.
[737] Huard, Pierre: La médecine tibétaine. 11 p., 12 plates in folder. Mémento thérapeutique 
Latéma (Editions R. Dacosta), Paris 1968.
 A new interpretion of the paintings, published by Ilza Veith in 1960.

[738] Huc, Régis Evariste (1813-1860): Souvenirs d'un voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet et la 
Chine pendant les années 1844, 1845 et 1846 (2 volumes). Adrien le Clerc, Paris 1850.
 Vol II: pp. 116, 142-143, 178-181, mit Hinweisen zur tibetischen Medizin in der französischen 
Originalausgabe. Siehe auch F. Masselot, Paris 1959.
[739] Huc und Gabet (sic!): Wanderungen durch die Mongolei nach Thibet zur Hauptstadt des 
Tale Lama. (Hausbibliothek für Länder- und Völkerkunde. 7.). In deutscher Bearbeitung 
herausgegeben von Karl Andrée. 360 S.  Carl B. Lorck, Leipzig 1855.
 (Souvenirs d'un voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet et la Chine pendant les années 1844, 1845 
et 1846. Paris 1850, erneut 1854; sowie Reprint Paris 1982).- Zur tibetischen Medizin: Kapitel 
11.- Neuauflage der deutschen Ausgabe, Leipzig 1867 (nach der zweiten französischen 
Ausgabe von 1854). Régis Evariste Huc (1813-1860) wurde 1839 zum Priester geweiht und 
kam als Missionar und Lazaristenpater nach China. 1844 reiste er zusammen mit Abbé Joseph 
Gabet (1808-1853) nach Tibet. 1846 kehrten die beiden Europäer von ihrer abenteuerlichen 
Reise durch Nordost- und Zentraltibet einschließlich eines längeren Aufenthaltes im Kloster 
Kumbum und später in Lhasa (Ankunft am 29. 1. 1846), von wo sie durch den chinesischen 
Amban nach wenigen Wochen ausgewiesen wurden, nach China und Macao zurück.

[740] Huc, Régis Evariste: Wanderungen durch die Mongolei nach Tibet 1844-1846. Deutsche 
Bearbeitung von Hans Walz. Herausgegeben nach der Ausgabe von 1855, mit einem Vorwort 
von Dr. Ernst Schäfer. (Bibliothek klassischer Reiseberichte). Mit 1 gefalt. Karte. 386 S. 
Steingrüben, Stuttgart 1966.
 Zur tibetischen Medizin siehe S. 197-209.- Diese Neuausgabe des Buches von 1855 erschien 
identisch nochmals mit leicht geändertem Titel 'Reise durch die Mongolei nach Tibet und China 
1844-1846' (ohne Hinweis auf die hier gelistete Ausgabe von 1966) bei Societäts-Verlag, 
Frankfurt/M 1986.

[741] Huchenpahler, Victoria: vide Konchog Gyaltsen (Khenpo), In Search for the Stainless 
[742] Hübotter, Franz (1881-1967): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der chinesischen sowie der tibetisch-
mongolischen Pharmakologie. 324 S., ill. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin/Wien 1913.
 Titel auch in Tibetisch, Chinesisch und Mongolisch, Index auf Deutsch, Chinesisch und 
Tibetisch.- Das "autographisch auf anastatischem Wege", d. h. handschriftlich im 
Faksimiledruck hergestellte Buch basiert auf einer Handschrift, die Hübotter "gelegentlich eines 
Aufenthaltes in Leipzig, als ich in Chinesisch, Türkisch, Persisch und Philosophie das 
philosophische Doktorexamen Magna cum laude ablegte", im Nachlaß seines Lehrers Prof. 
Grube fand. Die Übersetzung gibt kapitelweise die Arzneimittel des Mineralreiches, des 
Pflanzenreiches, des Tierreiches wieder sowie Pflanzen, die in der tibetisch-mongolischen 
Pharmakopöe nicht enthalten, aber zumeist in China im Gebrauch sind. Im Anhang eine Reihe 
von Heilmitteln animalischer Herkunft. Für eine neuere drucktechnisch einwandfreie Ausgabe 
vide den nachfolgenden Eintrag. Inhaltlich (laut W. A. Unkrig) enthält das Buch durch 
Fehlinterpretationen Hübotters einige Mängel. Zur Kritik siehe auch Laufer, 1916; für einen 
Nachruf auf Franz Hübotter siehe Heinz Goerke, Berlin 1967.
[743] Hübotter, Franz: Chinesisch-Tibetische Pharmakologie und Rezeptur. Mit 2 Porträts und 
43 Abb. (Haug's Sammlung "Panopticum Medicum". 6.). 180 S. Karl F. Haug, Ulm/Donau 
 Hübotter arbeitete 30 Jahre lang im Fernen Osten. Auch diese zweite Fassung der chinesisch-
tibetischen Pharmakologie beruht auf der chinesisch-tibetisch-mongolischen Pharmakopöe, 
etwa aus dem Jahr 1700, von Hübotter als wurmzerfressenes Exemplar in der Bibliothek des 
Berliner Sinologen Prof. Wilhelm Grube entdeckt. Es werden zunächst die chinesisch-tibeti-
schen Drogen gegliedert nach pflanzlichen, tierischen und mineralischen Heilmitteln beschrieben 
(Ordnungsprinzip: lateinische oder deutsche Namen). Abschließend wird eine kleine 
Rezeptsammlung vorgestellt.

[744] Hürlimann, F:  Eine Lamaistische Rezeptformel zur Behandlung der peripheren arteriellen 
Verschlußkrankheit. Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin, Praxis 67, 38 (1978), pp. 1407-1409.
 "Trotz ausgedehnter Forschung bleiben auf dem Gebiet der konservativen Therapie der 
Gliedmaßenarterien-Verschlüsse (GAV) viele Fragen offen. Das Phytotherapeutikum 'Padma 28' 
ist kein Vasodilatator. Die nachweisbare Hauptwirkung besteht in der Hemmung der durch 
Kollagen ausgelösten Thrombozyten-Aggregationen. Es schien daher von Interesse, diese 
lamaistische Rezeptformel zur Behandlung von GAV auf ihre klinische Wirksamkeit zu prüfen. 
Dabei ergaben sich folgende Resultate: 1. Padma 28 vermag bei voll austrainierten Patienten 
mit GAV im Stadium II (Becken-Oberschenkelverschluß-Typ) die schmerzfreie Gehstrecke 
statistisch signifikant zu verbessern. 2. Eine Verschlechterung oder Verbesserung der quanti-
tativen Wadendurchblutung (gemessen mit Venenverschlußplethysmographie) wurde nicht 
gefunden. 3. Dank 'Padma 28' trat bei nächtlichen Krämpfen, Parästhesien und den Zeichen 
des 'restless leg' eine Besserung ein. 4. 'Padma 28' bessert bei Patienten mit GAV in den 
Stadien III und IV (nach Fontaine) die Ruheschmerzen, was auf eine gewebenutritive Wirkung 
des Präparates schließen läßt. 5. Nebenwirkungen traten nicht auf."

[745] Hummel, Siegbert (1908- ): Der Medizin-Buddha und seine Begleiter im lamaistischen 
Pantheon. Mit 2 s/w Abb. und 9 Strich-Illustrationen im Text. Sinologica (Basel) II, Nr. 2 (1949), 
pp. 81-104.
 "Die hier veröffentlichte Gruppe der Medizinbuddhas mit Begleitern ist einem lamaistischen 
Buch der 'Regeln für den Kult des Sman bla' entnommen, das 1744 auf Befehl des Kaisers Kiän 
Lung in Peking in Holz geschnitten wurde; die für die verschiedenen Gottheiten angegebenen 
Farben sind aus dem Buche nicht ersichtlich. Der Titel lautet tibetisch: 'Sman bla'i tscho ga'i 
bscham bkod kyi lag len zur dubkol ba bzhugso'."

[746] Hummel, Siegbert: Der Medizin-Buddha und seine Begleiter im Lamaistischen Pantheon. 
Mit 5 Abb. In: Lamaistische Studien (=Geheimnisse tibetischer Malereien Band II). 
[Forschungen zur Völkerdynamik Zentral- und Ostasiens Band 5], pp.  58-73. Otto 
Harrassowitz, Leipzig 1950.
 Vorgestellt wird eine ikonographische Gruppe von Heilgottheiten, die 1744 auf Befehl des 
chinesischen Kaisers in Peking als Holzschnitt veröffentlicht wurde. Dabei zeigt das Titelbild die 
Trinität aus Gautama-Buddha, Amitabha und dem blauen Medizingott sMan-bla mit der 
goldenen Heilfrucht, einer Myrobalane, in seinem Schoß. Der Legende nach ließ sich sMan-bla 
12 000 Jahre lang als Brandopfer zu Gautama-Buddhas Ehren verbrennen. Eine Art weiblicher 
Aspekt des Heilbuddha ist die ihn zusammen mit weiteren 6, seltener 8 beigeordneten 
Heilbuddhas begleitende sMan-gyi-lha-mo mit Almosenschale und Pfirsich. Der Sonnen- und 
Mondlicht-lha im Kreis der dienenden, personifizierten Heilkräfte lassen Traditionen aus dem 
iranischen Raum vermuten (S. H.).

[747] Hummel, Siegbert:  Die lamaistische Psychologie und ihre Stellung zum Spiritismus. Zeit-
schrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse (Göttingen) 5, 3 (1959), pp. 207-216.
 "Daß wir es hier im Lamaismus, wenn auch in einem Ausnahmefall, mit einer Art 
Seelenwanderung zu tun haben, ist eindeutig. Der psychische Komplex bleibt nicht nur erhalten, 
sondern er wandert mit der ganzen individuellen Eigenart der zum Sterben bestimmt gewesenen 
Persönlichkeit in einen anderen, neuen Leib hinüber und zwar nicht nur vorübergehend, wie bei 
der Besessenheit von Medien durch dämonisierte Totenseelen, die möglicherweise noch 
außerdem zu Srung-mas erhoben wurden. Zweifellos sind neben der indischen 
Wiedergeburtslehre auch schamanistische Traditionen des vorbuddhistischen Tibet sowie 
archaische, spiritistische Vorstellungen an der lamaistischen Lehre von den Tulkus beteiligt. Die 
Frage nach einer Stellungnahme der lamaistischen Psychologie zum Spiritismus wäre vor allem 
die Frage, ob nach Auffassung des Lamaismus ganz allgemein das Ende eines sich bei 
Lebzeiten vor uns betätigenden, persönlichen Individuums mit dem Tode auch wirklich das 
absolute Ende seiner individuellen, persönlichen Existenz nach sich ziehen muß oder ob und in 
welcher Weise spiritistische Phänomene zugelassen sind, wenn wir von den Tulkus und 
gewissen Srung-mas absehen, die zwar die lamaistische Seelenlehre durchbrechen, aber 
durchaus eine Ausnahme sein könnten. Ich erwähnte schon, daß der gesamte Fragenkomplex 
des Mediumismus dem Lamaismus bekannt ist und als Beschwörung dämonisierter Lamas oder 
gewöhnlicher Sterblicher vorkommt, und daß wir es dann mit Vorstellungen aus 
vorbuddhistischer Zeit zu tun haben. Wir dürfen dabei aber nicht vergessen, daß die 
Unsterblichkeit des Wissens bzw. die Fortexistenz der persönlichen Gedächtnisinhalte, die von 
den Lamas angeblich durch entsprechende Experimente und Praktiken an ihnen selbst bewiesen 
und vor allem bei den Tulkus festgestellt wird, noch keine Anerkennung des Spiritismus 

[748] Hummel, Siegbert:  Die Leichenbestattung in Tibet. Monumenta Serica 
(Nettetal/Germany) 20 (1961), pp. 266-281.
 In Tibet gilt die Erdbestattung als entehrend und wird nur dann angewendet, wenn 
ansteckende oder epidemische Krankheiten zum Tode führten . . .. [Auch] die 
Wasserbestattung wird nach ansteckenden Krankheiten und bei Hingerichteten angewendet. 
Das heißt also, daß die Verbrennung die bevorzugte Bestattung ist, aber schwierig ist, wo keine 
Wälder sind. Die Luftbestattung, bei der Tiere die Überreste fressen, ist die 
zweiterwünschteste. Erst dann kommen die Beisetzung im Wasser, wobei die Leiche mit einem 
Stein beschwert wird, und in der Erde, wobei sie nach einem Jahr oder länger wieder 
ausgegraben wird.

[749] Hummel, Siegbert:  Sman-gyi-bla. 1 Abb. Bulletin of Tibetology (Namgyal Inst. of 
Tibetology - Gangtok; Sikkim) II, 2 (1965), pp. 9-15.
 Die Studie geht der Herkunft des Medizinbuddha im lamaistischen Pantheon nach und verweist 
dabei auf iranische, vor allem aber manichäische Traditionen, insbesondere aber auf den Weg 
über die Heimat des Padmasambhava, worauf auch die Kopfbedeckung des Heilgottes deutet. 
Die Verehrung des Sman-gyi-bla (Medizin-Buddha) ist besonders mit Shantirakshita im 8. Jh. 
nach Tibet gekommen. Unter den chinesischen Kaisern des 17./18. Jh. ist dann die Trinität des 
Heilbuddha mit Gautama und Amitabha beliebt. Im kosmischen Mandala nimmt der Heilgott den 
Osten als Sphäre des Lichtes ein. Seine Hilfe erstreckt sich aber neben der medizinischen auch 
auf den Schutz vor kosmischen Schäden (Gestirne, Klima).

[750] Hummel, Siegbert:  Tibetische Heilkunde. Literatur-Anzeiger der Schweizer Tibethilfe 
(Luzern) No. 3 (1975), pp. 15-19.
 Die Wurzeln der tibetischen Medizin reichen sowohl nach China als auch nach Indien, im 11. 
Jh. durch Rin-chen-bzang-po [958-1055], neben dem sich besonders gYu-thog-pa d. Ältere 
[708-833, nach anderer Quelle 786-911] sowie d. Jüngere [1112-1203] als Übersetzer und 
Vermittler indischer Medizin hervorgetan haben. Aus China kam für die Diagnose die 
Untersuchung des Pulses und des Urins sowie die Pockenschutzimpfung. Der bei Behandlung 
der tibetischen Medizin hervorgehobenen Lehre von den drei Grundpotenzen (Wind, Galle und 
Schleim) scheinen auch mediterrane Traditionen zugrunde zu liegen (vgl. Corpus 
Hippocraticum). Im heutigen Kontakt der lamaistischen Medizin mit artfremden Erkenntnissen 
ist das nötige Maß an Zeit von Bedeutung, in der das Neue organisch nur so fruchtbar 
aufgenommen werden kann. Aber auch an der Art und Weise unseres Umgangs mit der 
tibetischen Heilkunde, insbesondere mit ihrem geistigen Mutterboden, entscheiden sich 
Schicksal und Bedeutung der tibetischen Medizin bei ihrer Begegnung mit der westlichen (S. 

[751] Huntington, John C: The Phur-pa, Tibetan Ritual Daggers. (Artibus Asiae, Institute of Fine 
Arts, New York University, Supplementum XXXIII). 76 p., annex with 103 b/w figs. on pages i-
lxiii. Artibus Asiae, Ascona 1975.
 "The effects that a phur-pa may have are as varied as the reasons for performing the rituals. 
They may be divided into three basic functions: subduing malevolent spirits, doing harm to 
enemies and controlling the weather. In the first category fall many of the most commonly 
performed rituals, those against disease, danger, control of local spirits that affect crops, 
literally serving notice on local sa-bdag (an animate presence of the earth with affinities to a 
particular locality) that their piece of earth is about to be used for some human purposes, etc. 
One of the specific functions that the rDo-rje-gro-lod form of Padmasambhava is supposed to 
perform is the suppression of the sri. This is a vast class of spirits who are generally 
malevolent in nature and who affect many aspects of daily life. If they are not controlled, they 
will cause varieties of harm. The kinds of things the sri may affect are indicated by their 
names, for example, Pho-sri (Sri of man), Mo-sri (Sri of woman), Chung-sri (Sri of young 
[child]), Dur-sri (Sri of grave), bTsang-sri (Sri of nobility), dGra-sri (Sri of enemy), Dam-sri (Sri of 
vows), rNal- 'byor-pa 'i-dam-sri (Sri of vows of the [Buddhist] devotee), Med-sri (Sri of not 
being), and so on. The best description of the actions of the sri came from the Reverend N. 
Jigme when he stated that 'they just mess things up'. Implicit in this are accidents, errors, 
failures, illness and a variety of other mishaps. The phur-pa ritual is intended to avert these 
before they happen, or if they have already occurred or are in the process of occurring, to 
correct the situation or stop the action. For the rNying-ma-pa, and at least as an underlying 
basis for the rest of the Tibetan Buddhist sects, Guru Padmasambhava holds a fundamental 
position in the phur-pa iconology. He was, in effect, the popularization of the ritual for the 
Buddhists, able to transform himself into rTa-mgrin, one of the principal deities associated with 
the ritual."

[752] Hurvitz, Leon (1923- ): Scriptures of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma (The Lotus 
Sutra). Translated from the Chinese of Kumarajiva by Leon Hurvitz. xxviii, 421 p. Columbia 
University Press, New York 1976.
 Part of it refers to the Medicine Buddha. The Chinese text is the original Saddharma-
pundarikasutra, the Tibetan text Dam pa'i chos pad ma dkar po'i mdo.- Many other
translations exist, but are not listed here.

[753] Huth, Georg:  Nachträgliche Ergebnisse bezüglich der chronologischen Ansetzung der 
Werke im tibetischen Tanjur, Abtheilung mDo (Sutra), Band 117-124. Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (Leipzig) 49 (1895), pp. 279-284.
[754] Huth, Georg: Verzeichnis der im tibetischen Tanjur, Abtheilung mDo (Sutra), Band 117-
124, enthaltenen Werke. (Sitzungsberichte d. Königl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
15., Philos.-hist. Classe, pp. 267-286, sowie 1-19). Akademie, Berlin 1895.
 Beschreibt diesen Teil der Tanjur-Ausgabe der Bibliothek in Berlin, im Vergleich zur Arbeit von 
Schiefner (Tanjur-Ausgabe in St. Petersburg, Bulletin, Tome IV, 1847), der die medizinischen 
Texte enthält.

[755] Ibragimov, F(atikh) I(bragimovich) and Demberel, B: Essays on the History of the 
Development of Public Health in the Mongolian Peoples Republic (Russian). 264 p. "Medicine", 
Moscow 1977.
[756] Ibragimov, F(atikh) I(bragimovich) and Ibragimova, VS: Main Plant Drugs of Chinese 
Medicine. Edited by Prof. Gammerman (Russian). 412 p., ill.  Medical State Publishing House 
"Medgiz", Moscow 1960.
 Bibliography pp. 395-411.

[757] IK (sic!): Tibetan Medicine in the Primorsky Region (Russian). In: Review of the National 
Public Health Commissariat of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. No. 2-3, pp. 12-
113. Moscow 1925.
[758] Illion, Theodor (1898-1984): For more publications/weitere Veröffentlichungen: vide 
Theodor Burang (Pseudonym), sowie Th. Nolling (weiteres Pseudonym).
 Prof. Herbert Novak (pers. Mitteilung vom 8. 7. 1994) schreibt: "Eine biographische Arbeit ist 
mir nicht bekannt, ein Nachruf ist einige Wochen nach seinem Tod in den Salzburger 
Nachrichten erschienen. Ich war 38 Jahre mit Prof. Burang-Illion befreundet, Gespräche über 
sein Herkommen gab es kaum, der Name Nolling wurde nie erwähnt. Geboren in Kanada, 
stammte er aus der großen Familie der Plantagenets, einem Zweig des Englischen 
Königshauses, war Kind vermögender Eltern, hat sein Elternhaus jedoch in sehr jungen Jahren 
verlassen. Seine Tibet-Reisen fanden vor dem 2. Weltkrieg statt. In den Jahren zwischen 1970 
und 1980 war er Mitglied des "Club of Rome". Positiven Kontakt hatte er, wenn ich mich recht 
erinnere, mit dem italienischen Tibetologen G. Tucci. Bestattet ist er in Kuchl, einem Dorf 20 
km südlich von Salzburg (unweit des Hintereinganges des Friedhofes, der Felsblock mit seinem 
Namen ist nicht zu übersehen). Er war ein weiser, gütiger, hilfsbereiter und auch sehr 
humorvoller Mann, wir, die ihn kannten, vermissen ihn heute noch schmerzlich! Den Nachruf in 
den "Salzburger Nachrichten" kann ich Ihnen nicht senden: ich habe ihn nicht! Lebende 
Nachkommen gibt es keine; er war nie verheiratet. Der Nachlaß bestand aus einem Karton mit 
persönlichen Aufzeichnungen, überwiegend in tibetischer und chinesischer Schrift 

[759] Illion, Theodor: Darkness over Tibet. 192 p. Rider & Co., London (1933).
 Reprinted by Adventures Unlimited, USA, 1991.-  One has to read this book by Theodor Illion 
(Theodor Burang) in order to understand and to judge critically what he has written on Tibetan 
Medicine. This book "Darkness over Tibet" has nothing to do with Tibetan Medicine, but is one 
of his two reports on his claimed journey into Tibet in 1933/34 (the other book "Rätselhaftes 
Tibet", Hamburg 1936, English translation "In secret Tibet", London 1937, is just the same 
fantasy). I doubt seriously that he has ever been in Tibet or even near to the Tibetan border. 
His book(s) is absolutely "science fiction", and to my opinion a 100 % fantasy. In this respect 
it is unbelievable, in how many scientifically oriented papers and books Burang's (Illion's) 
publications on Tibetan Medicine are introduced and seriously quoted, in spite of the fact that 
he has never given a single line of published reference or reknown Tibetan doctor for his more 
than vague statements (Jürgen C. Aschoff).
[760] Illion, Theodor:  Beherrschung seelischer Kräfte durch den Tibetanischen Menschen. 
Schweizer Rundschau (Solothurn) 48 (1948/49), pp. 779-784.
 Der hier ausnahmesweise unter seinem echten Namen schreibende Autor beginnt seinen 
Artikel wie folgt: "Schon beim Studium der tibetischen Medizin fiel mir auf, daß manche 
Krankheitsbilder des innerasiatischen Menschen sich von denen des Abendländers unter-
scheiden. Körperliche und psychologische Reaktionen, selbst einfache Sinneswahr-
nehmungen des Tibeters, gleichen nicht immer solchen des abendländischen Menschen. 
Wer die tibetische Sprache kennt, kann schon auf Grund sprachlicher Vergleiche feststellen, 
daß die Bewohner des 'Daches der Welt' ein von dem unseren abweichendes Farbempfinden 
haben. Auch der Gehörsinn des Tibeters scheint anders zu sein. Dieser macht in der 
Lautbildung feine und feinste Unterschiede, die dem Abendländer auch bei gespanntester 
Aufmerksamkeit entgehen. Weit größer ist der Unterschied in der gedanklichen Einstellung des 
tibetanischen Menschen zur Umwelt, in der Bewertung der Dinge überhaupt. Für ihn ist das 
ganze Naturgeschehen ein einheitlicher Vorgang, in dem alles zusammenhängt, in dem es 
keinen Zufall gibt und in dem nicht nur die Erscheinungswelt, sondern auch das unsichtbare 
Weltgeschehen, ja selbst die Gedanken eine große Rolle spielen."

[761] Institute of Indigenous Medicines: Formulary of traditional Medicine of Bhutan. 390 p. 
Ministry of Social Services, Bhutan, Bhutan 1983.
[762] Ismailova, VN:  First Interrepublican Symposium on the Study of "mumiyah", Dushanbe, 
October 1965 (Russian). Meditsinskiy Zhurnal Uzbekistana (= Medical Journal of Uzbekistan) 
(Russian) 6 (1966), pp. 72-73.

[763] Ismailova, VN and Maklakova, AI: The Problem of Studying the Plant Drug mumiyah-asel 
(Russian). In: Doklady Tadzhiksgogo Farmakologicheskogo Instituta (= Reports of the Tadzhic 
Pharmacological Institute), pp.  256-258. Dushanbe 1966.
[764] Itskov, NYa and Kibal'chik, PN:  The Most Important Medicinal Plants in the Scientific 
and Folk Medicine of India (Russian). Bulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada (= Bulletin of the 
Main Botanical Garden, The USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian) No. 43 (Leningrad, 1961), 
pp. 88-93.
[765] Ivanov, JuP:  Mumiyah as Building Material of Rodents (Russian). News of the Academy 
of Sciences of the Kazakhian Soviet Socialist Republic (Russian) 4 (1972), pp. 33-41.

[766] Iyer, TG Ram Priamurthi: The Handbook of Indian Medicine. The Gems of Siddha System. 
540 p. Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi 1986.
 First edition: Erode, 1933, reprinted Delhi 1981.- "This book presents to the medical and 
scientific world a vivid account of the principles and practices of the Siddha system of 
medicine. This time-honoured system dates back to hoary antiquity and is the perennial source 
of other medical systems of the world. Its influence is traceable in the Persian, Hebrew, Greek, 
Roman, Arabic, Chinese, Tibetan and even in modern European systems of medicine. Special 
attention is devoted to the chapters on 'Tri-dosas', pulse, moral code for physician, general 
principles of hygiene, children's diseases, sexual science, nursing, personal hygiene and 
sanitary principles."

[767] Jacquot, F:  La Tartarie et le Tibet. Topographie et Climat. Hygiène, Médecine. Gazette 
médicale de Paris 9/10 (1854, 1855). 1854: pp. 607-612, 643-649, 671-676; 1855: pp. 421-
[768] Jaggi, OP: Folk Medicine. (History of Science, Technology and Medicine in India, 
Vol. III). 228 p. Atma Ram & Sons, Delhi/Lucknow 1982.
 This book describes the roots of many aspects of Tibetan Medicine in great length and depth 
and gives the most valuable background for understanding the complexity of Tibetan Medicine: 
"The Ayurvedic treatises of Charaka and Susruta did not and could not get rid of magico-
religious concepts of medicine. The Uttara-sthana of Susrutasamhita describes nine different 
diseases of children caused by nine malignant beings, the grahas.- Divination: Samhitas of 
Charaka and Susruta do not lag behind in divination of the outcome of the disease in a patient 
through omens and dreams. This aspect of the practice of medicine is widely prevalent in all 
the tribal communities also."

[769] Jaggi, OP: Yogic and Tantric Medicine. (History of Science, Technology and Medicine in 
India, Vol. V). 225 p. Atma Ram & Sons, Delhi/Lucknow 1990.
 Third, revised and enlarged edition. First edition 1973.- "Tibetan equivalents of the Buddhist 
Tripitaka, they represent immense collections of works translated primarily from the Sanskrit 
and secondarily from the Chinese language, between the seventh and the thirteenth centuries. 
These collections are of considerable value as most of their Sanskrit originals are lost or are 
now not available. Tanjur, though a commentary on Kanjur, is a huge work, almost twice as 
large as the former and consists of approximately 225 large volumes. Some parts of it are 
believed to date back to the seventh century AD, though the major portion was composed 
later. It is divided into two main classes: rGyud, corresponding to the Sanskrit Tantra, and Mdo 
or Do, corresponding to the Sanskrit Sutra (science and literature). About five volumes of 
Tanjur are devoted to medicine while some others to astronomy or astrology. Among other 
things, Mdo contains a work on preparing quick-silver, which it describes as the most powerful 
agent for subduing every sickness and improving the vigour of the body. Another work 
describes the turning of metals into gold. Rasa-Siddhiæastra, Dhatu-vadaæastra or Dhatu-
vadaæastroddhrti, Sarveævara-rasayana and Dhatuvada, are all contained in the Tanjur and 
mention other different alchemical processes. Dhatuvada describes methods of turning base 
metals into silver and gold. Sarveævararasayana describes methods of purifying mercury, tin, 
silver and gold, and making a preparation of metals which can heal all sorts of diseases and 
make an old man virtually young."

[770] Jain, Sudhanshu Kumar (1926- ): Medicinal Plants. With illustrations. xi, 178 p. National 
Book Trust, Delhi 1957.
 Revised Edition 1968; same title (with Robert A. DeFilipps) by Algonac/Mich., 2 vols, 848 p., 

[771] Jain, Sudhanshu Kumar: Bibliography of Ethnobotany. iii, 157 p. Botanical Survey of 
India, Dept. of Environment, Howrah/India 1984.
[772] Jam-dpal-rdo-rje: vide Lokesh Chandra, New Delhi 1971.
[773] Jampal Kunzang: vide Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang.
[774] Jampa Gyaltsen Drakton: vide Drakton, Jampa Gyaltsen.
[775] Jampa Kelsang: vide Jhampa Kelsang.

[777] Janes, Craig R:  The Corruptions of Desire: The Embodiment of Social and Political 
Conflict in Modern Tibet. Paper presented at the American Anthropological Association, 20th 
November 1993  (unpublished, to be published 1996 ?).
 "My intent in this presentation is to describe and analyse an important category of sickness in 
modern Tibet. Given the generic term 'rlung' after the humor, air, which is believed to underlie 
its expression or cause it, this sickness is widely believed to be increasing in prevalence 
concomitant with the social and political changes that have swept through Tibet, with 
increasing force, since 1951. I will argue that rlung sickness has come to constitute a 
legitimate avenue for expressing anger, sadness, and frustration over Chinese political 
oppression most directly, and less directly, the changes that have disrupted Tibetan social and 
family life with the introduction of Chinese social and economic reforms. 
In classical Tibetan medical theory the humor rlung is considered the most important of three 
humors: it is that which animates, gives rise to action, and brings sentience to physical matter. 
Simply glossed, rlung might be defined as 'life force'. Rlung, much more so than the humors of 
bile and phlegm, represents the fundamental integration of the body and mind. The discrete 
symptom clusters of rlung imbalance are related to the spatial orientation of rlung in the body. 
It inhabits five critical life spaces: the brain, where it empowers the sense, cognition, and 
emotion; the chest, where it gives rise to respiration and speech; the heart where it compels 
the heart muscle to beat and the blood to circulate; the stomach and intestines where it causes 
the transformation of food into energy; and in the genitals, bladder and colon, where it 
empowers reproduction and elimination. The disorders or imbalances of rlung manifest 
themselves in unpleasant sensations in these loci. Most significant and frequently experienced 
are those symptoms which derive from disorders of rlung in the brain, heart, and chest. In the 
brain, rlung may disrupt the 'life vein', causing disordered thinking, depression, and insanity. In 
less severe forms rlung causes dizziness, insomnia, dysphoria, fainting, ringing in the ears, and 
impaired sensory perception. In the heart rlung contributes to palpitations, 'heart wings', and a 
rapid, fluttering heart beat. In the chest area, rlung causes shortness of breath and symptoms 
of pain in the sternum which often goes through to the upper spine (especially significant is 
pain between the 6th and 7th cervical vertebra). The most commonly diagnosed rlung 
imbalances are those which affect the heart (termed snying rlung); the circulation of blood 
(high, low, or 'variable' blood pressure; termed khrag rlung); and rlung which affects the 'life 
vein' or nerve (termed srog rlung)."

[778] Janes, Craig R:  The Transformations of Tibetan Medicine. Medical Anthropology 
Quarterly (Arlington/VA) 9, 1 (1995), pp. 6-39.
 20th-century Tibetan medicine. I quote some passages from this brilliant and highly interesting 
work: "Prior to the dramatic events of the 20th century, the professional sector of Tibetan medi-
cine was quite heterogeneous. On the basis of This article presents a cultural and historical 
analysis of my interviews with elderly Tibetan physicians and a review of historical works, phy-
sicians can be sorted into several groups according to their training, practice, and their relation-
ships to the formal organs of government. The first category of physicians are those whose trai-
ning and practice were rooted in individual contractual relationships. Students were recruited into 
medicine by a physician-relative or would appeal to well-known physicians to be taken on as 
novices. These 'lineages' of physicians were often seen as descending from one of the great 
historical physicians of Tibetan medicine. 
Privately trained and practicing doctors were primarily associated with the secular aristocracy in 
Tibet; that is, they were members of or attached to land estates. There was, however, 
significant variation in the socioeconomic background and status of these physicians. Some were 
itinerant herbalists who made a regular round of villages to peddle medicines. Others practised 
medicine as a sideline to other occupations, even farming, and derived relatively little income 
from it. Some well-known physicians who were in demand as teachers would open private 
(secular) academies and accept small numbers of students to pass on their knowledge more 
effectively and perhaps to enhance their incomes. There were at least two such academies 
operating in 1951, one in Lhasa and one in Shigatse.-  From 1951 to 1959, institutions of 
Tibetan medicine were generally tolerated by the Chinese, who were more concerned with 
creating conditions favourable to the introduction of what they termed 'democratic reforms'. The 
period from 1951 to 1959 can thus be described as a reasonably comfortable one for leadership 
in the Mentsikhang and other local facilities and medical schools. Overtly, the Chinese 
demonstrated great respect for the integrity, 'scientific basis', and socialist potential of Tibetan 
medicine. Overtures were courteous, and many of the physicians and students then practising or 
studying in the Mentsikhang were mollified by the obvious respect given Tibetan medicine by 
visiting Han medical experts.- The class of 1963 had finished memorizing the Root Tantras and 
was just beginning the practical portion of their training, about one year away from graduation, 
when the Cultural Revolution swept into Tibet. The intent of revolutionary activity in Tibet during 
this period, put simply, was to 'destroy the social and cultural fabric of Tibet's traditional way of 
life'. Depending on their class status and prior political activities, many of the class of 1963 were 
sent to rural communes and worked as agricultural labourers or herders.- By 1973 Tibetan 
medicine as an institution had virtually disappeared. The Mentsikhang had remained open during 
the Cultural Revolution years, but the remaining staff - most only marginally qualified to practice 
medicine - were more involved in political 'struggles' than in the practice of medicine. Beginning 
in 1974, however, local Health Bureau officials began to recognize, slowly but reluctantly, the 
importance of Tibetan medicine,
if only as a tradition that was 'culturally compatible' with the needs of the population - 
particularly rural communities - they were serving.- 
The social changes that swept through China with the rise of Deng Xiaoping to power in 1976 
did not result in significant policy changes in Tibet until 1980. A training program in Tibetan 
medicine was launched in Lhasa, followed shortly thereafter by programs in Tsethang, Shigatse, 
and Chamdo (the major prefectural capitals) under the administration of the prefectural health 
bureaus. Senior physicians, most of whom were trained before 1959, were recruited to instruct 
these new classes, and they were permitted to reintroduce into instruction the four roots tantras, 
although party attitudes toward the religious content of these documents remained, and remains, 
ambivalent. The head of the Mentsikhang launched what he termed an 'emergency' plan to find 
Tibetan physicians who had been scattered throughout Tibet by the revolt of 1959, the Cultural 
Revolution, and Mao's 'sending down' policies. Efforts were also made at this time to collect the 
physicians trained during the 1970s and put them through intensive retraining programs and 
workshops based on the Root Tantras.- When Tibetan medicine was formally resanctioned in 
1980, it was elevated to a state-level position in the health bureaucracy, given a liberal budget 
for building and day-to-day operations, and permitted to redevelop its curriculum along more 'tra-
ditional' lines.- The drive to modernize Tibetan medicine and bring it under the control of the 
state has by no means reached completion. Struggles wage in the Mentsikhang over its future 
course. Many younger physicians favor continuing along a modern path, bringing scientific 
methods to bear on Tibetan medicine and adopting biomedical categories, medicines, and tech-
nology. Others are becoming increasingly critical of the path taken by the Mentsikhang in ratio-
nalizing Tibetan medicine and have become vocal in criticizing its relationship to the govern-
ment.- The director of the Mentsikhang, trained in the 'old society' and being himself the last 
representative of a well-known medical lineage, confided that he felt 'torn into a number of 
pieces; pulled in a number of directions'. He believes that to maintain its legitimacy at the level 
of the state, the institution must respond affirmatively to pressures for rationalization - in form if 
not in content - if Tibetan medicine is to continue to develop. But he also recognizes clearly the 
real possibility that Tibetan Medicine will become biomedically dominated, impersonal, and fully 
materialistic in its perspective, and he has tried to soften the effects of the policies promulgated 
by the Health Bureau to do just that".
[779] Jankowski, S, Jankowski, A, Zielinska, S, and Walczuk, M:  Influence of Padma 28 on 
the Spontaneous Bacterial Activity of Blood Serum in Children Suffering from Recurrent 
Infections of the Respiratory Tract. Phytotherapy Research (London) 5 (1991), pp. 120-123.
 The effect of Padma 28 on spontaneous bactericidal activity (SBA) of blood serum was tested 
in 19 children suffering from recurrent infections of the respiratory tract. SBA was tested 
against three bacterial strains: Salmonella typhimurium 568, and Escherichia coli strains 044 
and 055. 
A considerable increase (bactericidal index <2) of SBA was noted in 12 children (63.1%). In 
four children (21%) the increase of SBA was less pronounced (bactericidal index >2). In three 
children (15.7%) no effect of Padma 28 on SBA of the serum was observed.

[780] Jhampa Kalsang: vide Jhampa Kelsang Tsipa Kachupa. See also Yeshe Donden: Ambrosia 
Heart Tantra (The): The Secret Oral Teachings on the Eight Branches of the Science of Healing.

[781] Jhampa Kelsang (Tsipa Kachupa):  An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine in Question - 
Answer Format. The Tibet Society Bulletin (Bloomington) 14 (1979), pp. 38-44.
 Knowledgeable yet simple answers to the first questions usually asked on urine-analysis, on 
pulse diagnosis and on mantras for medical treatment. Also description of the human body 
according to Tibetan Medicine.

[781a] Jhampa Kelsang Tsipa Kachupa:  Traditional Community Role of the Tibetan Astro-
Practitioner. The Tibet Journal (Dharamsala) 27, No. 3 (1992), pp. 47-50.

[782] Jindati:  Experiences on the pill. Wisdom. Magazine of the Foundation for the 
Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (London/Ulverston) May (1983), pp. 28-29.
 Jindati is a German nun and the subject of the article is her taking the "Flower Essence Pills" 
in Dharamsala together with 29 other students and her experiences (M. Winder).- "Yogis over 
the centuries have developed the power to extract life-sustaining nutrients from the simplest 
materials; Milarepa [1040-1123], for example, happily lived on nettles. Another source is a 
small brown pill made from the petals of flowers, the prescription for which is in the sutras. It 
is known in Tibetan as chulen [tib. bcud-len] and means, literally, 'to take the essence'. 
According to Geshe Jampa Wangdu, a Dharamsala lama who successfully spent several 
periods of many years sustained only by flower pills, they have many advantages. The body 
becomes light and incredibly comfortable. Renunciation is strengthened. Desire for food 
virtually disappears. And of course the hours normally spent thinking about, preparing and 
eating food can now be spent in meditation. The greatest advantage to meditators is that the 
mind becomes very strong and able to penetrate deeply into the meditation. And, Geshela says, 
the pills are very good for the health generally. Wrinkles go and the meditator looks years 

[783] Johnson, Robert Marlow: The Transpersonal Exploration of Unconscious Processes 
Through a Centering and Projective Artform [Ph.D. Thesis, Union for Experimenting Colleges/U. 
Without Walls and Union Graduate School]. 402 p., Ohio 1988.
 The focus of the study is a specific technique of Art Therapy designed  from the Mandala 
traditions of Tibet and from the sandpaintings of the American Indians. A brief historical review 
of these traditions introduces the topic in the first chapter. A series of 23 mandalas done by a 
client shows the serial element of transformation over a three-month period. A reflective 
section follows to show the current state of the literature on the subject of the unconscious in 
therapy. Authors from many disciplines are presented giving their viewpoint on issues related 
to the mandala and its use in therapy. Their expertise ranges from Art Psychotherapy to Fine 
Arts and to Transpersonal Psychology.

[784] Jolly, Julius (1849-1932): Medicin. (Grundriss der Indo-arischen Philologie und 
Altertumskunde III. Band, 10. Heft). 140 S. Karl Trübner, Strassburg 1901.
  Interessantes frühes Werk mit Quellenangaben. Zur tibetischen Medizin vermerkt der Autor: "H. 
Laufers treffliche 'Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tibetischen Medicin' bieten jetzt eine bequeme 
Übersicht. Von den im 8. Jahrhundert übersetzten 'Vier Tantras' abgesehen (Sanskritoriginal 
unbekannt) sind eine ganze Reihe medizinischer Sanskrittexte aus dem Sanskrit in das Tibetische 
übersetzt worden; daher basiert die tibetische Medizin größtenteils auf der indischen, ich 
erwähne z.B. aus der Anatomie die 9 Öffnungen des Körpers und die 900 Nerven, aus der 
Physiologie und Pathologie die consequent durchgeführte Lehre von den drei Grundsäften, aus 
der Diätetik die Schädlichkeit der Kombination von Milch mit Fischen und der Unterdrückung 
natürlicher Entleerungen, aus der Pharmakologie die drei Myrobalanen, den blauen Lotus (utpala), 
schwarzen Pfeffer, Knoblauch, Ingwer, Zimmt, die Costuswurzel (kustha), aus der Chirurgie das 
Schröpfen mit Ochsenhörnern und die Bezeichnung der Instrumente als Hirsekorn, Vogelschnabel, 
Tiermaul u.dgl., aus der Schwangerschaftsdiagnose die Kennzeichen für das Geschlecht des 
Fötus. Mehrere tibetische Werke wurden in das Mongolische übersetzt, auch bei den Burjaten, 
Dsungaren, Tanguten, Wolgakalmüken, sowie bei den Leptscha und anderen tibetischen Völkern 
des Himalaya herrscht die tibetische Medicin."

[785] Jolly, Julius: Indian Medicine. Translated from the German and supplemented with notes 
by C. G. Kashikar. Foreworded by J. Filliozat. xx, 238 p. C. G. Kashikar, Poona/India 1951.
 2nd revised edition by Munshiram Manoharlal Publ., Dehli 1977.

[786] Jork, Klaus (1937- ): Medizin in Tibet und Deutschland - Erfahrungen mit der Beratung 
eines medizinischen Projekts in einer fremden Kultur. In: Medizin in multikultureller 
Herausforderung (Hrsg. F. J. Illhardt und W. Effelsberg) [= Medizinische Forschung 7], 
Workshop der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz am 4./5. Dezember 1992, 
pp. 87-107. G. Fischer, Stuttgart/Jena/New York 1994.
 "Unsere westliche Medizin basiert auf der Nosologie, der Krankheitslehre, hinter der der 
einzelne Mensch sehr leicht die Besonderheiten seiner Persönlichkeit ebenso wie die seines 
individuellen Krankheitsbildes verliert. Tibetische Ärzte hingegen sehen im Vordergrund die 
Individualität des Kranken und verfolgen das Ziel, gestörte Gleichgewichte wiederherzustellen. 
Unverständnis ist bei uns die Folge, wenn die gleiche Krankheit bei verschiedenen Patienten 
dann völlig unterschiedlich behandelt wird. Konstitutionsmerkmale haben dabei die gleiche 
Bedeutung in der Diagnostik wie Beschwerden, über die der Kranke klagt. Den naturwissen-
schaftlichen Arbeitsbereichen der Pathophysiologie und Biochemie entspricht in der tibetischen 
Heilkunde die Drei-Energien-Lehre, die empirisch definiert wird. 1. Began-Störungen, auch 
'Schleim'-Krankheiten genannt, werden durch die Elemente Erde und Wasser bedingt, brechen 
in der Regenzeit aus (Sommer), am frühen Abend (nachmittags) und bei Morgengrauen. 
2. Lung-Störungen, auch 'Wind'-Krankheiten genannt, sind durch Störungen der Elemente Wind 
bzw. Luft und den Raum bedingt, brechen im Herbst aus, am Mittag und um Mitternacht. 3. 
Tipa-Störungen, auch 'Galle'-Krankheiten genannt, sind durch Störungen des Elements Feuer 
bedingt, brechen vor allem im Frühling aus, in der Dämmerung, also gegen Abend, und am 
Morgen. Tibetische Heilkunde als traditionelle Naturheilkunde ohne naturwissenschaftliche 
Grundlagen - was können wir damit anfangen und welche Bedeutung kann das für ein 
Curriculum der medizinischen Ausbildung haben? Wenn wir bei Überlegungen zu einem 
Curriculum für das Medizinstudium vor allem nach dem Anliegen des Patienten fragen, dann 
sehe ich als in der Praxis tätiger Arzt vor allem drei Bereiche, nämlich 1. mitfühlende 
Zuwendung, 2. einfühlendes Verständnis und 3. Anleitung zur Selbsthilfe. Die Anleitung zur 
Selbsthilfe betrifft dabei keineswegs nur gesundheitliche Fragen, sondern individuell zu 
beantwortende Anliegen, wie - kritisch-konstruktives Sehen der eigenen Lebenssituation;
- Befreien von Lebensangst oder alltäglichen Ängsten; - Hilfen bei der Problemlösung von 
Krisensituationen; - umfassende Beratung über die Sinn- und Zielorientierung des Lebens sowie 
über Lebensweisen."

[787] Jork, Klaus and Gerke, Barbara: Tibetische Heilkunst. In: Alternativen in der Medizin. 
Behandlungsformen zwischen Wissenschaft und Empirie (Hrsg. Klaus Jork), pp. 205-220, 
Hippokrates Verlag, Stuttgart 1993.
 "Da im tibetischen System der Heilkunde Religion und Medizin nicht getrennt voneinander 
betrachtet werden, ist der Gesundheitsbegriff allumfassend definiert und führt zu Behandlungs-
möglichkeiten auf den folgenden Ebenen. Gesundheit durch Dharma (die Lehren des Buddha) 
umfaßt die Ausgewogenheit des Geistes und seiner inneren Natur durch Verstehen und 
Praktizieren der buddhistischen Lehren: Gesundheit durch tantrische Heilkunst. Sie entspricht 
dem Fließen der Energien in den feinstofflichen Kanälen, die z.B. durch Klänge und Farben 
wahrgenommen und in Visualisierungsübungen und Meditation benutzt werden: Gesundheit 
durch somatische Heilkunst, die dem Ausgleich der drei Energien Wind, Galle und Schleim und 
ihren Funktionsabläufen im Körper dient. Das System der tibetischen Heilkunde basiert auf 
Empirie und einer geistes- sowie sozialwissenschaftlichen Erkenntnistheorie und ist demzufolge 
mit den Gesetzen des naturwissenschaftlichen Verständnisses bis heute nicht evaluierbar. Ein 
Wirksamkeitsnachweis der Therapiearten kann nicht isoliert vom System erfolgen, da er den 
universaldiagnostischen Ansatz zwangsläufig vernachlässigen würde. Um die tibetische Heil-
kunde für den Westen nutzbar zu machen, ist es notwendig, die ihr zugrundeliegenden Prinzi-
pien in westliche Denkweise, Sprache und Verhaltensweisen zu übersetzen. Dann könnte die 
tibetische Heilkunde neue Anregungen für die Zusammenhänge von Gesundheit und Krank-
heit geben, zumal dem Geist und dem Bewußtsein eine weit größere Bedeutung zuerkannt wird 
als in der naturwissenschaftlich orientierten Medizin."

[788] Josayma, Tashi Tsering:  vide Tsering, Tashi Josayma. 

[789] Jumayev, VK: The Surgery of Abu Ali Ibn Sina and its Historical Source (Russian). 271 
p., Tashkent 1965.
 Abu (Ali) Ibn Sina = Avicenna (981-1037). For his relationship with Tibetan medicine see  [104] 
Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B and Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Methodological Problems of the 
Comparative Study of Avicenna's Scientific Heritage and Indo-Tibetan Medicine, Tashkent 1980.

[790] Ju Mi-pham: Rin chen dngul chu sbyor sde phyogs bsdebs: collected works on mercury 
formulations (Rasasiddhishastra). Reproduced from rare manuscripts and Sde-dge woodblocks 
from the library of late Dr. Jamyang Tashi, Dr. Tenzin Chodrak and Dr. Lobsang Tashi (in 
Tibetan). 442 p. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala 1986.
[791] Kachka, A:  Treatment by Lamaists (Russian). Rebus (Russian) No. 32/33 (1884), pp. 
(32), 299-301; (33), 309-311.
[792] Kalweit, Holger and Schenk, Amelie:  Der Doppelkörper als Grundlage der Trance in der 
tibetischen Psychologie. Curare (Wiesbaden) 18, Nr. 2 (1995), pp. 467-495.
 "Das, was wir in der westlichen Kultur als Trance bezeichnen wird im Umfeld des tibetischen 
Buddhismus mit dem Trikaya-Modell gedeutet. Dabei wird ausgegangen von der Existenz eines 
immateriellen, halbmateriallen und materiellen Körpers, der drei kosmologischen Dimensionen 
angehören, nämlich dem Dharmakaya, dem Sambhogakaya und dem Nirmanakaya. Trance wird 
definiert als Kontaktaufnahme, bzw. als Ablösung (thim rim) des zweiten halbmateriellen vom 
ersten physischen Körper. Dieser uns hier beschäftigende lung-, sog-, tigle-, ka-, Wind-, Regen-
bogen- und Sanskrit prana- oder vayu-Körper entspricht dem, was die Griechen unter Psyche, 
Plasma oder Pneuma verstanden. Trance ist daher definiert als Ablösungsprozeß des zweiten 
halbstofflich-psychischen Körpers vom Leib. Sämtliche Transcecharakteristika und -fähigkeiten 
sind jene des Doppelkörpers; und dieser lebt in der 'Genußdimension' des Sambhogakaya. 
Sambhogakaya ist darüber hinaus gleichbedeutend mit jener Zone, in die wir nach dem Tod 
eintreten, und wo wir mit unserem psychischen Körper weiterexistieren. Deshalb ist Trance, 
wenn voll ausgeprägt - es gibt unterschiedliche Grade - ein Zustand des 'Genuß- und Glück-
seligkeitskörper', und wir befinden uns in der Todeszone. Der psychische Körper, der allein den 
Tod überlebt, wird daher in Kategorien psychologischer Prinzipien beschrieben. Jeder Medi-
tierende oder Schamane hat sich während seiner Initiationszeit auf einige dieser psychischen 
Aspekte oder Gottheiten (lha) spezialisiert. Diese lha oder die eigene psychische Energie können 
mittels konkreter Trancetechniken aktiviert werden, wodurch es zur Ablösung des 
Doppelkörpers kommt. Die tiefste und wirksamste Trance oder Erleuchtung gelingt jenen, 
die eine klare Ablösung erreichen, da ein Klebenbleiben an der Physis zu einer verwaschenen 
Erkenntnis bzw. beim Schamanen zu einer falschen Einschätzungen der Krankheit des Patienten 

[793] Kania, Ireneusz: Médecine tibétaine dans les collections du Musée Ethnographique de 
Cracovie. In: Proceedings of the Csoma de Körös Memorial Symposium held at Mátrafüred, Hun-
gary, 24th - 30th September 1976 (Ed. L. Ligeti), pp. 153-160. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1978.
[794] Kania, Ireneusz:  Tibetan Medicine, Illustrated in Original Texts. Presented and translated 
by the Venerable Rechung Rinpoche and (sic!) Jampal Kunzang. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 
University of California Press 1976. Journal of the American Oriental Society (Baltimore) 98 
(1978), pp. 137-139.
 "It would of course be out of place here to enumerate all the achievements of Tibetan 
medicine: its pharmacopoeia, which is arousing much interest today, especially in the USSR, its 
techniques of testing the pulse and examining the urine; sitology; medical ethics (again based 
on Buddhism); etc. - or its weak points. We get a fairly good idea about all this from 'Tibetan 
medicine', despite its shortcomings. Among these, let us mention the arbitrariness and 
scantiness of the selections from classical texts for the first part of the book.. . . Therefore, we 
may not consider the first part of the book under review as satisfactory from the scientific 
point of view, although its value for the research into Tibetan medicine is undeniable. The 
second part, being the complete biography of the famous Tibetan doctor, the Elder gYu thog 
Yon tan mgon po, who lived from 786 to 911 (sic!) [708-833] partly in the era of King Khri 
srong lde btsan [755-797], constitutes an excellent example of the Tibetan biographical style, 
conventional, yet containing many curious folklore elements and imbued with a peculiar poetry. 
For these reasons it is highly interesting not only for the historians of Tibetan medicine, but 
also for ethnologists, anthro-
pologists and, above all, for the average reader. The publication of that biography is an 
important event in Tibetology. Despite its defects, this also applies to the book as a whole."

[795] Kaplanian, Patrick:  Le chamanisme au Ladakh. Nouvelle Revue Tibétaine 8 (1984), 
pp. 55-63.

[796] Kaplanian, Patrick:  Une seance de la Lhamo de Sabu. Acta Biologica Montana 
(Pau/France) 5 (1985), pp. 135-147.
 This issue of Acta Biologica Montana is entitled: Ladakh, Himalaya Occidental, Ethnologie, 
Ecologie. Recent Research No. 2.

[797] Kaplanian, Patrick: La Maladie en tant que (s)notpa. In: Wissenschaftsgeschichte und 
gegenwärtige Forschungen in Nordwest-Indien. Internationales Kolloquium vom 9. bis 13. März 
1987 in Herrnhut. Herausgegeben und redigiert von Lydia Icke-Schwalbe und Gudrun Meier. 
(Dresdener Tagungsberichte. 2.), pp. 185-205. Staatl. Museum für Völkerkunde, Dresden 
 On various disease demons in Ladakh. Their functions compared with those in Tibet. 
Information on states of dissociation and how far effects like diseases are due to fear and 
belief in demonic forces. On states of possession by ghosts and witches. The phenomenon of 
spar-kha which, besides the Chinese trigrams, can mean a state of high spirituality or good 
fortune or a forceful personality. Also on how possession affects oracles and mediums (M. 

[798] Kaplunoff, P: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tibetischen Medicin. (Inaugural-Thesis, Med. 
Fakultät, Universität München). 27 S. Kastner & Lossen, München 1897.
 Zwar einfache, aber recht exakte Zusammenfassung und Diskussion der burjatisch-tibetischen 
Medizin. Abgehandelt werden Ausbildungsstätten, Bezug zur chinesischen Medizin, 
medizinische Literatur, die Medizinphilosophie, aber auch Anatomie, Physiologie und die 
Heilkunde. Zur genuin tibetischen Medizin in Tibet proper konnte der Autor zum damaligen 
Zeitpunkt noch nicht vorstoßen, da die Quellen noch nicht zur Verfügung standen.

[799] Kar-ma Chos-'phel: Bdud-rtsi sMan gyi 'Khrung dpe legs bshad nor-bu'i phreng mdzes 
(Materia Medica of the Nectar of the Medicine, entitled "The Beautiful Precious Rosary of the 
Elegant Sayings". 770 p., addit. 58 fig. (57 col.) on 14 plates. Tibet Publication, Lhasa 1993.
 This is one of the few exceptions to my rule not to list Tibetan original books: however, this is 
a wonderful and competent publication on Tibetan medicinal plants and their properties.

[800] Karimov, VA and Makhsumov, MN: The Effect of the Oriental Plant Drug mumiyah on 
Regenerative Processes (Russian). In: First Interrepublican Symposium on the Experimental 
Study of "mumiyah", Dushanbe October 1965 (Russian), pp. 19-23. Dushanbe 1965.
[801] Karmay, Samten G:  Vairocana and the rGyud-bzhi. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for 
the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 12 (1989), pp. 19-31.
 "The origin of this medical work has been a heated subject, not only among the physicians, 
but also among the general Tibetan scholastics since around the fourteenth century. It seems 
that the first work which refers to Vairocana's connection with the rGyud-bzhi is the rNam-thar 
bka' rGya-can, written by Sum-sTon Ye-shes-gzungs, a disciple of gYu-thog Yon-tan mgon-po 
(II, the second or the Younger). According to this rNam-thar, the rGyud-bzhi was first explained 
by the Buddha Rig-pa'i ye-shes [i.e. Chandrananda = Vidyajnana] in Oddiyana.  It finally came 
into the hands of the Pandita Zla-ba dga'-ba [i.e. Chandranandana] of Kashmir from whom 
Vairocana obtained it. The latter then showed it to King Khri Srong lde-btsan (755-797) who 
concealed it inside a pillar on the second floor of the main temple in bSam-yas. After 150 
years, it was taken out by Gra-ba mNgon-shes, who handed it over to his disciple dBus-pa Dar-
grags, who in turn entrusted it to 'Tsho-byed dKon-skyabs. The latter finally gave it to gYu-
thog Yon-tan mgon-po [the Younger]. Besides this, there is another gTer-ma tradition which is 
associated with the Bonpo. 
The Bonpo gTer-ston [a discoverer, revealer and teacher of the hidden text] Khu-tsha Zla-'od is 
believed to have 'rediscovered' some medical texts which are however never specified and he 
is often identified with gYu-thog Yon-tan mgon-po by both the Bonpo and rNying-ma-pa 
traditions. 'Jam-dbyangs mkhyen-brtse (1820-1892), while accepting more or less the gTer-ma 
tradition coming from the gTer-ston Gra-ba mNgon-shes also affirms in his mTshan-tho that the 
Bonpo gTer-ston is, in fact, one and the same person as gYu-thog Yon-tan mgon-po, and that it 
was he who made the 'discovery' of the rGyud-bzhi. However that may be, this identification 
was not acquiesced to even by his own disciple, Kong-sprul Yon-tan rgya-mtsho (1813-1899) 
[see also Christa Klaus, Wiesbaden 1985].- We now come to the other tradition according to 
which the rGyud-bzhi was composed by gYu-thog Yon-tan mgon-po, the second (hereafter gYu-
thog). This tradition goes back to the gYu-thog bla-rGyud lo-rgyus. 
It is a work concerning the history of the gYu-thog bla-sgrub, but its author is not known and it 
was probably written by a disciple of gYu-thog. According to this Lo-rgyus, when gYu-thog 
completed writing the rGyud-bzhi, Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, gods and goddesses appeared in his 
vision and congratulated him for his most astonishing achievement. We have therefore two 
divergent accounts concerning the origin of the rGyud-bzhi both issuing directly from close 
disciples of gYu-thog himself. This situation seems to have led to the formation of two 
separate groups, each determined to uphold its own tradition. The contest between the two 
groups was on the question of whether the rGyud-bzhi is a translation of an Indian work or 
simply written by gYu-thog. The debate, which continued throughout the centuries, happily did 
not involve any sectarian dogmatic or philosophical views. Both parties consisted of authors 
belonging to different schools."

[802] Karpovich, VN: Phytochemical Investigation of the Transbaikalian Types of the Gentiana 
ssp. Plant. In: Problemy Farmakognozii (= Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 1 (Publications of 
the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 12) (Russian), pp. 201-208. Leningrad 
[803] Karpovich, VN: Preliminary Investigation of Plants from Oriental Prescriptions for Cardio-
vascular Diseases. In: Problemy Farmakognozii (= Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 1 
tions of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute, Vol. 12) (Russian), pp. 195-200. 
Leningrad 1961.
 [804] Kashin, N:  Note on the Medicinal Properties of "guzhir" [= Asian Glycyrrhiza, used in 
Tibetan Medicine] (Russian). Irkutskie Eparchial'nye Vedomosti  (=The Irkutsk Eparchial 
Review) (Russian) 49, Appendix (1864), pp. 739-743.
[805] Kaufmann, Richard (1914-  ): Die Krankheit erspüren. Tibets Heilkunst und der Westen. 
203 S.  Piper, München/Zürich 1985.
 Das Buch erhebt den Anspruch, alle Aspekte der tibetischen Medizin zu behandeln: theore-
tische und praktische, geschichtliche und gegenwärtige und noch viel mehr, und zwar auf 
weniger als 200 journalistisch geschriebenen Seiten: Es wird vom Autor nicht beachtet, daß es 
heute möglich ist, in direkte Verbindung mit traditionell ausgebildeten tibetischen Ärzten zu 
treten, so daß die wichtigste Quelle tibetischer Medizin unbeachtet und unbearbeitet bleibt. 
Fachausdrücke sind oft mangelhaft oder falsch wiedergegeben (aus einer Rezension von
 J. Andersson).- Andererseits jedoch ist es ein ungemein wichtiges und wertvolles Buch wegen 
der umfangreich recherchierten biographischen Daten zur berühmten burjatisch- tibetischen 
Arzt-Familie Badmajeff.

[806] Kaysic, Mik:  Dream Interpretation in Tibetan Buddhism. Drepung Loseling Magazine: 
Dreloma (Mundgod, Karnataka/Indien) No. 11 (1984), pp. 21-34.
 "As in any other system of interpretation, dreams in Tibet were divided according to their impor-
tance: Small dreams pertaining to the individual and big dreams, which occurred mostly in 
tion with manifestations of a religious nature and which were cultivated with care. 'Big dreams' 
which were either omens, predictions etc. or the manifestation of deities could happen to anyone 
but usually occurred most in those who cultivated them, namely great lamas and spiritually 
developed individuals. Since these comprised a large percentage of the population, extraordinary 
dreams were a relatively common occurrence. There were many advanced methods to develop 
dream power, either to enhance spiritual development or simply aimed at achieving supernatural 
powers for worldly motives. The greatest difference between Western and Tibetan dream 
analysis is that in Tibetan society as in most non-technological societies, much more emphasis is 
given to dreams of parapsychological interest than to ones dealing with the feelings and 
condition of the individual. This was clearly shown by the information gathered, since only one 
page of this paper deals with the former while the rest deals with the latter. It is further 
emphasized by the fact that dreams, regardless of the quality or the time of night, of either 
crazy, ill or very unhappy people are not considered suitable for analysis. The reason for this is 
obviously that the content of their dreams would too highly reflect their state of mind, and thus 
not allow any perceptions of a clairvoyant nature. How Tibetans take care of these problems is 
another story which would involve exposing the differences of two societies based on their 
history, development and so forth."

[807] Kaznacheyev, VP: What can we Learn from Comparative Evolutional Studies of Ecology 
and Legacy of Ancient Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Biologicheskie Resursy Vostochnoi i 
Yugo-Vostochnoi Asii i ikh ispol'sovanie (= Biological Resources of East and South-East Asia 
and their Use) (Russian), p. 3.  Vladivostok 1978.
[808] Kaznacheyev, VP: The Ways of Studying the Heritage of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: 
Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= Problems of the 
Assimilation of the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of the Reports of 
the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian), pp. 253-254. Novosibirsk 1983.
 It is stated that a certain amount of success in studying the heritage of Tibetan Medicine has 
been recently achieved in the USSR. Its further development depends upon precise definition of 
methodological approach.

[809] Kelder, Peter: Ancient Secret of the 'Fountain of Youth'. vi, 50 p. Arbor Press, Gig 
Arbor/Washington 1985.
 Revised edition of: The Eye of Revelation: the original five Tibetan rites of rejuvenation, 
Garberville/Calif. 1939; vide Ch. S. Kilham, Tokyo/New York 1988.- This book purports to be 
from Tibet. It contains five Tibetan exercises that hold the key to rejuvenation, health and 
vitality. They require little time to practice yet many people have reported remarkable changes 
in their health conditions. The exercises appear to stimulate the core chakra energies to keep 
them moving in their youthful way.

[810] Kelder, Peter: Die Fünf "Tibeter". Das alte Geheimnis aus den Hochtälern des Himalaya 
läßt Sie Berge versetzen. Aufgezeichnet von Peter Kelder. Einführung von Chris Griscom. Aus 
dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von Christopher Baker. Mit 6 s/w Abb. 75 S. Integral, 
Wessobrunn 1989.
 (The Eye of Revelation, Arbor Press, Washington 1939; überarbeitete Version: Ancient Secret 
of the 'Fountain of Youth', Arbor Press 1985).- Für die deutsche Ausgabe erweiterte und über-
arbeitete 12. Aufl. 1991 (91 Seiten). Auch Bertelsmann Club; Buchgemeinschaft Donauland 
(Wien). "Unbelastet von schwierigen Disziplinen und Dogmen läßt der Autor alles Unwichtige 
beiseite und führt uns schnell und direkt zu den Übungen dieser verjüngenden Energie-Riten" 
(aus dem Verlagstext).- Das Buch hat nichts mit Tibet selbst zu tun, sondern ist eine fiktive 
Geschichte, die simplifiziert James Hiltons "Irgendwo in Tibet" aufgreift und durch fünf 
Übungen (daher die 'Fünf Tibeter') Verjüngung und bleibende Jugend verspricht. Als Anlei-
tung zu gesünderer Lebensführung durchaus sinnvoll.

[811] Kelsang, Jhampa: vide Jampa Kelsang.
[812] Kelsang Rapten:  Tibetan Medicinal Plants and their Relationship to Modern Chemical 
Action. With tables and formulas. Presented by Dr. Elroy Rodriguez, Experimental 
Phytochemistry Lab. Univ. of California, Irvine/USA, and Kelsang Rapten B. sc., Biochemistry, 
Univ. of Californa. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
(Dharamsala) Series No. 3 (1981), pp. 32-44.
 "Many of the ancient cultures have known the importance of plant-derived medicines and have 
applied their knowledge for centuries in treating patients and developing plant pharmacology. In 
Tibetan Medicine, which was founded over 2500 years (sic!) ago, use of plant-derived medicine 
is an important drug treatment, and commonly accepted practice. Such useful compounds as 
Punica granatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Adhatoda Vasica, Areca Catechu, Ambrosia and many 
others have a wide range of pharmacological actions.- The Tibetan philosophy of medicine 
basically believes that all ingredients have potential curative power. Research in biological 
action and chemical constituents of these ingredients, especially of the plant-material, can lead 
to the development of modern therapeutic agents, to new sources of economic materials, or to 
precursors for the synthesis of complex chemical substances."

[813] Kesang Tenzin: Methods of Healing. In: Dawa Norbu, An Introduction to Tibetan 
Medicine, pp. 66-72.  A 'Tibetan Review' Publication (Collection of Articles), Delhi 1976.
 "In Tibet a medical college is called 'Men-tse Khang' which word by word means the 'house of 
medicine and astrology'. In Tibet the medical students were taught astrology beside medicine, 
as it is important for a successful practice. Basically, astrology provides a time precision to the 
medical practice. Tibetan medicine is prepared at such times and seasons as are recommended 
by an astrologer. According to Tibetan medicine there are four ways of contracting a disease: 
seasonal changes; 360 evil spirits attacking living beings with disease; food; habit. A 
knowledge of astrology is essential in treating those diseases caused by the four seasons - 
spring, summer, autumn and winter. Astrology is also used in diagnosing, particularly when the 
doctor can't go to a patient or vice versa, the doctor can accurately diagnose with the 
information such as the patient's age and date of his birth.- 
The ingredients of Tibetan medicine, unlike the Indian Ayurvedic system which offers mostly 
herbal remedies, are of various kinds of metals, stones, animal horns, bones etc. There are 
basically eight varieties of medicine: metallic and organic drugs, mineral medicines, medical 
stones, medicinal trees, medicinal oils, decoctions from medicinal fruit and flowers; vegetable 
medicines, especially the leaves of medicinal plants, and animal medicines. The medicines are 
prepared in the following forms: 1. Decoction: extraction of essence of medicine by boiling 
down (Thang sMan), 2. Powder medicine; 3. Pills; 4. Syrups; 5. Oily medicine; 6. Ash-like 
medicine (Thal sman); 7 Concentrated medicine (Khan-da); 8. Medicinal wine."

[814] Kesang Tenzin: Tibetan Pharmacology. In: Dawa Norbu, An Introduction to Tibetan 
Medicine, pp. 62-65.  A 'Tibetan Review' Publication (Collection of Articles), Delhi 1976.
 The most common ingredients for curing the most common diseases are given in the text, and 
one example is given in full length: "Serdog Chusum [the name of this particular Tibetan 
medicine] is used against high blood pressure and jaundice, tumours, indigestion, stomach 
trouble and fever. It has thirteen ingredients; piper longum, saffron, blue lily, creeper, olive, 
justicia ganderussa, costus speciosus, salt, camphor, soma plant, low growing rhododendron, 
iron filings, and snake meat. The medicine is a tablet of the size of a small bean and is taken 
with hot water."

[815] Khaitov, RM:  Methods for Accelerating the Healing of Fractures in Rabbits, Induced by 
Chronic Radiation (Russian). Eksperimental'naya Khirurgiya i Anesteziologiya (= Experimental 
Surgery & Anaesthesiology) (Russian) 6 (1970), pp. 46-49.
[816] Khakimov, ZN:  A New Hypothesis about the Origin of mumiyah (Russian). Science and 
Life (Russian) 11 (1972), p. 19.
[817] Khamnaev:  The Cure of Hydrophobia by Barguzin Buryats (Russian). Siberia (Newspaper) 
3 (1874).
[818] Khangalov, MN:  The Legends and Superstitions of Unga Buryat (Russian). Proceedings of 
the East-Siberian Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society (Ethnography) vol. 2, 
issue No. 2 (1890), pp. 17-25.
 Various superstitions, legends and customs of the Unga Buryats are described: about the trees 
where ghosts lived; about seven births; about the musical instrument khur; about the canine 
kingdom "nokhoy khachi uram"; about the three brothers Gurgalayev; about the origin of the 
tribes Arganut and Sartul; about Shudarman; about wolves doing battle in Mongolia; about the 
tengris; about various religious ceremonies including healing rituals.

[819] Khangalov, MN:  New Materials on Buryat Shamanism (Russian). Proceedings of the 
East-Siberian Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society (Ethnographical Collection) 
vol. 2, issue No. 1-2 (1890), pp. 1-151.
 A detailed description of the Buryat religious system is given. The main deities of the Balangin 
Buryats are the tengarins or tengari. There are 99 tengarins, each of which has its own name. 
The tengarins are divided into two groups: the 53 western (baruni) or white tengarins are 
believed to be benevolent deities, while the 44 eastern (zuni) or black tengarins are evil. The 
khats, the children of the deities are also described. Many rites and sacrifices are binding on 
the whole of society, others are private and are the duty of a single family or individual. The 
boys must make a sacrifice to the western khats, in order to be blessed by them. All boys fulfill 
these rites, which are called morito-ulan-khurgan, sharga-tekhen, and yamar-khonin-khoyor. 
Every child, boy or girl, fulfills the rite called ykhan-budlya and oshkin-budlya. Detailed 
descriptions of these rites are given, which often show a close relation to "healing" rituals.

[820] Khangalov, MN:  Buryatian Ghost-Cannibals (Russian). Etnograficheskoe Obosrenie
(= Ethnographical Review) (Russian) 1 (1896).
[821] Khangkar, Tsewang Dolkar: vide Dolkar Khangkar; vide Dolma Khangkar Lobsang.
[822] Khapkin, IS:  Experimental Studies of a Tibetan Hemostatic Drug (Russian). 
Pharmacological and Chemotherapeutical Remedies [Moscow] (Russian) 4, No. 595 (1982).
 The decoction of the compound prescription mTh'a bzhi'i thang has been used in various 
patterns for the suppression of hemocoagulation and hemostasis. The author has come to the 
conclusion that the decoction of mTh'a bzhi'i thang has a marked hemostatic effect.

[823] Khapkin, IS: The Study of a Few Pharmaceuticals of Indo-Tibetan Medicine with 
Hemostatic Properties (Russian). In: Materials of the IVth Republican Conference of the 
Physicians of Buryatia (Russian), pp. 48-49. Ulan-Ude 1983.
 High level thrombocyte activity of the hemostatic preparation mTh'a bzhi'i thang has been 
experimentally proved. Hemocoagulating action of the decoction of the aerial part of Gentiana 
macrophylla Pall., C-glycosides isolated from the plant as well as the decoction of the multi-
component preparation with Gentiana macrophylla Pall. have been presented.

[824] Khapkin, IS: The Study of Biological Action of the Tibetan Hemostatic compound
mTh'a bzhi'i thang. Autoreferat of the Candidate of Medical Sciences (Russian). 17 p., 
Vladivostok 1985.
 In the synopsis of his thesis the author presents the main results of his work: the hemostatic 
action of the decoction of the preparation mTh'a bzhi'i thang in different animal experiments.

[825] Khapkin, IS, Fedotovskikh, NN, Tolmachyova, EL, Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich), 
Tankhayeva, LM (1943- ), and Aseyeva, T(amara) A(natol'evna):  Pharmacological Action of 
Purifying Medicinal Compounds. The Study of Tibetan Multi-component Medicinal Compounds. 
Report No. 3 (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" =Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 21, No. 
2 (1985), pp. 187-193.
 Tibetan doctors have distinguished "purifying and calming" drugs, and as a rule, treatment 
starts with purification of the body. The authors found fragments of "purifying" compounds in 
prescriptions used for various diseases and decided to investigate biological action of 3- and 5-
component plant combinations which have been included as fragments into a number of 
complex medicinal compounds. Judging by information from scientific publications about 
chemical analysis and pharmacological action of separate constituents of "purifying" 
compounds, the latter have promoted acceleration of waste products's withdrawal out of the 
body with the help of the kidneys, liver, skin and lungs. The obtained experimental data have 
shown a polyvalent effect of the studied drug compounds on the liver's structural and 
functional state: they have stimulated cellular reparations as well as promoted hepatocyte 
safety and the functions specific to the liver. Thus authenticity of information from Tibetan 
records about versatile action of multi-component compounds has been confirmed.

[826] Khapkin, IS, Rakshain, KV, and Fedotovskikh, NN: The Action of Biologically Active 
Complexes on the Hemostatic System (Russian). In: Biologicheskoe Deystvie Veshchestv 
Prirodnogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= Biological Effects of Substances of Natural Origin) (Russian), 
pp. 182-186.  Ulan-Ude 1983.
 The work describes investigations of 10 hemostatic preparations from the arsenal of Indo-
Tibetan Medicine. The pattern of experimental hemophilia in white rats has been caused with a 
hypodermic injection of heparinum. The findings have shown that the preparation provisionally 
named P-5 has the highest hemostatic effect.

[827] Kharakhinov, MK: Ten Years of Struggle on the Front of Public Health in the Buryat-
Mongolian ASSR (Russian). In: To the Tenth Anniversary of the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR. 
Moscow/Irkutsk 1933.
 Printed as separate booklet (p. 28), by the Buryat State Publishing House, Verkhneudinsk 

[828] Khaydav, Ts: Medicinal Plants used in Mongolian Folk Medicine. Information No. 1: Plants 
used as Cardiovascular Tonics in Pulmonary and Febrile Diseases (Russian). In: Abstracts of 
41st Scientific Conference of the Chernovtsy Medical Institute, pp. 41-43. Chernovtsy 1965.
[829] Khaydav, Ts: Medicinal Plants used in Mongolian Folk Medicine. Information No. 2: Plants 
used for other Diseases (Russian). In: Abstracts of 41st Scientific Conference of the 
Chernovtsy Medical Institute, pp. 43-44. Chernovtsy 1965.
[830] Khaydav, Ts: Some Historical Features of Oriental Medicine and Medicinal Plants used in 
Mongolian Folk Medicine (Mongolian). Autoreferat of the Candidate's Thesis, Ulan 
Bator/Chernovtsy 1965.
[831] Khaydav, Ts: Drugs of Animal Origin Used in Mongolian Folk Medicine (Mongolian). Ulan 
Bator 1977.
[832] Khaydav, Ts and Choychzhamts, D: Russian-Mongolian-Tibetan-Latin Dictionary of 
Medicinal Plants of the Mongolian Peoples Republic (MPR).  State Terminological Commission 
No. 61.  237 p.  Mongolian Peoples Republic, Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator 1965.
[833] Khaydav, Ts and Men'shikova, TA: The Medicinal Plants of the Mongolian Medicine. 
Historico-Medical Investigation (Russian). 192 p. The MPR Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator 1978.
 The book lists 428 items under their Russian names, with Latin, Mongolian and Tibetan 
equivalents and with indices in the latter languages.
[834] Khaydav, Ts, Tsognemekh, Zh, and Baldan, B: The Medicinal Plants of the Mongolian
Peoples Republic (Mongolian).  Mongolian Peoples Republic Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator 1962.
[835] Khoroshikh, PP:  The Dedication of Horse and Bull (Russian). Etnograficheskiy Bulleten' 
(= The Ethnographical Bulletin )1 (1921), pp. 13-14.
[836] Khoroshikh, PP: From the Field of Popular Views (Russian). In: Buryat Studies Collection, 
Vol. 1 (Russian). 23 p. The Buryat-Mongolian Branch of the East-Siberian Division of the 
Russian Geographical Society, Irkutsk 1926.
[837] Khoroshikh, PP: The Literature about the Folk and Tibetan Medicine of the Buryat-
Mongols (Russian). In: Buryat Studies Collection, Vol. 1 (Russian), pp. 42-45. The Buryat-Mon-
golian Branch of the East-Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society, Irkutsk 1926.
 There is also a separate print.- This bibliography contains 65 titles of publications of Russian 
scholars, concerning folk and Tibetan medicine of the Buryat Mongols. The author believes that 
his list of literature is usefull for those who study Tibetan folk medicine. The compiler included 
in his list books on lamaist astrology, because astrology occupies an important place in 
lamaistic medicine. He mentiones only main books concerning shamanism in which there is 
information about methods of cure, rites and sacrifices etc. The list is the same as in the article 
written by V. Daursky (Ulan Bator 1937).

[838] Khundanova, Lydia L (1937- ):  La médecine tibétaine. 3 illustr. Le Courrier de l'Unesco 
(Paris) 20, 7 (1979), pp. 20-24.
 "Les médecins tibétains continuent d'utiliser les méthodes et les médicaments venus de ces 
époques reculées. Et actuellement, en Inde comme dans certains pays européens, la médecine 
tibétaine fait l'objet de recherches scientifiques. En Union Soviétique, la Section sibérienne de 
l'Académie des Sciences a créé un département spécial en vue de tester, dans les conditions 
d'un laboratoire expérimental, les composants biologiques actifs des médications tibétaines. 
Docteur en médecine soviétique, L. L. K. est directrice d'un service de l'unité bouriate de la 
section sibérienne de l'Académie des sciences de l'URSS, qui étudie les substances biologiques 
actives de la médecine indo-tibétaine. Elle est l'auteur d'une soixantaine d'ouvrages et 
notamment d'une monographie sur la médecine tibétaine."

[839] Khundanova, Lydia L (chief editor): Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy 
Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny (= Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional 
System of Indo-Tibetan-Medicine). A Collection of Articles (Russian). 102 p. Department of 
Biologically Active Substances, Buryat Branch, Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of 
Sciences, Novosibirsk 1982.
  Some material on studying original sources of Indo-Tibetan Medicine is reported in this 
volume. These sources present historical monuments of Oriental people's culture. They contain 
valuable information on many-centuries experience on healing and selection of drugs of natural 

[840] Khundanova, Lydia L: On Systematisation of Diseases in Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 
In: Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny 
(= Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) 
(Russian), pp. 18-22.  Department of Biologically Active Substances, Buryat Branch, Siberian 
Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 1982.
 The theoretical concepts of Tibetan Medicine on the essence of diseases, the principles of 
definition, the systematisation of illnesses and the treatments are explained.

[841] Khundanova, Lydia L, Khundanov, L(ev) L(ukich) (1939- ), and Bazaron, E(lbert) 
G(ombozhapovich): Thoughts on Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 111 p. Buryat Book Printing-
House, Ulan-Ude 1979.
 Bibliography p. 111.

[842] Khundanova, Lydia L, Khundanov, L(ev) L(ukich), Gorshkov, AI, Aydaraliyev, AA, 
Naydakova, TsA, and Kuzmin, VK: Investigation of some Treatments and Remedies used in 
Tibetan Medicine to Improve Physical Capacity for Labour and Vestibular Stability (Russian). In: 
Physiology and Pathology of Adaptation to Natural Factors of the Environment (Russian), 
pp. 388-389. Frunze 1977.
[843] Khyenrab Norbu: vide Byams-pa 'Phrin-las, Beijing 1990.
[844] Kilham, Christopher S: Inner Power: Secrets from Tibet and the Orient. 117 p., ill. Japan 
Publ. Inc., Tokyo/New York 1988.
[845] Kilham, Christopher S: The Five Tibetans: Yoga Methods of Power. 96 p. Inner Tradition, 
Rochester/VT 1994.
 Also under different title: 'The Five Tibetans: five dynamic exercises for health, energy, and 
personal power', Healing Art Press, Rochester Vt, xi, 84 p.- The Five Tibetans are a yogic 
system of simple yet highly energizing exercises that originated in the Himalayas. Also known 
as the 'Five Rites of Rejuvenation', they were brought to the West early in this century from a 
Tibetan monastery. Since 1978 Christopher Kilham has taught these exercises to thousands of 
people seeking a healthier lifestyle. The Five Tibetans take a minimum of daily time and effort 
but can dramatically increase physical strength and suppleness as well as mental acuity. Even 
newcomers to yoga will experience their liberating effect on the innate energetic power of the 
human body and mind.

[846] Kilty, Gavin:  vide Thubten Sangay, Dharamsala 1984.
[847] Kiriella (or Koirala?), TBA: Selected Markets for Medicinal Herbs from Nepal: Report on 
Mission. 17 p. Trade Promotion Centre, Kathmandu 1981.
 This report is the outcome of a market study tour undertaken under the auspices of the 
International Trade Centre ITC - UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva. The mission was undertaken at the 
request of the Trade Promotion Centre by the ITC Market Development Adviser, Mr. T. B. A. 
Kiriella, during March and April 1980. The report contains the prospects for marketing major 
Nepalese medicinal herbs in the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, and Great Britain.

[848] Kirilov, NB:  The Lama and the Physician (Russian). Siberia [Newspaper] (Russian) 36 
(1886), pp. 3-4.
[849] Kirilov, NB:  Exposure of the Mystery of Tibetan Medicine and the Methods of the 
Struggle with the Lamas (Russian). Vostochnoe Obozrenie (= The Oriental Review) (Russian) 8 
(1889), pp. 2-3.
[850] Kirilov, NB:  About the Tibetan Medicine of the Buryatian Lamas. (Review of the Work of 
N. B. Kirillov) (Russian). Vestnik obscestvennoj gigieny, sudebnoj i prakticeskoj mediciny 
(=Bote für Socialhygiene, gerichtl. und prakt. Medizin; =Review of Public Hygiene, Forensic 
and Practical Medicine) [St. Petersburg] (Russian) volume 8, book 3, part 9 (1890), pp. 96-100.
[851] Kirilov, NB: The Characteristics of the Tibetan Medicine of Transbaikalia (Russian). In: 
Protocols of the Society of Physicians of Eastern Siberia for 1891. Appendix 2 to Protocol No. 
3., pp. 24-30.  Irkutsk 1891.
[852] Kirilov, NB:  The Present Importance of Tibetan Medicine as part of the Lamaistic Doc-
trine (Russian). Vestnik obscestvennoj gigieny, sudebnoj i prakticeskoj mediciny (=Bote für 
Socialhygiene, gerichtl. und prakt. Medizin; =Review of Public Hygiene, Forensic and Practical 
Medicine) [St. Petersburg] (Russian) 15 (book 1, part 2 & book 2, part 2) (1892), pp. 18-36, 95-
 Also appeared as a book, St. Petersburg 1892, 47 p., 2 plates.

[853] Kirilov, NB:  The Interest in the Study of Folk and Tibetan Medicine in Transbaikalia (Russian). 
Etnografischeskoe Obozrenie (= Ethnographical Review) issue 19, No. 4 (1893), 
pp. 84-121.
[854] Kirilov, NB:  The Quackery in the Transbaikalian Region and the Pharmacy in Tibetan 
Medicine (Russian). Farmatsist (= Pharmacist) (Russian) Nrs. 8 & 9 (1894), pp. (8) 286-289; 
(9) 322-326.
[855] Kirilov, NB: The Attitude of Tibetan Medicine towards Modern Medicine (Russian). In: 
Protocols of the Transbaikalian Society of Physicians for 1894-1895, pp. 19-33.  Chita 1896.
[856] Kirilov, NB:  Datsans in the Transbaikalian Region (Russian). Reports of the Chita Branch 
of the Russian Geographical Society (Chita) vol. 1, Nr. 4 (1896), pp. 67-140.
 Daursky has listed this article as appeared in "Materials of the Priamur Branch of the Imperial 
Russian Geographical Society, Khabarovsk, 1896, vol. 1, issue 1", no p. given.

[857] Kirilov, NB:  On Child-Delivery in the Transbaikalian Minority in Connection with some 
Peculiarity of their Way of Life (Nursing the Women in Childbed among Buryats and Evenks. 
The Medicine of the Lamas. The Number of their Population) (Russian). Vestnik obscestvennoj 
gigieny, sudebnoj i prakticeskoj mediciny (=Bote für Socialhygiene, gerichtl. und prakt. 
Medizin; =Review of Public Hygiene, Forensic and Practical Medicine) [St. Petersburg] book 4, 
part 7 (1897), pp. 84-92.
[858] Kirilov, NB:  The Tibetan Medicine of the Buryatian Lamas (Russian). Irkutskie Eparch-
ial'nye Vedomosti (= The Irkutsk Eparchial Review) (Russian) (1899), Appendix to No. 8, pp. 1-10; 
to No. 9, pp. 1-12; to No. 10, pp. 1-11; to No. 11, pp. 1-19.
 Separate publication as a book, 50 p., with 7 pages of illustrations.
[859] Kirilov, NB:  General Characteristics of the Oriental Medical System (Russian). Russkoe 
Obozrenie (= Russian Review) (Russian) 15 (1904).
[860] Kirilov, NB: About Tibetan Medicine. In: Reports of the Temporary Medical Society of 
Kharbin. Vol. 1 (Russian). Issue 2, pp. 57-68. Moscow 1906.
[861] Kirilov, NB: General Characteristics of the Practice of Oriental Medicine (Tibetan, Chinese 
and Parallels with our Folk Medicine) (Russian). In: Publikatsii Antropologicheskogo 
Obtschestva Voenno-Meditsinskoy Akademii (= The Publications of the Anthropological 
Society of the Military Medical Academy). Vol. 7, pp. 56-75. St. Petersburg 1912.
[862] Kisaki, Kuniyoshi:  The Medicine of the Silkroad: Mongol-Tibetan Lamistic Medicine (Japa-
nese). The Journal of Otemac Women's University [Nishinomiya] (Japanese) 11 (1977), pp. 51-63.
[863] Klaus, Christa: Schutz vor den Naturgefahren. Tibetische Ritualtexte aus dem Rin chen 
gter mdzod, ediert, übersetzt und kommentiert. Mit 7 s/w Abb. (Asiatische Forschungen, 97). 
390 S. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1985.
 Das Rin chen gter mdzod stellt eine grundlegende Textsammlung der rÑin-ma-pa Schule dar und 
wurde von Kon-sprul blo-gros-mtha'-yas (1813-1899) zusammengestellt. Es wird eine reprä-
sentative Übersicht über die entsprechenden Praktiken gegeben (Durchführung der Schutzmaß-
nahmen, schützende Mächte, Schutzmittel, Mantras, Tiere, Rauch und Wasser, Phur-bu, Tsha-
tsha usf.), dabei wird auch sehr altes Material vorgestellt, in das vorbuddhistische Vorstellungen 
Eingang gefunden haben.

[863a] Kletter, Christa, Kriechbaum, Monika: Plants in Tibetan Medicine. Problems of inventory 
and identification. Amruth (Bangalore/India) issue 6 (1995), pp. 5-6.
 "Recently, the Institute of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, and the Institute of Botany, 
University of Natural Resources, Vienna, have started a new project concerning the medicinal 
plants used in Tibetan medicine. - Our goal is to record those medicinal plants which are still 
collected by Tibetan doctors. The first task of the project is the botanical identification of the 
medicinal plants. The collecting of the specimens has to be done together with the amchis in 
order to guarantee the authenticity of the plant samples taken and the correct information 
about the collection site. Besides, close contact with the Tibetan doctors offers the possibility 
to record all orally given information. During the botanical determination of a plant several 
problems arise which are often due  to poor recording of earlier findings and to insufficiently 
specified reference samples. Furthermore, dealing with the Himalayas and the adjacent regions 
means dealing with one of the richest floras of the world whose taxonomic investigation is in 
many cases still rudi-

[864] Kletter, Ch(rista), Kriechbaum, M(onika), Szambor, P(etra), Qusar, N(amgyal), Holzner, 
W(olfgang), and Kubelka, W(olfgang):  Documentation of Tibetan Medicinal Plants. 3rd 
Communication. 'ol-mo-se: Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. Scientia Pharmaceutica (Wien) 62, 
3 (1994), pp. 283-297.
Reprinted in sMan-rTsis [new series!] (Dharamsala), vol. 1, No. 1 (1995), pp. 1-25.

 [865] Kletter, Ch(rista), Kriechbaum, M(onika), Waclavicek, M(artina), Qusar, N(amgyal), 
Holzner, W(olfgang), and Kubelka, W(olfgang):  Documentation of Tibetan Medicinal Plants. 4th 
Communication. tsher-sngon: Meconopsis aculeata Royle. Scientia Pharmaceutica (Wien) 63 
(1995), pp. 145-158.
 The source of the Tibetan drug tsher-sngon is found in species of the genus Meconopsis 
(Papaveraceae), particularly M. horridula and M. aculeata. The drug, which consists of the 
aerial parts of the plant, is used because of its healing properties in cases of bone injuries and 
fractures of the skeleton and for the treatment of the disorder "rus-tshad". M. aculeata is 
collected by the members of the Tibetan Medical & Astro-Institute, Dharamsala. The plant 
grows in the western parts of the Himalayas amongst damp rocks, crevices and screes. This 
species as well as the drug are characterised by many prominent, light-brown coloured spines 
which are conspicuous on all aerial organs except the petals. Microscopic characteristics are 
the parenchyma of the leaf, the lignified slender sclereids and fibres in the stem, the crystals in 
the ovary, the digitate papillae at the stigma, the lignified endocarp of the fruit wall and the 
sclerenchyma layer in the testa of the seed.

[866] Kletter, Ch(rista), Kriechbaum, M(onika), Waclavicek, M(artina), Qusar, N(amgyal), 
Holzner, W(olfgang), and Kubelka, W(olfgang):  tsher-sngon, Meconopsis aculeata ROYLE: 
Documentation of Tibetan medicinal plants. sMan-rTsis [new series!]. A publication for the 
Study of Tibetan Medicine and Astro Science (Dharamsala) 1, No. 2 (1995), pp. 43-59.
Incomplete reprint of above listetd [865].

[867] Kletter, Ch(rista), Waclavicek, M(artina), Kriechbaum, M(onika), Holzner, W(olfgang), and 
Kubelka, W(olfgang):  Tsher-sgnon. The Blue Himalaya Poppy - an Important Drug in Traditional 
Tibetan Medicine (= 2nd Communication, Joint Project Tibetan Medical & Astro Institutes, 
Dharamsala). Scientia Pharmaceutica (Wien) 62, 2 (1994), p. 113.
 "Meconopsis aculeata grows in shady and half-shady habitats with constant water supply, 
amongst damp rocks, crevices and screes and long river sides. Its geographical range is 
restricted to the Western Himalaya to altitudes between 2400 and 4200 m. In Tibetan 
medicine the drug is known for its healing effects in cases of injured and fractured bones and 
for the treatment of the disease 'rus-tshad'. 'rus' means 'bone' and 'tshad' is an abbreviation 
for 'tsha ba'. The term 'tsha ba' is used for several diseases which are characterized by an 
enhancement of 'heat' [as perceived by the patient's own subjective feeling] in the body above 
the normal level. This increased heat may [or may not] result in a rise of body temperature. 
Therefore fever could represent one type of 'tsha ba' but is not considered to be a synonym. 
'tsha ba' can also include an inflammation, an infection or any kind of hyperactivity of organs. 
There are several major causes which aggravate 'tsha ba', like excessive consumption of 
pungent, sour or salty food or alcohol, unusual weather conditions and physically strenuous 
work or major injuries."

[868] Klinge, Günther: Heilen und Schenken. Festschrift für Günther Klinge zu seinem 70. 
Geburtstag. Herausgegeben von Herbert Franke und Walther Heissig. (Asiatische Forschungen. 
71.). Mit 1 gefalt. Farbtafel. 144 S. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1980.
 Mit 17 Beiträgen verschiedener Autoren, die zumeist Aspekte der sinotibetischen Heilkunde 

[869] Klu grub: vide Nagarjuna.

[870] Knecht, Sigrid:  Magische Therapie in Nepal. Ethnomedizin (Hamburg) 2, Nr. 1/2 (1972), 
pp. 69-90.
 "Krankheiten können in der Vorstellung der Nepalvölker verschiedene 'Ursachen' haben. Fast 
immer sind dabei dämonische Wesen im Spiel, die das in Kosmos und Mensch waltende Drei-
Kräfteprinzip aus dem Gleichgewicht bringen, was sich als Krankheit auswirkt. Diese drei Kräfte 
sind Geist-Kraft-Stoff oder, in der Ausdrucksweise tibetisch-lamaistischer Medizinphilosophie, 
'Luft - Galle - Schleim'. . .  . Eine Behandlung zur dauerhaften Heilung erstreckt sich also nicht 
auf den im Augenblick erkrankten Körperteil, sondern auf den mit der Erkrankung 
zusammenhängenden geistigen Ursprung. Die Heilmittel sind daher weitgehend psychischer 
Natur, wenn auch die physiologische Entsprechung nicht außer acht gelassen wird. Die aus 
Unkenntnis der geistigen Hintergründe von uns Westländern meist abwertend gemeinte 
Bezeichnung einer 'magischen Therapie' muß keineswegs primitiver Zauberglaube sein. Was wir 
als 'Magie' abtun, beruht immer auch auf einer transzendierenden Schau der Einheitlichkeit von 
Mensch und Kosmos. In diesem Sinn müssen die magischen Behandlungsweisen und die 
'magischen Werkzeuge' verstanden werden."

[871] Kobetsky, M:  Lamaism (Russian). Antireligioznik [= Antireligious Pamphlet] (Russian) 
6/8 (1926), pp. (6) 19-26; (8) 28-33.
[872] Körbler, Helen and Jork, Klaus:  Naturheilverfahren am Beispiel der tibetischen Heilkunde. 
Erwartungen und Vorkenntnisse von Patienten. 28. Kongreß der Deutschen Gesellschaft für 
Allgemeinmedizin 22.-24. September 1994 .
 "Es werden 111 Patienten in Frankfurt, München, Wien und Lindau mit einem Fragebogen und 
halbstrukturierten Interviews erfaßt, die in der Zeit vom 5. bis 28. Mai 1993 einen traditionellen 
tibetischen Heilkundigen konsultierten. Schlußfolgerungen: Den insgesamt überhöhten 
Erwartungen der Patienten steht ein 30minütiger Kontakt mit dem tibetischen Heilkundigen 
gegenüber. Die meisten Kranken haben keine Vorinformation über die tibetische Heilkunde, in 
der Verblendung bzw. Unwissenheit, Begierde bzw. Anhaftung und Haß als primäre 
Krankheitsursachen gelten. Ohne ein tieferes Verständnis des philosophisch-psychologischen 
Hintergrundes tibetischer Heilkunde scheinen industriell hergestellte Arzneimittel nur gegen die 
Naturheilmittel der tibetischen Heilkunde ausgetauscht zu werden."

[873] Kolesnichenko, JuI:  Some Problems in the Use and Studying of Remedies with Drugs of 
Animal Origin in Oriental and Russian Folk Medicine (Russian). Public Health of White Russia 
(Russian) 2 (1967), pp. 55-57.
[874] Kolesnichenko, JuI and Istchenko, VI:  On Studying the "balsam", the Ancient mumiyah 
(Russian). Public Health of White Russia (Russian) 1 (1966), pp. 56-59.
[875] Kolmas, Josef: Chinese Studies on Tibetan Culture. A Facsimile Reproduction of the 
K'ang-Tsang Yen-Chiu Yüeh-K'an (Hsik'ang - Tibet Research Monthly). Edited with an 
Introduction and Indices by Josef Kolmas. Foreword by Lokesh Chandra. (Æata-pitaka Series 
Vol. 332). 896 p. International Academy of Indian Culture, Delhi 1983.
[876] Konchog, Gyaltsen (Khenpo): In Search for the Stainless Ambrosia (ed. Victoria 
Huchenpahler). 145 p. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca NY 1988.
 The author is Abbot of the Drikung Kargyu sect in North America. Included are "Tantric texts 
on Bardo; Phowa (transference of consciousness); Guru Yoga; Medicine Buddha, and the Chod 
practice of severing the ego."

[877] Konstantinova, NA (1947- ) and Ledneva, IP: Pathogenetic Mechanisms of the 
Antiinflammatory Effect of Biologically Active Substances (Russian). In: Biologicheskoe 
Deystvie Veshchestv Prirodnogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= Biological Effects of Substances of 
Natural Origin) (Russian), pp. 137-140. Ulan-Ude 1983.
 The pathophysiological description of some stages of the antiinflammatory reaction has been 
given, and according to the type of the reaction and inflammation stage the use of Gentiana 
barbata Froel. has been recommended.

[878] Kopylov, V:  Northern Buryat's Taylang (Russian). Irkutskie Eparchial'nye Vedomosti
[= Irkutsk Eparchial Review] (Russian) issue 12 & 13 (1886).
[879] Kopylov, V:  The Religious Beliefs and Family Rites of Northern Buryats (Russian). 
Irkutskie Eparchial'nye Vedomosti [= Irkutsk Eparchial Review] (Russian) issue 21 & 22 (1889).
[880] Korchubenkov, B:  Why not? The Living Factory mumiyah (Russian). Chemistry and Life 
(Russian) 8 (1971), pp. 49-50.
[881] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von (1905-1992): Die tibetische Medizinphilosophie. Der Mensch 
als Mikrokosmos. (Mainzer Studien zur Kultur- und Völkerkunde. 1.). 15 Tabellen auf 5 
gefalteten Tafeln, 2 Abb.,  xi, 363 S. Origo, Zürich 1953.
 Zweite Auflage Origo, Zürich 1968.- Pater Cyrill von Korvin-Krasinski studierte in langjähriger 
Zusammenarbeit mit Wladimir Badmajeff die tibetische Dreiprinzipienlehre und "lernte so das 
der tibetischen Medizinphilosophie eigentümliche Bild der hierarchisch aufgebauten Seins-
stufen zu bewältigen". Ein nicht einfach zu lesendes Buch, das die burjatisch-mongolische 
Medizin, nicht aber die originär tibetische Medizin bis in ihre verzweigtesten mikrokosmisch/
makrokosmischen Entsprechungen beschreibt. K. Quecke (Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 
1955) weist darauf hin, daß der Autor sich auf eine einzige mündliche Quelle stützt, nämlich 
seinen Lehrer, Freund und Gewährsmann Dr. Wladimir Badmajeff (vide dazu auch Einträge
W. Badmajeff), der in Warschau als ein in St. Petersburg in westlicher Medizin ausgebildeter 
Arzt einen großen Patientenkreis betreute. Jener hatte seine Einweisung in die "tibetisch-lamai-
stische Medizin" durch seinen berühmten Onkel Petr Alexander Badmajeff (gest. 1923) 
Wissenschaftsmethodologisch ergeben sich erhebliche Bedenken, da sich das ganze Opus auf 
diese einzige mündliche Quelle stützt. Es ist auch fraglich, ob man diese Lehre als "tibetisch" 
ausgeben darf, zumal beide Badmajeffs die meiste Zeit in Europa zugebracht haben. Wertvoll ist 
die Einführung von W. A. Unkrig mit einer hervorragenden, auch kommentierten Bibliographie 
zur Primär- und Sekundärliteratur der tibetischen Medizin.

[882] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Der Mensch als Mikrokosmos in der symbolischen Anthro-
pologie des tibetischen Lamaismus. In: Symbolon, Jahrbuch für Symbolforschung, Band 1. 
Herausgeber Julius Schwabe, pp. 103-115.  Schwabe & Co Verlag, Basel-Stuttgart 1960.
[883] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Mikrokosmos und Makrokosmos in religionsgeschichtlicher 
Sicht. 1 Tabelle. 285 S.  Patmos, Düsseldorf 1960.
 Der Titel zum ersten Kapitel lautet: "Der Mensch als Mikrokosmos in der symbolischen 
Anthropologie des tibetischen Lamaismus". Dabei Ausführungen zur indisch-tibetischen 
Vorstellung von der Anatomie des Menschen.

[884] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von:  Der Ganzheitsbegriff und seine Anwendung in der 
lamaistischen Heillehre vom Menschen als Mikrokosmos. Mit 5 Abb. Medizinischer 
Monatsspiegel, E. Merck (Darmstadt) Heft 4 (1961), pp. 73-79.
 "Die hier gemeinte 'Ganzheit' trägt im tibetischen Lamaismus ebenso spekulativ-theoretische 
wie kosmologische, mystisch-religiöse und praktische Züge und läßt sich von dessen 
anthropologischen und medizinphilosophischen Vorstellungen nicht trennen. Wenn der 
Ganzheitsbegriff des Westens wissenschaftlich-spekulativen Erwägungen zu verdanken ist, hat 
er dagegen im asiatischen Osten in jenem intuitiv-mystischen Erlebnis der All-Einheit seinen 
Ursprung, das uns in verschiedenen altasiatischen Denksystemen begegnet. Absichtlich 
zugespitzt möchten wir sagen, daß das ganzheitlich abgerundete Wissen um die universale 
Interdependenz des Alls für uns eher das Endergebnis einer nach Synthese sich sehnenden 
Empirie darstellt; bei einem asiatischen Weisen liegt dagegen die dem All seinen inneren Sinn 
gebende ganzheitliche Erleuchtung schon am Anfang seiner wissenschaftlichen Forschung."

[885] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von:  Der Weisheitscharakter der tibetischen Heilkunde. 2 Abb. 
Medizinischer Monatsspiegel E. Merck (Darmstadt) Heft 3 (1961), pp. 49-54.
 Einleitend bemerkt der Autor: "Die aus Indien herstammende und in Tibet durch ostasiatische 
Lehren weiter vervollständigte heilkundliche Weisheit des Lamaismus stellt zunächst ein stark 
spekulativ ausgebautes Denksystem dar, das mannigfaltige spezielle Wissensbereiche tangiert 
und sie sogar zu normieren beansprucht; es will sowohl der Theorie wie der Praxis dienen und 
betrachtet den Menschen und sein Heil stets ganzheitlich, indem es seinen somatischen und 
psychischen Aspekt durch den geistigen (pneumatischen) und sogar mystischen ergänzt. Diese 
komplexe Lehre hat als theoretische Voraussetzung die Vorstellung vom Menschen als einer 
leibgeistigen 'Zusammenfassung' oder 'Rekapitulation' des Alls, d.h. als eines wahren 
Mikrokosmos. Sie hat für einen abendländischen Arzt insofern eine Bedeutung, als die Kenntnis 
ihrer Grundsätze die notwendige Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche und selbständige ärztliche 
Betätigung der lamaistischen Heilkunde bildet. Die praktischen Erfolge dieser Heilkunde waren 
während langer Jahrhunderte so groß, daß die lamaistischen Klöster Tibets und der Mongolei 
ihnen einen großen Teil ihres ungeheueren Einflusses auf die Bevölkerung dieser Länder 

[886] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Die mikrokosmische Symbolik der zwölf Tierkreiszeichen im 
Lichte der lamaistischen Anthropologie. In: Symbolon, Jahrbuch für Symbolforschung, Band 2. 
Herausgeber Julius Schwabe. pp. 81-108. Schwabe & Co, Basel-Stuttgart 1961.
 Ursprünglich 1959 erschienen.

[887] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Die zehn Kategorien des Aristoteles im Lichte der 
altasiatischen Seinsstufensymbolik. In: Symbolon, Jahrbuch für Symbolforschung, Band 4. 
Herausgeber Julius Schwabe. pp. 119-146. Schwabe & Co Verlag, Basel-Stuttgart 1964.
 [888] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von:  Die kosmische Skelettsymbolik in der indisch-tibetischen 
Medizin. Der Weiße Turm (Biberach) 1 (1965), pp. 33-36.
[889] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Die Gesundheit nach dem trichotomischen Menschen- und 
Weltbild der tibetisch-lamaistischen Anthropologie. In: Abendländische Therapie und östliche 
Weisheit. Ein Tagungsbericht. pp. 51-58. Ernst Klett, Stuttgart 1968.
 "Der Gegenstand meines Referats ist das triadische, dreiteilige oder trichotomische 
Menschenbild des Lamaismus. Ich habe ihn aber dem Charakter dieser ärztlich ausgerichteten 
Tagung insoweit angepaßt, als ich dieses lamaistische Menschenbild nur als Hintergrund 
nehme, um die lamaistische Vorstellung vom Wesen der menschlichen Gesundheit zu zeigen. 
Ohne Berücksichtigung dieses spekulativ-anthropologischen Hintergrundes bliebe jegliche 
Darstellung medizinischer Probleme des Lamaismus unverständlich."

[890] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Alchemie. Aberglaube im Westen - Wissenschaft im Osten? 
In: Trina Mundi Machina. Die Signatur des alten Eurasien.  Ausgewählte Schriften. pp. 142-
159. Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag, Mainz 1986.
 "Eine formale Ähnlichkeit der indisch-tibetischen Heilkunde mit dem Menschen- und Weltbild 
der Alchemie fällt mir immer bei Tagungen ein, an denen lamaistische oder andere ostasiatische 
Ärzte teilnehmen. Nicht allein wegen ihrer oft symbolischen Ausdrucksweise, die ihrer Lehre 
vielleicht einen geheimen oder esoterischen Charakter verleiht. Es ist vielmehr die durchgängig 
trichotomische bzw. triadische Struktur ihres Welt- und Menschenbildes wie auch ihrer 
Spekulation. Dasselbe gilt jedoch auch für die westliche und arabische Alchemie. So hat z. B. 
Paracelsus Theophrast von Hohenheim (1493-1541), der berühmteste Alchemist und Arzt der 
Renaissance, drei Seinszustände (entia) des Mikro- und des Makrokosmos unterschieden: Die 
göttliche, seelische und materielle Sphäre. Im menschlichen Organismus entsprachen ihnen drei 
vitalisierende Prinzipien oder Kräfte, die er auf Grund der alten 'hermetischen' Tradition 
Quecksilber, Schwefel und Salz nannte. Es waren symbolische Namen, die - als 'Prinzipien' - 
eigentlich keines der uns bekannten drei chemischen Elemente bezeichneten."

[891] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Die kosmische Skelettsymbolik in der indisch-tibetischen 
Medizin. In: Trina Mundi Machina. Die Signatur des alten Eurasien. Ausgewählte Schriften,
pp. 131-141. Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag, Mainz 1986.
 ". . . weil der Anatom aus einem einzelnen Knochen das ganze Individuum rekonstruieren kann, 
sondern in einem für diese Medizinphilosophie sehr eigentümlichen Sinne: Einzelne Skeletteile 
sind danach stets auf das Ganze bezogen. Die Knochen des Hauptes repräsentieren den Bereich 
des Geistes, die Rumpfknochen den Bereich des Lebens und die Extremitätenknochen den 
Bereich der Materie. Diese drei Hauptbereiche des Alls sind nur eine kosmische Manifestation 
von drei metaphysischen Grundprinzipien, denen in unserem Organismus drei sogenannte 
physiologische 'Wurzeln' entsprechen. Die letzteren weisen eine unleugbare, aber 
kulturgeschichtlich vorläufig schwer aufzuhellende Ähnlichkeit auf mit den im Abendlande 
bekannten drei alchemistischen Prinzipien, die bei einem Jakob Böhme 'Quecksilber', 'Schwefel' 
und 'Salz' hießen [und die auf Paracelsus zurückzuführen sind]. Im tibetisch-mongolischen 
Lamaismus tragen diese 'Wurzeln' die symbolischen Namen von Luft (mongolisch Chi), Galle 
(mongolisch Schara) und Schleim (mongolisch Badgan). Chi ist danach Synonym des Geistes in 
allen seinen analogen Bedeutungen, Schara Synonym des Lebens und der Kraft und Badgan 
Synonym jeglicher mehr oder weniger stofflichen 'Substanz'. Die besondere Beziehung des 
Skeletts zu der uns bekannten, geheimnisvoll leuchtenden 'Seele' wird in dieser 
'dreiprinzipiellen' Anatomie durch folgende Beobachtung hervorgehoben: In allen drei 
Hauptbereichen des auf den Kosmos bezogenen Skeletts ist der sogenannte Chi-Teil 
merkwürdigerweise aus fünf Knochen zusammengesetzt. 
Es sind die obenerwähnten fünf Knochen der Schädelkapsel (Geist-Bereich), des Brustbeines 
(Leben-Bereich) und die fünf Phalangen (Finger) der Hand bzw. des Fußes (Materie-Bereich). 
Diese nebensächliche Feststellung wäre noch keineswegs relevant, wenn nicht gerade über 
diesen drei 'Chi-Teilen' oder pneumatischen Fünfer-Gruppen unseres Knochensystems bei 
ekstatischer Gebetsversenkung mancher vergeistigter Gurus leuchtende Strahlen einer 
ätherischen oder 'seelischen' Emanation sichtbar würden, und zwar a) über der sogenannten 
'brahmanischen Öffnung' oder 'großen Fontanelle' der Schädelkapsel, b) in der Gegend der 
Brustbeinknochen (des 'Solarplexus') und c) aus den Fingerspitzen der erhobenen Hände."

[892] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Die leibliche und geistige Gesundheit nach dem 
trichotomischen Menschen- und Weltbild der tibetisch-lamaistischen Anthropologie. In: Trina 
Mundi Machina. Die Signatur des alten Eurasien. Ausgewählte Schriften. pp. 46-52. Matthias-
Grünewald-Verlag, Mainz 1986.
 "Die in der indisch-tibetischen Hochkultur entwickelte Anthropologie und Medizinphilosophie 
stellt ein Produkt aus Spekulation und Naturbeobachtung dar, das jedoch nur auf dem 
Hintergrund jenes viel älteren, Altasien und Alteuropa gemeinsamen dreiteiligen Welt- und 
Menschenbildes zu erschließen ist. Die Gesundheit ist in der indisch-tibetischen Heilkunde 
letztlich 'proportionaler' Natur, das heißt, sie besteht in einem harmonischen Ausgleich 
zwischen den sich ergänzenden Mitkomponenten des dreiheitlich zusammengesetzten 
menschlichen Ganzen. Die lamaistische medizinphilosophische Anatomie kennt innerhalb des 
menschlichen Organismus drei Gruppen von Organen, die den drei makrokosmischen 
Hauptbereichen ihres Weltbildes, denen des Geistes, des Lebens und der Materie entsprechen. 
Die Gesundheit ist jedoch mehr als bloß Resultante einer Koordination der geistigen, lebendigen 
und materiellen Betätigung des Menschen. Die dreiheitliche Zusammensetzung verläuft auch 
seinsmäßig (ontisch) durch diese drei Bereiche des Menschen, indem sie sie auch 'horizontal' 
auf dreifache Weise gestaltet, bewegt und trägt. Man spricht darum in der lamaistischen 
Medizin von drei metaphysischen 'Wurzeln' jedes Seienden, aus denen jedes materielle, 
lebendige und geistige Wesen ontisch 'gewoben' sei."

[893] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Die mikrokosmische Symbolik der zwölf Tierkreiszeichen im 
Lichte der lamaistischen Anthropologie. In: Trina Mundi Machina. Die Signatur des alten 
Eurasien. Ausgewählte Schriften, pp. 70-92.  Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag, Mainz 1986.
 "Meine Aufgabe, die mikrokosmische, d.h. menschbezogene Symbolik der Tierkreiszeichen im 
Lichte der indisch-tibetischen Anthropologie zu schildern, soll hier vorerst näher umschrieben 
werden . . . mit dem sogenannten babylonischen Tierkreis, und zwar mit seinen ältesten, aus 
der sumerischen Zeit stammenden Elementen beschäftigen, die in der späteren - hellenistischen 
- Zeit oft beträchtlichen Gestaltwandel erfahren haben.
 Damit scheidet aber von selbst als Gegenstand unserer Erörterungen der ostasiatische Tierkreis 
aus, welcher durch die lamaistische Astrologie übernommen wurde. Es ist uns nun 
selbstverständlich, daß es ein grober methodischer Fehler wäre, den altbabylonischen, den 
Tibetern fremden Tierkreis im Licht einer Symbolik, die aus einem anderen Kulturkreis stammt, 
irgendwie 'interpretieren' zu wollen. Wir wollen also diesen methodischen Fehler nicht begehen, 
wenn wir trotzdem vorhaben, die konkrete Gestalt des ältesten babylonisch-sumerischen 
Tierkreises mit gewissen analogen Vorstellungen des tibetischen Lamaismus über die 
kosmische Bedeutung einer Zwölferreihe tierischer bzw. menschlicher Organe zu vergleichen. 
Es handelt sich hier ja nicht um eine Interpretation, sondern um einen Vergleich ähnlicher 
Gebilde. Die folgende Darstellung soll erst entscheiden, ob die Ähnlichkeit derart und die Zahl 
der von beiden Seiten sich tatsächlich entsprechenden Gebilde so groß ist, daß es nicht mehr 
möglich wird, dies einem Zufall zuzuschreiben und es aus diesem Grunde auch berechtigt ist, 
induktiv auf einen objektiven Zusammenhang der beiden Reihen zu schließen."

[894] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Die zehn Kategorien des Aristoteles im Lichte der 
altasiatischen Seinsstufensymbolik. In: Trina Mundi Machina. Die Signatur des alten Eurasien. 
Ausgewählte Schriften, pp. 100-130.  Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag, Mainz 1986.
 "Das Erbringen eines literarisch belegten Nachweises konkreter Beziehungen zwischen der 
speziellen aristotelischen Kategorienlehre und gewissen, aus Indien in das Land der Lamas 
gewanderten naturphilosophischen Spekulationen ist nicht nur außerordentlich schwierig, sondern 
wohl aussichtslos. Es wäre ja verfehlt, den Ursprung einer solchen Beziehung unmittelbar in den 
beiden genannten Hochkulturen, d.h. in Griechenland und Indien, zu suchen. Es handelt sich 
vielmehr in beiden Fällen um die letzten Spuren eines viel älteren, den alten Ariern und anderen 
asiatischen Völkern gemeinsamen Menschen- und Weltbildes . . .. 
Ich habe an anderer Stelle darauf hingewiesen, daß die weite Verbreitung der Vorstellung von 
einer gewöhnlich als 'indisch' bezeichneten neunteiligen Ober- und Unterwelt auf dem gesamten 
nord- und ostasiatischen Kontinent noch keineswegs als Barbarisierung eines Imports neueren 
Datums zu betrachten ist. Dagegen spricht ihr wiederholtes Auftreten in dem sehr primitiven, 
altjägerische und rein autochthone Züge aufweisenden Ritus der schamanistischen Séance. Die 
einzelnen Himmel oder Weltstufen werden dabei auf der das rituelle Zelt tragenden Birke 
(Weltbaum oder Weltsäule) mit einer Kerbe bezeichnet. Der Schamane besteigt sie, um mit dem 
Tengri, dem Himmelsgott, in der Trance zu verkehren. Merkwürdigerweise ist aber der höchste 
Himmel stets der achte, obwohl es insgesamt neun Himmel geben soll. 
Wir wissen jedoch, daß es z. B. im lamaistischen Weltbild nur acht real existierende Seins- oder 
Weltstufen gibt; die neunte ist die der 'Leere' und wird daher nicht gezählt (oder eher heißt sie 
die Null-Stufe). Die Forschung der letzten Jahrzehnte hat daher mehrmals die Frage aufgeworfen, 
ob diese gemeinsamen kosmologischen Acht-Stufen-Vorstellungen nicht aus einer früheren 
gemeinasiatischen Quelle sowohl von den Indoiraniern als auch den sibirischen und mongolischen 
Völkern übernommen worden sind."

[895] Korvin-Krasinski, Cyrill von: Ist ein Dialog zwischen der tibetisch-lamaistischen Bio-logik 
und den sogenannten exakten Naturwissenschaften aktuell? Auseinandersetzung mit 
"wissenschaftlichen" Slogans. In: Trina Mundi Machina. Die Signatur des alten Eurasien. 
Ausgewählte Schriften, pp. 18-45.  Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag, Mainz 1986.
 Im Verlauf dieser sehr komplexen Arbeit bemerkt der Autor speziell zur tibetischen Medizin: 
"Obwohl mein verehrter Gewährsmann und Meister, Dr. Wladimir Badmajeff, nach seinen 
medizinischen Studien in einem lamaistischen Kloster der burjatischen Mongolei im zaristischen 
Rußland ein Dr. med. geworden ist, setzte er die Ausübung der lamaistischen Heilwissenschaft in 
ihren alten traditionellen Prinzipien weiter erfolgreich fort. Es gelang ihm jedoch nicht, trotz 
wiederholter Versuche, bei seinen westlichen Kollegen ein theoretisches Verständnis für die ganz 
andere, 'prinzipielle' wie er sie nannte, Heilwissenschaft des Lamaismus zu wecken. Denn diese 
Kollegen erwarteten von ihm vorrangig Begründungen dafür, was ihm so selbstverständlich und 
evident zu sein schien, daß er dies in seinen schriftlichen Aufsätzen stets voraussetzte und 
meistens überhaupt nicht erwähnte. Der Dialog verlief deswegen auf zwei verschiedenen, parallel 
liegenden Ebenen, wo die Begegnung unmöglich zu sein schien.- Die Heilkunde wird nämlich in 
Tibet wie in Altindien vom jungen Medizinadepten direkt am Heilen der Kranken gelernt. Der 
Student begleitet stets seinen Meister während dessen diagnostischer und therapeutischer 
Betätigung am Krankenlager. Er lernt vom Anfang an nicht die Krankheiten als solche, sondern 
die konkret vorhandenen Kranken kennen. Die Diagnose und Therapie hat daher individuellen 
 Auch die Anatomie, Physiologie, Pharmakologie und die Kunst der Herstellung der sehr komplex 
zusammengesetzten Pharmaka werden während der Behandlung einzelner Patienten erst nach 
und nach gelernt. Das Wichtigste und Schwierigste stellt dabei der das Gedächtnis des Studie-
renden jahrelang in Anspruch nehmende Umstand dar, daß jedes Organ wie Herz, Hirn, Nieren, 
Eingeweide, Leber, Haut, Haare, Nägel usw. - zu unzähligen ('entsprechenden') Organen bzw. 
Teilen der pflanzlichen und anorganischen Umwelt - Wurzeln, Blättern, Blütenpetallen, Früchten - 
in verschiedensten Verwirklichungsformen (z.B. bei Trauben, Äpfeln, Nüssen, Getreide, Kristal-
len, Metallen, Erde, Wasser, Feuer, Sonne usw.) - in ein keineswegs irrationales Ähnlichkeits-
verhältnis gebracht wird, und daß alle diese unzähligen 'Elemente' des Mikro- und des 
Makrokosmos stets nur einem der drei, die ganze Schöpfung gestaltenden und 'erklärenden' 
kosmischen Prinzipien (oder 'Wurzeln') zugeordnet werden - als ihre jeweilig verschiedenen 
sogenannten Manifestationen."

[896] Korwin-Piotrowska, T, Nocon, D, Stankowska-Chomicz, A, Starkiewicz, A, Wojcicki, 
Jerzy, and Samochowiec, Leonidas:  Experience of Padma 28 in Multiple Sclerosis. 
Phytotherapy Research (London) 6 (1992), pp. 133-136.
 "100 patients with a  chronic progredient form of multiple sclerosis were randomly divided into 
two equal groups. Group I received Padma 28, two tablets three times a day, and group II, the 
control, was treated only symptomatically. Treatment and observation lasted for 1 year. 
Examinations performed directly prior to the study and in the course of observation included: 
neurological state, visual and auditory evoked potentials, basic laboratory tests. A positive 
effect of Padma 28 was observed in 44% of patients with multiple sclerosis in the form of 
improvement of general condition, increase of muscle strength, decrease or disappearance of 
disorders affecting sphincters. In 41% of patients with prolonged visual evoked potentials, an 
improvement or normalization was achieved. Of patients, who did not receive Padma 28, none 
felt better, moreover, 40% of them showed a deterioration. Tolerance of the drug was 

[897] Kotsuichin: A Brief Introduction of Tibetan Medicine and Hospital [Title and text in 
Chinese, with English translation]. 43 p. Tibetan Medical Hospital of the Autonomous Region, 
Lhasa 1987.
[898] Kowalewski, K:  Vladimir Badmajeff, Tibetan Doctor in Europe. 1 Foto-Portrait. Journal 
for the Research in Indian Medicine (New Delhi) 8, 2 (1973), pp. 101-110.
 "In 1960 [more probably 1961], at the age of 77 years, a celebrated doctor, Vladimir 
Badmajeff, who practised the Tibetan art of healing for more than 50 years, died in Poland. 
Vladimir Badmajeff, the nephew of the famous Dr. Peter Badmajeff, Tibetan physician of Czar 
Nicolai the 2nd, obtained his medical degree in Moscow in 1915 and acquired knowledge of 
Tibetan Medicine in monasteries of Tibet and in the office of his uncle in Petersburg. Following 
the Russian revolution he emigrated to Poland, obtained a license to practise medicine and 
decided to follow the Tibetan art of healing, particularly regarding therapy."-
 In his acknowledgements, the author continues: "I had the privilege to work in Badmajeff's 
office and his laboratories from 1936-1939 and these years belong to the most precious years 
of my medical study. I am also thankful to Peter Badmajeff, M.D., surgeon, son of V. 
Badmajeff, now living in the United States, who supplied me with some biographical data and 
the list of his father's medicinal plants. Dr. K. Lutz from Switzerland is thanked for sending me 
information on 'Aktiengesellschaft für tibetische Heilmittel' with the statutes of the society and 
detailed information on Badmajeff's prescriptions."

[899] Krasnov, EA, Nikiphorov, JuV, and Savel'yeva, LM: On Chemical Investigations of 
mumiyah (Russian). In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhde-
niya (= Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian), p. 93. Tomsk 1978.
[900] Krause, Isabella: Besessenheitsphänomene in Tibet und Ladakh. Unveröffentlichte 
Magisterarbeit, Philosophische Fakultät der Universität Bonn. 192 p. Universität 
Bonn/Bibliothek, Bonn (1992?).
[901] Krauss, Friedrich S and Ihm, H: vide John Gregory Bourke, Leipzig 1913.
[902] Krebel, Rudolf: Russlands naturhistorische und medicinische Literatur. Schriften und 
Abhandlungen in nicht-russischer Sprache. vi, 220 S. Friedrich Mauke, Jena 1847.
 Erweitere Neuauflage 1862, 311 S. Großartige frühe Bibliographie, mit einigen Hinweisen zur 
traditionellen, auch der tibetisch beeinflußten Medizin.

[903] Krebel, Rudolf: Volksmedicin und Volksmittel verschiedener Völkerstämme Russlands. 
Skizzen. xiii, 194 S.  C. F. Winter'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Leipzig & Heidelberg 1858.
 Rudolf Krebel war der Herausgeber der "Medicinischen Zeitung Russland", 3. bis 11. Jahrgang, 
St. Petersburg 1846-1854.- Auf den Seiten 49 bis 69 dieses hier gelisteten Buches über 
mongolische Völkerstämme liest man über die Burjäten: "Mehr als 200.000 Burjäten leben 
innerhalb der Grenzen des Russischen Reichs und das von ihnen bewohnte Gebiet erstreckt sich 
in einer Ausdehnung von ongefähr 1000 Werst, in den Gouvernements Irkutsk und Trans-
baikalien, von der chinesischen Grenze bis zum Flussgebiet der oberen Lena nordwärts und vom 
Onon bis zur Oka, dem Nebenflusse der Angara, westlich bis in die Gegend von Nishne-Udinsk. 
Die Burjätenmasse scheidet sich in zwei sprachlich und ethnographisch verschiedene Zweige, in 
den Transbaikalischen (190.000), in den Thalebenen an der Uda, dem Onon und Selenga wohnen
den und in den Cisbaikalischen (20.000). Im ganzen Süden des östlichen Sibirien geniessen die 
Ärzte der Burjäten grossen Ruf und bei wesentlichen Krankheiten sucht man ihre Hülfe. Man 
versichert, dass sie ganz überraschende Erfolge erzielten und dass nur selten Kranke 
ungebessert, oder unerleichtert von ihnen entlassen würden. Als einen Beleg dazu findet man in 
der Med. Zeit. Russl. 1849. S. 289-291 die Heilung eines Rheumatismus der untern Extremitäten, 
einer Unterleibskrankheit, die für Phthisis erklärt worden war, und die eines Lippenkrebses. 
Ebenso wie die Kalmücken haben die Burjäten Chirurgen, die sich auf die Behandlung von 
Verrenkungen und Knochenbrüchen verstehen.
 Ausser den mechanischen Mitteln, Manipulationen, benutzen diese das animalische Bad auf den 
leidenden Teil angewendet. Überhaupt giebt die natürliche Wärme des Fleisches und der 
Eingeweide von frisch geschlachteten Thieren ein wesentliches von ihnen verbrauchtes äusseres 
Mittel ab, und schafft allerdings vielfältigen Nutzen. Nächst diesen gebrauchen sie Breiumschläge 
aus Kräutern und natürliche Mineralquellen. Die bei ihnen gebräuchlichen innerlichen Mittel 
kommen theilweise aus China. Die bekanntesten sind Faba Ignatii, eine herbe bittere Frucht, 
Densui, Chinesisch Din-sy-jao, in Form kleiner meist rother Stückchen, pulverisiert in die Nase 
gebracht verursacht es starkes Niesen, das getrocknete Rog isjubrja und Shinschen. Die übrigen 
gebräuchlichen Arzneimittel tragen die Tibetanische und Mongolische Benennung und gehören 
grössten Theils dem Pflanzenreiche an. 
Die vegetabilischen Heilmittel der Lamaischen Heilkunde sind in den beiden Tibetanischen 
Büchern Dymit-tschil-gon und Dymit-tschil-tyrin [i.e. Dri-med shel-gong & Dri-med shel-phreng], 
ganz wie in unsern pharmakologischen Handbüchern abgehandelt. Einen grossen Theil der bei den 
verschiedenen Krankheiten benutzten Mittel findet man jenseits des (Jablonowschen) 
Nertschinskischen Bergrückens wild wachsend. Die Beschreibung der Krankheiten und 
Heilmethoden der Lamas sind in dem Tibetanischen Werke Santap [i.e. Lhan-thabs] abgehandelt. 
In demselben findet man 133 Recepte, 404 Krankheiten und 1250 Krankheits-
symptome oder Krankheitsmodifikationen. Den Ursprung dieses Werks schreiben sie göttlicher 
Offenbarung im grauen Alterthume zu."

[904] Krebel, Rudolf: Folk Medicine and Folk Remedies of Various Tribes of the Russian 
Kingdom. A Guidance for Physicians (Russian). Translated from the German by S. Blumental. 
Moscow 1868.
[905] Krivosheyn, VS: The Curative mumiyah (Russian). In: Earth and People (Russian). 319, 
with illustr., maps.  "Myse" (= Thought), Moscow 1968.
 (The Geographical Calendar).

[906] Kuhn, Alice S (1957- ): Heiler und ihre Patienten auf dem Dach der Welt. Ladakh aus 
ethnomedizinischer Sicht. (Medizin in Entwicklungsländern. 25.). 4 Karten, mehrere Tabellen. 
296 S.  Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M. 1988.
 Zwischen 1979 und 1982 konnte die Autorin mehrmals, oft über Monate, in Ladakh und 
zudem einen Winter lang abgeschlossen in Zanskar im Rahmen ihres Medizinstudiums an 
dortigen Krankeneinrichtungen famulieren, teils in Feldforschung, um das traditionelle 
system zu untersuchen. Der medizinische Pluralismus (östlich-westlich) einschließlich der 
"religiös-magischen Heiler" und der Orakelheiler werden ebenso dargestellt, oft mit eindrucks-
vollen Krankengeschichten, wie die sozioökonomischen Strukturen, in die die sehr 
verschiedenartigen Gesundheitssysteme eingebunden sind. Umfangreiches Glossar und 

[907] Kuhn, Alice S:  Ladakh: A Pluralistic Medical System under Acculturation and Domi-
nation. In: Acculturation and Domination in Traditional Asian Medical Systems. Edited by 
Dorothea Sich and Waltraud Gottschalk, pp. 61-74. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 1994.
 A profound article, based on original facts: "The cultural and emotional aspects of healing with their 
outstanding significance in the treatment of certain disorders (for example of so-called 'cultural 
bound syndromes') are not transferable to the biomedical model of allopathy. To provide a 
population with broad medical help by responding to the cultural and biomedical dimensions of 
sickness, one needs the cooperation between allopathic and traditional healers. The integration of 
traditional and modern ways of healing, embedded in a general process of acculturation, is 
attempted in Ladakh/India."- 
I give some of those interesting parts of the article, which relate to Tibetan medicine: "The Ladakhi 
Health Care System is characterised by medical pluralism and includes the following medical 
systems: 1. the cosmopolitan medicine (allopathy), 2. the rising popular-culture medicine, 3. the folk 
medicine, 4. the traditional Tibetan medicine. According to Ladakhi sources the existence of Amchi 
in Ladakh dates back to the 11th century. Among 17 Amchis questioned about the duration of their 
medical family tradition, only one declared himself to be of the 17th Amchi generation which was on 
record in one of the principal books on Tibetan medicine (rGyud-bzhi) existing in his library. Most of 
the other Amchis could remember only three or four generations. The main task of an Amchi is 
described as caring for the general health situation of his village. In reality, the preventive part of the 
practised Tibetan medicine of village and family level is less than the curative part. 
The majority of the Amchis practise the psycho-physically oriented field of Tibetan medicine, that 
means diagnosing and treating diseases with mainly natural causes (food, climate, work). The most 
important method of diagnosis is the pulse-diagnosis. The main treatment consists of dietary 
advices, self-made medicaments (herbs, minerals) and moxibustion, to mention only some. Only few 
Amchis have the ability to practise magico-religious forms of healing or to treat diseases caused by 
supernatural sources, and few seem to be well trained concerning traditional Tibetan nosology.- The 
knowledge of the majority concerning this branch of medicine is close to the conceptions of the 
laity. But they might be good practitioners nevertheless. Lhapa/Lhamo are the most favoured healers 
among the village people, especially due to the supernatural powers (protecting deities, village 
The domain of the oracle-healers is multi-various. Due to their abilities to know about past, present 
and future they give advice for example where to find lost objects, when to start a journey, which 
kind of rituals are necessary before building a house and so on. Another task is to diagnose diseases 
and to find out the adequate type of healer. In case of diseases due to poison ('tuk') and harm due 
to supernatural powers ('notpa') the oracles act as healers by sucking out the poison or by 
performing magic healing rituals. After being treated without success by an Amchi or a Western 
style doctor, patients often consult the oracles as well. Nevertheless, the oracles are the competent 
healers to cure animals having eaten needles or other metallic objects."

[908] Kuhn, Alice S and Hoffmann, Carl-Heinz:  Buddhistische Heilkunst auf dem Dach der 
Welt. Das Neue Universum 103 (1985), pp. 359-370.
[909] Kulakov, PE and Molodykh: The Illustrative Description of the Life of Rural Population of 
Irkutsk Province (Russian).  Irkutsk 1896.
[910] Kurentsova, GE: Medicinal Plants of the Primorsky Region (Russian). 84 p., Vladivostok 
[911] Kusevitsky, IA:  Anatomy and Physiology in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Sovremennaya 
Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 6 (13) (1935), pp. 47-
[912] Kushnirova, VA: Transbaikalian Local Historian Michail Andreevich Zenzinov and his 
Publications on Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Review of the Transbaikalian Branch of the 
Geographical Society of the USSR (1965), Vol. 1, issue 4., pp. 127-129.
 Material from Archives on the activity of M. A. Zenzinov kept in the Manuscript Department of 
the Lenin Library (G. B. L.-State Library), Fund Nr. 108, P. I, No. 12, and P. II, No. 51, 76, 76-
79, P. III, No. 5, 10, 25. Fund POG (?)-III, P. 5, No. 11, and in the State Archives of the Chita 
Area (GACHO), the fund of Zenzinov, letter of Marchonov from 28th June 1845.

[913] Kuvayev, VB and Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Preliminary Chemical Evaluation of 
Medicinal Plants in Transbaikalia, used in Tibetan Medicine. In: Problemy Farmakognozii (= 
Problems of Pharmacognosy), issue 1 (Publications of the Leningrad Chemico-Pharmaceutical 
Institute, Vol. 12) (Russian), pp. 213-262.  Leningrad 1961.
[914] Kuzmenko, P:  The Struggle for Health of the Buryat Masses (Russian). Zhizn' Buryatii (= 
The Life of Buryatia) [Verkhneudinsk = from 1934 Ulan-Ude] (Russian) 10 (1927), pp. 103-
[915] Kvaerne, Per:  Short reviews: Tibetan Medicine by Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang, 
London 1973. Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) 3, 1 (1975), pp. 67-73.
 "Part II of the present volume consists of a complete translation of the biography of gYu-thog 
Yon-tan mgon-po. The translation is made on the basis of a xyl. consisting of 149 fols. (India 
Office Library, Lhasa J 12), the blocks of which were made by Dar-mo sman-pa bLo-bzan Chos-
grags, the physician of the Fifth Dalai Lama, and kept in the printing-house (parkhan) of Zhol at the 
foot of the Potala. Another edition was subsequently produced at Derge. gYu-thog is considered to 
be the founder and patron of Tibetan Medicine, although according to the traditional account, 
medicine was introduced into Tibet from India as early as the reign of Lha-tho tho-ri, i.e. 
simultaneously with the first penetration of Buddhism. 
While one may doubt the historical validity of this tradition, there is, on the other hand, no reason 
to doubt that during the 8th or 9th centuries, if not earlier, medical theory and practice was 
brought to Tibet from surrounding countries. gYu-thog is supposed to have lived from 786 to 911 
[708-833?], i.e. to an age of 125; he is also supposed to have visited India on three occasions. It 
is difficult to sort out fact from legend in the present biography, which is not, in any case, a 
contemporary or in any sense historical document, but rather a 'historical novel' of the same kind 
as the famous 'biography' of Milarepa (Mi-la ras-pa), with which our text has many traits in 
common. The biography of gYu-thog has, in fact, considerable literary merit, even in translation. 
The 'human touch', the robust sense of humour, which is so typical of the best of Tibetan 
biographical literature - and of the Tibetan character - is certainly not lacking when the fifteen-
years old gYu-thog advises king Khri-sron lde-bcan, who had trouble with his eyes, to stop 
worrying about them as 'you will get worse diseases than this - because horns will be growing 
from your knees', and tells his royal patient to 'make your knee bones smooth by rubbing them 
with your hands'. And 'the king did as gYu-thog told him and his eyes recovered because he did 
not touch them with his hands'!"
[916] Kvaerne, Per:  Short reviews: An Introduction to Tibetan Medicine, by D. Norbu (ed.), 
New Delhi 1976. Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) 4, 4 (1976), pp. 404.
[917] Kvaerne, Per:  Short reviews: The Tibetan Art of Healing, by Th. Burang, London 1974. 
Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) 4, 4 (1976), p. 397.
 "This book is a revised edition and translation of the author's 'Tibetische Heilkunde', Zürich 
1957. Through prolonged contact with adepts of the traditional Tibetan medical science, the 
author has gained a high degree of insight into this 'art of healing'. The present book is a short, 
highly readable introduction to the basic principles and practices of Tibetan Medicine. It is 
written for the non-specialist; however, the author has much to say which, one feels, might 
provide food for thought for the Western medical practitioner as well. Thus, 'methods which 
aim at removing only the outward symptoms of disease, strike the Tibetan doctor as 
superficial. To his way of thinking, a lasting cure can only be effected when the whole mental 
and emotional world of the patient is taken into account' (p. 2). In particular, the two chapters 
'About Cancer' (pp. 76-88) and 'Mental Illness and Possession' (pp. 89-107) would seem to 
contain many insights which merit very serious attention."

[918] Kvaerne, Per:  Short reviews: Gso-ba rig-pa. Le système médicale tibétain, by Fernand 
Meyer, Paris 1981. Indo-Iranian Journal (Dordrecht) 28 (1985), p. 52.
[919] Kychanov, EI and Savitsky, LS: The People and the Gods in the Land of Snow (Russian). 
302 p., 24 illustr. The Institute for Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 
Moscow 1975.
 About Tibetan medicine pp. 282-289, bibliography pp. 297-299.

[920] Kyuner, Nikolay Vasilevich (1877-1935): Structure and Way of Living of the People. 
Health and Medicine (Russian). In: Opisanie Tibeta (= The Description of Tibet), part 2: 
Ethnography (Russian): issue 1, chapter 8: pp. 99-104.  Vladivostok 1908.
 On Tibetan medicine see also volume II, pp. 58-68.

922] Lalou, Marcelle:  Le culte des naga et la thérapeutique. Journal Asiatique (Paris) 230 
(Janvier-Mars) (1938), pp. 1-19.
[923] Lalou, Marcelle:  Texte médical tibétain. Journal Asiatique (Paris) 233 (1941-1942),
pp. 209-211.
[924] Lalou, Marcelle:  Fiefs, poisons et guérisseurs. Journal Asiatique (Paris) 246 (1958),
pp. 157-201.
 Manuscrits de Haute Asie conservés à la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris. Paris, Société 
Asiatique, 1959, 45 p., 13 tab.

[925] Lamjav, Ts:  Mongol orny emiyn bayaliyg sudalsan erdem shinjilgeeni ajlyn dun. [Results 
of Research on the Herbal Riches of Mongolia. Work of the College of Agriculture]. 1-dügeer 
medeesel; Khudoo aj akyhun deed surguliyn büteel (Ulan Bator) 11 (1971), pp. 11-136.
[926] Landor, Arnold Henry Savage (1865-1924): In the Forbidden Land. An Account of a 
Journey in Tibet. Capture by the Tibetan authorities, imprisonment, torture, and ultimate 
release. Also various official documents, including the enquiry and report by J. Larkin, 
appointed by the government of India, with a map and two hundred and fifty illustrations. 2 
vol., illustr. (I), xx, 320; (II), xvi, 263 p. William Heinemann, London 1898.
 Vol. I, pp. 302-316 deal with Tibetan Medicine.- Also abridged 1 vol edition, London 1904, 203 
p.; Harper, New York 1909.- For comment on the "Tibetan Medicine" chapter see next entry 
(German edition).

[927] Landor, Arnold Henry Savage: Tibetanische Heilkunst. In: Auf verbotenen Wegen. Reisen 
und Abenteuer in Tibet. pp. 276-286. F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1898.
 "Während der ganzen Zeit, daß ich in Tibet war und mit mehreren tausend Menschen in 
Berührung kam, könnte ich, wie ich glaube, die Gebisse, die ganz regelmäßig, gesund und stark 
aussahen, fast an den Fingern herzählen. In der Regel hatten die Frauen bessere Zähne als die 
Männer. Die Zähne der Tibetaner sind meist so zerbrechlicher Natur, daß der Tibetanische 
Zahnarzt - gewöhnlich ein Lama oder ein Grobschmied - eine sinnreiche Methode erfunden hat, 
sie vermittels einer silbernen Hülse, die den abgebrochenen Zahn umschließt, vor weiterer 
Zerstörung zu schützen. Einmal sah ich einen Mann, dessen Vorderzähne sämtlich in dieser 
Weise bedeckt waren, und da der Zahnarzt, der ihn behandelte, die kleinen Behälter 
augenscheinlich ohne Rücksicht auf Form oder Bequemlichkeit hergestellt und die meisten 
wegen des Kauens oben mit einer Spitze versehen hatte, sah der arme Mann gräßlich aus.
 Die Tibetaner sind gegen körperlichen Schmerz nicht sehr empfindlich; ich habe dies bei 
verschiedenen Gelegenheiten wohl beobachten können, wenn ich sah, wie Zähne auf die 
primitivste und schmerzhafteste Weise ausgezogen wurden, gewöhnlich ohne daß der Leidende 
nur einen Laut von sich gab.- Gegen Fieber und Rheumatismus wird Aconit gegeben, und um 
Schmerzen in den Muskeln der Glieder zu lindern, wird eine rohe Art von Massage angewendet. 
Diese wird gewöhnlich von den Frauen ausgeführt, die, soweit ich es beurteilen konnte, die 
Massage ohne jede praktische Kenntnis ausüben und sich mit heftigem Reiben, Kneifen und 
Stoßen begnügen, bis Zeichen von Erleichterung auf dem Gesicht der Leidenden erscheinen. Ob 
diese Zeichen jedoch der wirklichen Linderung von Schmerzen zuzuschreiben sind oder der 
Hoffnung, daß die Masseuse ihre Behandlung beendigen würde, konnte ich nicht feststellen. 
Tibetanische Finger sind für eine solche Arbeit nicht sehr geeignet, da sie plump und, mit denen 
anderer asiatischer Volkstämme verglichen, steif und hart sind.- 
Blutentziehung wird als Mittel gegen Quetschungen und Geschwülste und gegen innere 
Schmerzen angewendet, auch gegen acute Anfälle von Rheumatismus und Gliederschmerzen. 
Wenn sie nicht genügt, nimmt man seine Zuflucht zur Brennkur, und wenn auch diese versagen 
sollte, dann kommen die Zündkegel an die Reihe und werden angezündet, nachdem der Sitz des 
Schmerzes mit ihnen umgrenzt worden ist. Wenn selbst dieses Mittel sich als unwirksam 
erweist, wird die Krankheit für unheilbar erklärt."

[928] Lange, Kristina:  Eine anatomische Tafel zur lamaistischen Heilkunde. 1 Abb. Annals of 
the Náprstek Museum (Prague) 3 (1964), pp. 65-84.
 "Die für heilkundige Lamas verbindlichen Lehrtexte waren die 'Vier Tantras' (rGyud-bzhi) - 
eigentlich 'Quintessenz des Unsterblichkeitstrankes, Tantras der geheimen Unterweisungen in der 
achtgliedrigen (Wissenschaft) [bDud-rci-snin-po Yan-lag-brgyad-pa gSan-ba-man-nag-gi rGyud]' 
und die diesen nicht kanonischen Lehrtext auslegenden und ergänzenden Kommentare, in denen 
indische, chinesische, arabische und eigene tibetische bzw. mongolische Erfahrungen über den 
menschlichen Körper, seine Funktionen, über Krankheiten, deren Entstehung und Heilung 
festgehalten wurden. Ein solcher Kommentar ist der 1687/88 von dem tibetischen Regenten zur 
Zeit des V. Dalai Lama, dem vielseitig gelehrten Sans-rgyas-rgya-mc'o (1653-1705) verfaßte 
'Heilkundliche Lehrtext: Kommentar zum Gedankenschmuck des sMan-bla, den Vier Tantras, 
genannt Blaue Lapislazuli-Perlenkette' [gSo-ba'i-rig-pa'i bsTan-bchos sMan-bla'i dGons-rgyan 
rGyud-bzhi gSal-byed Vaidurya-snon-po'i 'phren-ba].- 
Zur Veranschaulichung des Inhaltes einzelner Kapitel ließ Sans-rgyas-rgya-mc'o - vermutlich in 
dem 'Medizin-Kloster' auf dem 'Eisenberg' [lCags-po-ri] bei Lhasa - zu seinem Kommentar 
detaillierte Zeichnungen anfertigen. Diese anatomischen Tafeln wurden auch in den 'Medizin-
Fakultäten' [sMan-grva] anderer dGe-lugs-pa-Klöster als Lehrhilfen im heilkundlichen Unterricht 
benutzt und fanden gemeinsam mit dem Kommentar des Sans-rgyas-rgya-mc'o im ganzen 
Einflußgebiet der 'Gelben Kirche' Verbreitung. Nach dem Vorbild der anatomischen Tafeln zum 
Vaidurya-snon-po'i 'p'ren-ba sind dann später auch zu anderen heilkundlichen Lehrtexten solche 
Zeichnungen angefertigt worden. Die hier vorgelegte Tafel gehört nach der stark verderbten 
Unterschrift zum vierten Kapitel [IV] des Tantras der Erklärungen [B] aus dem Kommentar zum 
Gedankenschmuck des sMan-bla, den Vier Tantras, [genannt] Blaue Lapislazuli-Perlenkette.

[929] Lange, Kristina: Die Werke des Regenten Sans rgyas rgya mc'o (1653-1705). Eine philo-
logisch-historische Studie zum tibetischsprachigen Schrifttum. Beigelegt 1 gefalt. Tafel. 
(Veröffentl. des Museums für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig. 27). 254 S.  Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 
 Wichtige Biographie dieses großen Gelehrten.  Auf S. 138-144 zur Geschichte und Bedeutung 
der ihm zugeschriebenen medizinischen Werke. Mit Bibliographie der Blockdrucke und 
Erwähnungen der Werke des Regenten und verwandter Texte in tibetischen Handschriften 
(S. 205-245).

[930] Lange, Kristina and Taube, Manfred:  Tibet-Forschungen in den UdSSR seit 1945. 
Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift (Heidelberg) 10 (1969), pp. 245-266.
 Diese interessante Übersichtsarbeit beschränkt sich keineswegs auf die Tibetforschungen in 
der UdSSR seit 1945, sondern geht auch auf wichtige Namen und Werke von Tibetforschern in 
Rußland vor und nach der Jahrhundertwende ein. Während Fach-Tibetologen durchaus um die 
Bedeutung dieser russischen Tibetforscher wissen, ist dem Nichtfachmann vieles an dieser 
Literatur unbekannt, bzw. sprachlich verschlossen. Im Hinblick auf die tibetische Medizin 
bemerken die Autoren: "Die in den 30er Jahren im Zusammenhang mit der systematischen 
Erforschung der Burjat-Mongolischen ASSR aufgenommenen Studien zur lamaistischen 
Heilkunde werden am Lehrstuhl für Botanik und Pharmakognostik des Leningrader Chemisch-
pharmazeutischen Instituts weitergeführt; dazu werden nach Möglichkeit jährliche 
Sammelexpeditionen in die Burjatische ASSR unternommen. Eine Arbeitsgruppe unter der 
Leitung von K. F. Blinova untersucht Drogen, die in der lamaistischen Heilkunde verwendet 
werden; der Mediziner Andrey Nikolaevich Badmayev, ein Enkel von Peter A. Badmayev, 
beschäftigt sich mit der Anwendung und Wirkungsweise solcher Stoffe, und der Pharmazeut 
Donatas Butkus wertet tibetisch-sprachige Rezepturen burjatischer Medizin-Mönche aus, zu 
deren Erläuterung er auch tibetische heilkundliche Lehrtexte heranzieht. Wesentlichen Anteil an 
den bisherigen Tibet betreffenden Studien und Publikationen der burjatischen Tibetologen hatte 
Boris Vladimirovich Semichov, Schüler von F. L. Scherbatskoj (1866-1942) und vor dem Kriege 
als Lexikograph Mitarbeiter des damaligen Instituts für buddhistische Kultur in Leningrad. Seine 
lexikographischen Arbeiten betrafen den tibetischen Wortschatz, speziell im 
gesellschaftspolitischen, geographischen und medizinischen Bereich. Er informierte ausführlich 
über den burjatisachen Tibet-Reisenden Gombozhab Tsybikov (1873-1930), außerdem über 
neue tibetische Literatur (1975) und über den Fond an tibetischen Handschriften und 
Blockdrucken im Kultur-Institut in Ulan-Ude."

[931] Langen, Dietrich: Archaische Ekstase und asiatische Meditation mit ihren Beziehungen 
zum Abendland. (Schriftenreihe zur Theorie und Praxis der Psychotherapie. 3.) Mit 12 s/w Abb. 
128 S. Hippokrates, Stuttgart 1963.
[932] Larin, I and Sizykh, S: Materials to the Studies of Folk-Medicine Plants of the Irkutsk 
Guberniya (Russian). In: Review of the East-Siberian Division of the Imperial Russian 
Geographical Society, vol. 45, pp. 232-240.  Irkutsk 1916.
[933] Lati Rinpoche and Hopkins, Jeffrey: [Dbyans-can-dga-bai-blo-gros, A-kya Yons-dzin]: 
Death, Intermediate State and Rebirth [Commentary and Translation]. Foreword by H. H. the 
14th Dalai Lama. 86 p. Gabriel Press, Valois, NY 1979.
 Also published by Rider & Co., London 1979. Reprinted by Snow Lion, Ithaca 1981, 1986.

[934] Lauf, Detlef Ingo:  gYu-thog-pa und Medizingottheiten in Tibet. Mit 9 farb. und 1 s/w 
Abb. Sandoz Bulletin (Basel) 23 (1971), pp. 11-24.
 "Ein Gemälde von hohem Wert für diese Studie ist das in Abbildung 1 gezeigte Thangka aus 
der Sammlung van der Wee (Antwerpen). Mit seiner vielschichtigen Darstellung von 
Medizingottheiten führt uns das Bild gleich in die Medizingeschichte Tibets: In der Mitte 
befindet sich der Arzt gYu-thog-pa, wobei es offen bleiben muß, ob es sich um den ersten oder 
zweiten gYu-thog-pa handelt. Möglicherweise aber ist es gYu-thog-pa I, da die nur schwer 
lesbare Inschrift besagt: 'der durch die Stätten des sechsfachen Verdienstes zweite Buddha 
gYu-thog-pa'. Gemeint ist damit wohl nach der Terminologie der alten Rotmützensekten, daß 
der Arzt sich in allen sechs Bereichen der möglichen Inkarnationswelten Verdienste (durch sein 
heilendes Wirken) erworben hat. Diese Beziehung liegt in der tibetischen Medizin durchaus nicht 
allzu fern, wenn man berücksichtigt, daß diese Ganzheitsmedizin sich auch mit den geheimen 
Kräften der Unterwelt, der Geister und Dämonen, des Kosmos, der Tiere usw. befaßt hat."

[935] Laufer, Berthold (1874-1934): Klu 'bum bsdus pai snin po. Eine verkürzte Version des 
Werkes von den Hunderttausend Naga's. Tibetischer Text mit graphischen und kritischen 
Erläuterungen. (Inaugural-Thesis, Philosoph. Fakultät der Universität Leipzig). 37 S. Gebr. 
Unger, Berlin 1897.
  Der 1874 in Köln geborene Berthold Laufer stellt eine der herausragenden Persönlichkeiten der 
deutschen Tibetologie dar. In seiner Vita beschreibt er sein Studium in Berlin und Leipzig, wo er 
semitische Sprachen, Persisch, Sanskrit, Pali und Geschichte des Buddhismus, Malaiisch und 
später konzentriert Chinesisch, Mandschu, Mongolisch, Tibetisch und Japanisch belegte. Zu 
inhaltlichen Einzelheiten des in der Promotionsarbeit bearbeiteten Textes siehe den 
nachfolgenden Eintrag.

[936] Laufer, Berthold: Klu 'bum bsdus pai snin po. Eine verkürzte Version des Werkes von den 
Hunderttausend Naga's. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der tibetischen Volksreligion. Einleitung, Text, 
Übersetzung und Glossar. (Mém. de la Société Finno-Ougrienne. 11.). 120 S. Société Finno-
Ougrienne, Helsingfors 1898.
 Das tibetische Manuskript erhielt B. Laufer aus dem Nachlaß des 1891 in Leh früh 
verstorbenen Missionars, Arztes und Tibetforschers Dr. Karl Marx. Es handelt sich um einen 
Bon-Text, von dem Laufer ausführt, daß die hauptsächlichen Gedankenreihen, vor allem die 
zahlreichen in Vers und Prosa niedergelegten Vorstellungen, als 'animistisch' bezeichnet werden 
können. Marginal damit auch Auseinandersetzung mit der Bon-tibetischen Medizin.

[937] Laufer, Berthold:  Loan-Words in Tibetan. T'oung pao (Leiden) 17 (1916), pp. 403-552.
 On pp. 440-441 criticism on Hübotter's "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der chinesischen sowie der 
tibetisch-mongolischen Pharmakologie", Berlin 1913.

[938] Laufer, Heinrich (1877-1935): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tibetischen Medicin. (Inaugural-
Thesis, zur Erlangung der Doctorwürde in der Medicin u. Chirurgie, Universität zu Berlin, 10. 
August 1900). 41 S.  Gebr. Unger, Berlin 1900.
  Es ist dies Teil I der "Beiträge . . .", Teil II erschien im selben Jahr bei Otto Harrassowitz, 
Leipzig, mit an Teil I sich anschließender Pagina. Die Übersetzungen aus dem Tibetischen 
besorgte der Bruder des Autors, der Tibetologe Berthold Laufer. H. Laufer stützte sich im 
wesentlichen auf die Vorarbeiten von J. Rehmann (St. Petersburg 1811) und ganz wesentlich 
auf Csoma de Körös (Analysis of a Tibetan medical work, Calcutta 1835), das heißt bei 
letzterem auf die bedeutendste tibetische Originalquelle, nämlich das rGyud-bzhi.

[939] Laufer, Heinrich: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tibetischen Medicin. Teil II. Pagina von S. 44-
90. 47 S. Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig 1900.
 Teil II der 'Beiträge . . .', mit an Teil I sich anschließender Pagina, sowie Inhaltsverzeichnis und 
Register für beide Teile.- Neudruck beider Teile in einem Band, um ein Vorwort von Elisabeth 
Finckh vermehrt, Fabri Verlag, Ulm 1991.

[940] Laufer, Heinrich: Tibetische Medizin. Nachdruck von "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 
Tibetischen Medicin", I. und II. Teil. Mit einer Einführung von Dr. Elisabeth Finckh. 91 S.  Fabri 
Verlag, Ulm 1991.
 Aus dem Vorwort von Elisabeth Finckh: "Heinrich Laufer wurde am 2. Februar 1877 in Köln 
geboren. Durch seinen Bruder, den bekannten Orientalisten Berthold Laufer, wurde sein medizin-
historisches Interesse auf die tibetische Heilkunde gelenkt; so entstand die hier wiederver-
öffentlichte, im Jahr 1900 in zwei Teilen publizierte Thesis. Heinrich Laufer arbeitete später als 
Assistenzarzt an verschiedenen Krankenhäusern, zog sich dabei eine Tuberkulose zu und starb an 
dieser in Ägypten am 10. Juli 1935. Wer waren die Berater und Informanten und welche Quellen 
standen Heinrich Laufer für seine viel zitierte Arbeit zur Verfügung? Er beginnt bei Dr. J. Rehmann 
(geb. 28. August 1779 in Saulgau), der durch die Vermittlung des russischen Gesandten in Wien 
nach St. Petersburg gekommen war und der Gesandtschaft des Grafen Golovkin (1762-1846) als 
Arzt zugeteilt wurde (W. Heissig: 'Mongoleireise zur späten Goethezeit', Wiesbaden 1971). 
An der sibirisch-chinesischen Grenze 'bey Kiachta' erhielt Dr. Rehmann von einem Lama sechzig 
verschiedene Arzneivorräte mit tibetischer Aufschrift, die aber nicht aus Tibet, sondern aus Peking 
stammten. Dr. Rehmann, der später Professor für Pharmakologie in Moskau wurde, verfaßte 
mehrere wissenschaftliche Arbeiten, führte die Pockenimpfung bei den Burjaten ein und wurde zum 
Chef des russischen Zivilmedizinalwesens ernannt; er starb 1831 an der Cholera. Sein Buch 
'Beschreibung einer thibetanischen Handapotheke' (St. Petersburg 1811) enthält eine Darstellung 
der oben erwähnten sechzig Arzneien: dies ist die früheste Quelle, welche Laufer benutzte.- Der 
Ungar Alexander Csoma de Körös (1784-1842) veröffentlichte im Jahr 1835 die Arbeit 'Analysis 
of a Tibetan medical work' (vide Csoma de Körös) eine Analyse des Werkes rGyud-bzhi, welches 
die Hauptquelle der  Arbeit Heinrich Laufers war. Das Buch rGyud-bzhi (Kurztitel) = 'Vier Traktate' 
ist größtenteils in metrischer Form geschrieben. Es besteht aus vier Teilen und 156 Kapiteln und 
gilt als das Standardwerk der tibetischen Heilkunde. Der Titel lautet 'bdud rtsi snin po yan lag 
brgyad pa gsan ba man nag gi rGyud' (= Geheim-Unterweisungstraktat über die achtgliedrige 
Unsterblichkeitsessenz). Dieses wichtigste tibetische Medizinwerk ist nicht in das kanonische 
Schrifttum aufgenommen worden und seine Herkunft und Autorschaft sind nicht gänzlich geklärt."

[941] Laughlin, Charles D:  Womb = Woman = World: Gender and Transcendence in Tibetan 
Tantric Buddhism. Pre- & Peri-Natal Psychology (New York) 5 (1990), pp. 147-165.
 This article deals with the biogenetic structural theory of prenatal and perinatal neurocognitive 
development in child & gender symbolism in the Tibetan cosmology & Tantric meditation. The 
cosmologies of many cultures use gender as symbolic for polar attributes of human 
consciousness. The author presents a developmental neurobiological theory to account for the 
non-arbitrary way in which this attribution comes about, and applies the theory to an 
explanation of the symbolic use of gender in Tibetan Tantric Buddhism. He concludes by 
discussing the implications of the theory for understanding the effects of positive and negative 
pre- and perinatal experiences upon the development of gender identity.

[941a] Law, Andy & Tsewang Smanla: Diet and Nutrition in Ladakh according to Tibetan 
Medicine. The Save the Children Fund (UK), London 1986.

[942] Leary, Timothy  (1920-  ), Metzner, Ralph, and Alpert, Richard: The Psychedelic 
Experience. A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. (Psychedelic Monograph I). 
159 p. University Books, New Hyde Park, NY 1964.
 Several reprints, 8th edition 1971.- In their introduction, the authors point out: "Following the 
Tibetan model then, we distinguish three phases of the psychedelic experience. The first period 
(Chikhai Bardo) is that of complete transcendence - beyond words, beyond space-time, beyond 
self. There are no visions, no sense of self, no thoughts. There are only pure awareness and 
ecstatic freedom from all game (and biological) involvements. The second lengthy period 
involves self, or external game reality (Chönyid Bardo) - in sharp exquisite clarity or in the form 
of hallucinations (karmic apparitions). The final period (Sidpa Bardo) involves the return to 
routine game reality and the self. For most persons the second (aesthetic or hallucinatory) 
stage is the longest. For the initiated the first stage of illumination lasts longer. For the 
unprepared, the heavy game players, those who anxiously cling to their egos, and for those 
who take the drug in a non-supportive setting, the struggle to regain reality begins early and 
usually lasts to the end of their session."

[943] Leary, Timothy, Metzner, Ralph, and Alpert, Richard: Psychedelische Erfahrungen. Ein 
Handbuch nach Weisungen des Tibetanischen Totenbuches. Aus dem Amerikanischen 
übersetzt von Ursula von Mangoldt. 136 S.  O. W. Barth, Weilheim/Obb. 1971.
 (The Psychedelic Experience. A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. University 
Books, New York 1964).- Timothy Leary, Professor für Psychologie an der Harvard Universität, 
zum Hinduismus konvertiert, hatte mit seinem Kollegen Alpert Versuche mit LSD unternommen, 
wurde wegen dieser Droge rechtskräftig verurteilt und lebte später im Untergrund.- Dieses Buch 
soll niemanden zum Gebrauch der Droge oder überhaupt von Drogen verleiten! Die Absicht Learys 
war es (angeblich) vielmehr, denjenigen, die mit LSD Umgang pflegten, die Möglichkeit zu geben, 
sich mit Hilfe des Tibetischen Totenbuches durch die sich ihnen öffnende Welt der Raum- und 
Zeitlosigkeit führen zu lassen. Bilder, Gestalten und Eindrücke ihrer künstlichen Visionen sollten 
nicht mehr als Spaltungen erlebt, sondern mit Hilfe des Tibetischen Toten-
buches integriert und verarbeitet werden. Das Buch führt den Leser tatsächlich durch das 
Tibetische Totenbuch. Es ist vielleicht ernsthafter zu bewerten, als es der Titel vermuten läßt, 
und es ist außerdem von Interesse für die Dokumentation der durch LSD ausgelösten 
psychischen und psychiatrischen Phänomene.

[944] Lebedinsky, S:  On Export Opportunities of the Mongolian Peoples Republic (M.P.R.), 
regarding Products of Plant Origin (Russian). Sovremennaya Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, 
later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian) 1 (8) (1935), pp. 78-81.
[945] Leh Nutrition Project: The Art of Tibetan Medicine in Ladakh. Report of a Seminar held at 
Leh 8th-18th July 1985. Sponsored by Save the Children (UK), Leh Nutrition Project. Organised 
by the Project Amchi Tsewang Smanla. (Overseas Department Research Report No. 1). 31 p. The 
Save the Children Fund (UK), London 1986.
[946] Lenkhoboyev, GL and Zhambaldagbayev, NTs: On Warm and Cold Properties of Food and 
Drugs (Russian). 55 p., Novosibirsk 1980.
[947] Lenkhoboyev, GL and Zhambaldagbayev, NTs: Data Analysis of Tibetan Medicine's View 
of Environmental Effects on the Human Body (Russian). In: Models of Co-Systems and the 
Methods of defining their Parameters (Russian), pp. 41-47., Novosibirsk 1981.
[948] Lenkhoboyev, GL and Zhambaldagbayev, NTs:  Experience Gained with Years: On 
Buryatian Folk Medicine (Russian). Nauka v Sibiri (= Science in Siberia) [Novosibirsk] (Russian) 
Nr. 10 (1983).
 Published in a newspaper.

[949] Lenkhoboyev, GL and Zhambaldagbayev, NTs: On the Study of Buryatian Folk Medicine 
(Russian). In: The Modernity and the Traditional Culture of the Peoples of Buryatia (Russian), 
pp. 72-80. Ulan-Ude 1983.
[950] Lentini, Javier:  El sistema médico tibetano. Jano 'Medicina y Humanidades' (Barcelona) 
641; 642 (1984/1985), pp. (No. 641; 1984), 54-58; (No. 642; 1985), 54-59.
[951] Leskov, AI, Selarvi, TV, Gladkikh, AS, et al: The Pharmacological Investigation of 
mumiyah (Russian). In: First Interrepublican Symposium on the Experimental Study of 
"mumiyah", Dushanbe, October 1965 (Russian), pp. 33-36. Dushanbe 1965.
[952] Levinshtein, II: The History of Pharmacy and the Organization of the Pharmaceutical 
Affair (Russian). 27 p., Moscow/Leningrad 1939.
[953] Le Calloc, H:  Il y a cent cinquante ans l'Europe "découvrait" la médecine tibétaine. Bull. 
Ethnoméd. Nr. 32 (1984), pp. 111-118.
[954] Lhamo, Yudon: Guide to Daily Health Care. Charming illustr. 86 p. Department of Health, 
Central Tibetan Secretariate, Dharamsala 1984.
 1984 already 2nd edition. The English text (sic!) translated into Tibetan by Karma Geleg 
Yuthog of the Buddhist School of Dialectics, Dharamsala.

[955] Lhan-thabs: vide Glan-thabs.
[956] Lhawang, Qusar, Namgyal, and Tenzin, Namgyal:  The Knowledge of Skin Care in Tibetan 
Medicine as explained in the Upadesa Tantra. sMan-rTsis [new series!] (Dharamsala) 1, No. 1 
(1995), pp. 47-61.

[957] Li, YW and Fang, QC:  Isoquinoline alkaloids from Corydalis thyrsiflora Prain (Chinese). 
Yao-Hsueh-Hsueh-Pao (Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica) 26(4) (1991), pp. 303-306.
 From the whole plant of Corydalis thyrsiflora Prain, a herbal medicine used in Tibet, 12 
isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated and identified as protopine, di-tetrahydrocoptisine, l-
sinactine, l-cavidine, d-bicuculline, d-corlumine, sibiricine, ochotensine, dihydrosanguinarine, 8-
acetonydihydrosanguinarine, d-adlumidine, and fumaramine. The structure determination was 
based on spectral analysis and on the comparison of physical and spectral data with those of 
authentic standards or those published in literature. In addition, the structure of fumaramine 
was confirmed by chemical transformation from bicuculline.

[958] Liebenthal, Walter: The Sutra of the Lord of Healing [= Bhaiæajya-guru-Vaidurya-prabha-
sutra]. (Buddhist Scriptures Series, 1). 32 p., plus folding plate. Society of Chinese Buddhists, 
Nien Hua Szu, Peking 1936.
 The Sanskrit title is given as a sub-title in round brackets without diacritic marks. The editor is 
Su-chia. Liebenthal translated the Chinese version by Hsüan-tsang (596-664) into English. The 
Sanskrit original is lost except for a few fragments (M. Winder).- Reedition by Hong Kong Book 
Distribution Press for 'The Buddhist Union', Singapore.

[959] Liu, SY:  Chemical Constituents of the Tibetan Drug Meconopsis punicea (Chinese). 
Chung-Yao-Tung-Pao (Bulletin of Chinese Materia Medica) 11(6) (1986), pp. 40-42.
[960] Liu Guosheng:  Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Medical History [Beijing] 
(Chinese) 2, No. 2 (1953), pp. 69-74.
 This paper is divided into six parts, dealing with the relationship between Tibetan medicine and 
Indian medicine, pathology of Tibetan medicine, diagnostics, therapeutic measures (mainly 
blood-letting), the evolution course of Tibetan medicine, epidemic in Tibet, and the development 
of medical works after liberation respectively (Cai Jingfeng).

[961] Li Dinglan:  Professional Morality in Ancient Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). Studies of 
Tibetology [Lhasa] (Chinese) No. 2 (1992), pp. 67-72.
[962] Li Dinglan:  Investigation on Customs and Habits for Preserving Life of Tibetans 
(Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy [Hohhot], Inaugural issue.  
(1995), p. 46.

[963] Li Jingwei:  Traumatic Surgery in the rGyud-bzhi (The Four Medical Tantras - A Tibetan 
Medical Classic) (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Medical History (Beijing) 16, No. 2 (1986), pp. 
 In den Kapiteln 82 bis 86 des dritten rGyud-bzhi-Tantras werden die Chirurgie und Orthopädie 
abgehandelt. Die Untergliederung nach 5 Punkten zeigt zunächst 1. eine Einteilung nach acht 
verschiedenen Unfallverursachungen, 2. prinzipielle therapeutische Vorgehensweisen für 
a) Behandlung von offen traumatisiertem Gewebe, b) Behandlung von Knochenfrakturen und 
c) Behandlung von geschlossen traumatisierten Gewebsverletzungen. Es folgen sodann 
3. vielfältige Methoden der Wundbehandlung, 4. operative Gerätschaften für den Bereich der 
Orthopädie, sowie abschließend 5. Herstellung und Benutzung von Nahtmaterial, Verbands-
material und Schienen zur Stabilisierung. Hierbei wird sehr interessant ausgeführt, wie die 
Tibeter (aufgrund ihres ständigen Umgangs mit Pferden) chirurgisches Nahtmaterial aus 
Schwanzhaaren und Sehnen des Pferdes herstellen. Verbände wurden aus Seide und dünnem 
Leinen angefertigt, üblicherweise zweifingerbreit. Rumpftraumen und andere geschlossene 
Traumen wurden mit dreifingerbreitem Verband fixiert, hingegen Hand- und Finger-
verletzungen mit einfingerbreitem Verband. Zur Stabilisierung wurde als Schienung astfreies 
Holz fein bearbeitet und in verschiedenen Längen zugeschnitten.- Auch Luxationen, Schädel-
hirntraumen, offene Lungenverletzungen einschließlich begleitender Pleura-Abszesse werden 
behandelt, sogar das Nähen von gastrointestinalen Verletzungen. Abschließend wird über den 
Aderlaß berichtet.

[964] Li Yingcun:  The Characteristics of Tibetan Medicine preparation in "Sibuyidian" (sic!) 
(Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy [Kunming] (Chinese) 3 (1995), 
pp. 16-19.
 Various pharmaceutical forms in Tibetan pharmacology are mentioned in this paper. This 
includes decoction, powder, pills and bolus, paste, medicinal ointment, calcinated drugs, 
extract, medicinal wine, and other drug forms mentioned in the Tibetan medical classic rGyud-

[965] Li Yongnian and Xie Zuo: The Four Medical Tantras (rGyud-bzhi), by Yuthok Yontan 
Gonpo (Chinese). Translated by Li Yongnian and rearranged by Xie Zuo. 481 p.  Peoples Health 
Publishing House, Beijing 1983.
 The complete rGyud-bzhi in Chinese language, translated in a rhythmic sloka (stanza) style.

[966] Lobsang Dolma Khangkar: vide Dolma Khangkar, Lobsang.
[967] Lobsang Rampa, T(hursday): The Third Eye. The Autobiography of a Tibetan Lama. 
Illustrated by Tessa Theobald. 256 p., ill., map.  Secker & Warburg, London 1956.
 Numerous editions and translations. Wonderful - and recommended for special reading on 
Tibetan medicine - but fiction.
[968] Lobsang Rampa, T(hursday): Das dritte Auge. Ein tibetanischer Lama erzählt sein Leben. 
Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Herbert und Waltraut Furreg. Mit 8 Schriftproben und 1 
Stadtplan von Lhasa. 315 S.  R. Piper & Co, München 1957.
 (The Third Eye. The Autobiography of a Tibetan Lama. Secker & Warburg. London 1956).- 
Zahlreiche deutsche Neuauflagen, auch Goldmann TB 11758; bereits 1957 60 000 deutsche 
Exemplare! Obwohl eine reine Erfindung, was von Lobsang T. Rampa stets heftig bestritten 
wurde, ist dies ein Klassiker der Tibetliteratur: Das Kapitel z. B. "Das Leben in der Medizin-
Schule auf dem Chakpori" ist ungemein spannend geschrieben, mit der ganzen Exotik und dem 
Flair des Esoterisch-Mystischen, was gemeinhin mit Tibet und auch speziell der tibetischen 
Medizin verbunden wird. Keines seiner anderen Bücher erreicht die Qualität dieses Romans. 
Sein bürgerlicher Name war Cyril Hoskins.

[969] Lobsang Rampa, T(hursday): Doctor from Lhasa. 239 p., ill.  Souvenir Press Limited, 
London 1959.
 Continuation of the autobiography 'The Third Eye'. Many reprints, also Corgi Books.- "I 
entered the Chakpori lamasery when I was seven years of age, making my lonely way along 
the path. At the entrance I was kept, and had to undergo an ordeal to see if I was hard enough, 
tough enough to undergo the training. This I passed, and then I was allowed to enter. I went 
through all the stages from an absolutely raw beginner, and in the end I became a lama, and an 
abbot. Medicine and surgery were my particular strong points. I studied these with avidity, and 
I was given every facility to study dead bodies. It is a belief in the west that the lamas of Tibet 
never do anything to bodies if it means making an opening. The belief is, apparently, that 
Tibetan medical science is rudimentary, because the medical lamas treat only the exterior and 
not the interior. That is not correct. The ordinary lama, I agree, never opens a body, it is 
against his own form of belief. But there was a special nucleus of lamas, of whom I was one, 
who were trained to do operations, and to do operations which were possibly even beyound 
the scope of western science. My training was very intensive indeed, because I had to know 
not only my specialised subjects of medicine and surgery, but all the scriptures as well 
because, as well as being a medical lama, I also had to pass as a religious one, as a fully 
trained priest. So it was necessary to study for two branches at once, and that meant studying 
twice as hard as the average. I did not look upon that with any great favour!- But it was not all 
hardship, of course. I took many trips to the higher parts of Tibet - Lhasa is 12.000 feet above 
sea level - gathering herbs, because we based our medical training upon herbal treatment, and 
at Chakpori we always had at least 6.000 different types of herbs in stock. We Tibetans 
believe that we know more about herbal treatment than people in any other part of the world. 
Now that I have been around the world several times that belief is strengthened . . .."

[970] Lobsang Tsultrim (Amchi):  Interview with Amchi Lobsang Tsultrim. sMan-rTzis 
(Dharamsala) 1, No. 2 (1992), pp. 8-13.
 Interviewed by Ms. Kaerin Stephens and T. J. Tsarong; transcribed and written by Ms. Kaerin 

[971] Loginovsky, KD: Materials to the  Ethnography of the Transbaikalian Kazaks (Russian). In: 
Notes of the Society  for Studies of the Priamur Region (Vladivostok Branch of the Priamur 
Department). Vol. 9, issue 1. 135 p., Vladivostok 1903/04.
[972] Lokesh Chandra: Materials for a History of Tibetan Literature. Part 1, 2 and 3 (Æata-
pitaka Series, Vols. 28, 29, and 30). 64 (part 1), 54 (part 2), and 16 (part 3) pages (for English 
texts). International Academy of Indian Culture, Delhi 1963.
[973] Lokesh Chandra: Contents of two classical hippological treatises. 8 (English) + 20 
(Tibetan) pages. International Academy of Indian Culture, Delhi 1964.
[974] Lokesh Chandra (editor): Chart illustrating the Surgical Instruments mentioned in the 
22nd Chapter of the bÆad rGyud or the Second Tantra of the Gyushi (rGyud-bzhi), "The Four 
Medical Tantras". Tibetan Translation of the Amrta-Astangahrdaya-guhyopa desa-tantra, whose 
Sanskrit original was lost in the 8th century. One sheet 20 x 30 inch.  International Academy 
of Indian Culture, Delhi 1966.
[975] Lokesh Chandra (editor): Exhibition of the History of Indian Medicine and its Spread in 
Asia. Exhibition Catalogue, 10 illustr.  International Academy of Indian Culture, Delhi 1966.
[976] Lokesh Chandra (editor): gYu-thok Yon-tan mGon-po's [the Younger] Treatise on Tibetan 
Medicine. (Chha-lag bCho-brgyad-kyi them-yig dkar-chhag me-long hphreng-ba bshugs-so. 
Eighteen chapters of instruction called 'The wreath of mirrors'. In Tibetan). Preface in English 
by Lokesh Chandra. (Æata-pitaka Series, Vol. 72). 8, 538 p. International Academy of Indian 
Culture, Delhi 1968.
[977] Lokesh Chandra (editor): An Illustrated Tibeto-Mongolian Materia Medica of Ayurveda of 
'Jam-dpal-rdo-rje of Mongolia. Edited by Prof. Dr. Lokesh Chandra from the Collection of His 
Holiness Z. D. Gomboyev. With a Foreword by E. Gene Smith. (Æata-pitaka Series, vol. 82). 20 
+ 347 + 24 p.  International Academy of Indian Culture, New Delhi 1971.
 From the foreword of E. Gene Smith: "In this volume of the Æata-pitaka Professor Lokesh 
Chandra has placed before the scholarly public a text of great importance for understanding the 
transmission and subsequent developments of Ayurveda in the Lamaist world. The work is a 
profusely illustrated encyclopaedia of Materia Medica, surgical instruments, anatomical 
diagrams, and popular lore compiled by a Mongol lay physician, one 'Jam-dpal-rdo-rje. We know 
too little about him. He tells us in the colophon that he belonged to the Naiman Banner of the 
Ju Uda League. One suspects that he was a student of 'Jigs-med-nam-mkha (1768-1821), the 
famous Zam-tsha Khri-sprul. He was certainly a product of the Ayurvedic tradition propagated 
among the Mongols by the great Sum-pa Mkhan-po Ye-æes-dpal-'byor (1704-1788).- 
The primary source on which this compendium is based is the magnificent Æel gon and its 
autocommentary, the Æel phren, of Deu-dmar dge-bæes Bstan-'dzin-phun-tshogs. Most of the 
quotations are from this work. In addition, he frequently refers to the rGyud-bzhi, Zur-mkhar 
Mnam-nid-rdo-rje's Mes po zhal lun, Dar-mo Sman-rams-pa Dkon-mchog-chos-grags' 
commentaries on the bÆad rGyud and Phyi ma rGyud, Sde-srid Sangs-rgyas-rgya-mtsho's 
Vaidurya snon po, Sum-pa Mkhan-po's Æel dkar me lon, and the Bye ba rin bsrel. Occasionally 
he refers to rarer works: the Bdud rtsi dga' ston, the Bdud rtsi me lon, the Bdud rtsi zil dkar, the 
Khu tshur 'bum pa, etc. An especially important feature of this compendium is the appearance 
of glosses for the various Materia Medica in Mongolian, Manchu, and Chinese. The Chinese 
characters are usually accompanied by a Tibetan pronunciation value."

[978] Lokesh Chandra (editor): India: A Source of Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Review (Delhi) IX, 
5-6 (1974), pp. 15, 17c.
 "The oldest available medical textbook is the Samhita of Charaka, who according to tradition, 
was the Royal Physician to Kaniska. His work is divided into eight parts: duties of a doctor and 
diet, the eight chief diseases, general pathology, anatomy and embryology, diagnosis and 
prognosis, special therapy, and general therapy. His work enjoyed renown far and wide: it was 
translated into Persian at an early date, and into Arabic in the eighth century A.D. Susruta is 
famous for his contributions to surgery. The Mahabharata represents him as the son of 
Visvamitra. The treatise of Susruta, inter alia, deals with pathology, anatomy, embryology, 
therapeutics and toxicology. Almost all the important operations are mentioned by him. He has 
described 121 surgical instruments. Like Charaka, he won fame beyond his motherland India: in 
the 9th century he was renowned in Cambodia in the East and in Arabia in the West. . . . With 
the introduction of Buddhism, the Tibetans inherited from India both religious and scientific 
teachings; the latter included medical texts, e.g. the 'Hundred Prescriptions' of the Buddhist 
philosopher Nagarjuna (2nd century A.D.) and the Heart of life of the Indian sage, Atisha (982-
1054), who was invited to Tibet in 1042 to teach the Buddhist religion and science there."

[979] Lokesh Chandra (editor): Ayurveda in Asia. In: Cultural Horizons of India. Vol. III. Studies 
in Tantra and Buddhism, Art and Archaeology, Language and Literature. Ed. by Tara Chandrika, 
pp. 271-283.  International Academy of Indian Culture & Aditya Prakashan, Delhi 1993.
[980] Lonshakova, KS (1938- ): Effect of Tibetan Medicine on the Structural and Functional 
State of the Liver in Experimental Hepatitis (Russian). In: Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh 
Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= Problems of the Assimilation of the Plant Resources of 
Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of the Reports of the All-Union Scientific Conference 
(Russian), pp. 203-204. Novosibirsk 1983.
 Results are reported of histological and morphological studies of the liver of animals treated 
with a special Tibetan medical preparation. This is composed out of 5 plants: Gentiana barbata 
Froel., Malus baccata (L.) Borkh., Sophora flavescens Ait., Odontites serotina Lam. (Dum.) and 
Crocus sativus L.

[981] Lozovoy, VP: The Methodology of Studying Tibetan and Mongolian Medicine (Russian). 
In: Rerikhovskie Chteniya (= The Roerich's Readings). The Materials of the Conference 
(Russian), pp. 266-268. Novosibirsk 1980.
 Concerning necessity of elaborating methodological aspects of studying the heritage of 
Tibetan Medicine, the author suggests ecological, historical and ethnographic approaches and 
stresses the comprehension of philosophical principles of experienced  practitioners as well as 
their practical knowledge.

[982] Lo Bue, Erberto:  The use of officinal plants among the Lama people of Yol-Mo. Kailash: 
A Journal of Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) 8,1-2 (1981), pp. 89-108.
 "The purpose of this preliminary report is to ascertain how and to which extent the Tibetan 
medical tradition survives in one culturally Tibetan area of the Nepalese Himalaya: Helambu (or 
Helmu, Tib.: Yol-mo). The report is based on field-work carried out in October-November 1975 
with the view of surveying the use of officinal plants among the local population. Despite its 
obvious limitations, the preliminary conclusions we were able to draw from our research appear 
to be interesting also in view of the future development it may have. The first conclusion is 
that the science of medicinal plants in Yol-mo is not popular knowledge. The local population 
seems to rely entirely upon the prestige of traditional Tibetan medical knowledge as well as to 
trust the quicker and more apparent successes of Western synthetic medicines. Furthermore, 
local folk are somewhat reluctant to admit that any popular use of medicinal plants actually 
exists, probably because of a kind of inferiority complex they have developed or perhaps 
inherited with regard to Western scientific standards. Such a feeling seems to be shared by the 
better educated strata of the population, as we gathered from a conversation with a Lama 
nurse from Taperka on the subject of a plant which is very common in Yol-mo and whose fresh 
leaves are pounded to be used against bruises. The second consideration to be made is that 
traditional medical science and the appreciable use of medicinal plants in Yol-mo appear by and 
large to be the prerogative of Tibetan monks who have received their regular religious 
education in monasteries, where they are subsequently trained as apothecaries and physicians. 
Such a circumstance confirms the strong influence of the Tibetan cultural heritage in the 
Himalayan areas of Nepal and the ascendancy which the Buddhist clergy still enjoys there 
[983] Lubsandorzhiyeva, PB: The Preliminary Phytochemical Study of Plants Named Bar-ba-ta 
(Russian). In: Vklad Molodykh Biologov Sibiri v Reskenie Voprosov Prodovol'stvennoi 
Programmy i Okhrany Okruzhayushehey Sredy (= The Contribution of Young Biologists of 
Siberia to the Solution of Questions of the Food Programme and Preservation of Environment). 
Abstracts of the Conference (Russian), pp. 145-146. Ulan-Ude 1984.
 In the prescriptions of Tibetan Medicine a plant under the name of Bar-ba-ta, which is 
Hypecoum  erectum L., has been used for treatment of diseases with intoxication and fever. In 
Transbaikalia Leptopyrum fumaroides is used as the substitute of Hypecoum erectum L. The 
competence of this substitution has been discussed in this work. The results of the 
phytochemical analysis show that the qualitative and quantitative content of biologically active 
substances in Hypecoum erectum L. is different from Leptopyrum fumaroides.

[984] Lubsandorzhiyeva, PB, Nikolayeva, GG, Glyzin, VI, Patudin, AV, Dargayeva, TD, and 
Bakuridse, AD:  Mangiferin Content in Species of Gentianaceae (Russian). "Rastitel'nye 
Resursy" = Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) 22, No. 2 (1986), pp. 233-236.
 Mangiferin was found in the aerial parts of 11 species of the family Gentianaceae using paper-
chromatography for analysis. The largest content of mangiferin occurred in the aerial part of 
Gentiana caucasica (Bieb.) Czer (2,34% from the whole mass of dry material), Gentiana 
schistocalya C. Koch (0,98%) and in G. lutea L. (0,92%). The further search for mangiferin is 
advisable to be carried out among the species of genera Gentiana L. (sections Gentiana and 
Pneumonanthae Bunge.) and species of Gentianopsis Ma.

[985] Luo Dashang:  History of Tibetan Medicine and Crystal Pearl Materia Medica (Chinese). 
Tibetan Studies. Journal of the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences (Lhasa) 1 (1990), pp. 145-
 Brief account of the history of Tibetan pharmacology, which is divided into several stages: 
main stress is laid on Deumar Tenzin Phuntsog's 'Crystal Pearl Materia Medica', i.e. Shel-gong 
& Shel-phreng (Cai Jingfeng).

[986] Luo Dashang:  Approach to the Theory of Tibetan Materia Medica (Chinese). Journal of 
China Pharmacy [Beijing] (Chinese) 3 (1992), pp. 9-10.
 With an English abstract.- The author works at the Department of Tibetan Medicine, Gansu 
College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou/China.

[987] Luvsan, G: The Experience of Medical Treatment with Methods of Oriental Folk-Medicine 
(Russian). In: Materials of the Third Republican Practical Conference of the Physicians of 
Buryatia (Russian), pp. 219-224. Buryat Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1975.
[988] Luvsanbaldan, Ch:  Information about Translations on Medical Plant Ingredients, made by 
Oirat Zaya Pandit (Mongolian). Chel zochiol sudlal (Ulan Bator), Language and Literature 
Department, Academy of Sciences. Tom. 6, fasc. 6 (1969), pp. 83-162.

[988a] L'vov, NA:  The Study of Folk Medicine is one Way in the Search for New Medicinal 
Plants (Russian). Bulleten' Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Khimiko-Farmatsevticheskogo Instituta 
(= Bulletin of the Scientific Research Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute) [Moscow] (Russian) 2 
(1931), pp. 51-53.
[989] Lysebeth, Willy van:  Oedipe au Tibet. Psychanalyse a l'Universite (Paris) 12 (1987),
pp. 129-140.
 Similarities between Freudian metapsychology and the Tibetan Book of the Dead.

[990] MacKenzie, Vicki:  [Dr. Tenzin Choedak, Tibetan Medicine and Treatment for Aids]. Daily 
Telegraph August 31 (1987), p 7.
[991] Maisky, I:  Astronomy and Medicine. Sovremennaya Mongoliya (= Modern Mongolia, 
later 'Mongolia') [Ulan Bator] (Russian)  (1921), pp. 312-316.
[992] Majupuria, TC and Majupuria, I: Sacred and Useful Plants of Nepal. iv, 192 p., illustr. 
Sahayogi Prakasan, Kathmandu 1978.
[993] Makarenko, AA: The Literature on Problems of Folk Medicine (Russian). In: The Collection 
of the Instruction and Programme for the Participants of the Excursions in Siberia, pp. 199-202.  
St. Petersburg 1914.
[994] Makhsumov, MN and Karimov, VA: Pharmacological Characteristics of the Oriental 
Remedy mumiyah (Russian). In: First Interrepublican Symposium on the Experimental Study of 
"mumiyah", Dushanbe October 1965 (Russian), pp. 37-38.  Dushanbe 1965.
[995] Malanova, TM (1948- ): Medical Texts from the Tanjur (Russian). In: Materialy po 
Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny (= Materials on 
Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) (Russian), 
pp. 67-69.  Novosibirsk 1982.
 This publication offers a list of the medical treatises incorporated in the Tanjur of the Narthang 
edition - stored in the Manuscript Department of the Buryat Branch of the Siberian Division of 
the USSR Academy of Sciences. Brief historical data are offered.

[996] Manandhar, NP: Medicinal Plants of Nepal Himalaya. 87 p., illustr.  Ratna Pustak 
Bhandar, Kathmandu 1980.
 Drawings, names, seasons, and medical uses of 37 Nepalese plants. "The indigenous plant 
materials are the basis of Ayurvedic therapeutics which are closely associated with the 
Nepalese way of treatment." Medicinal properties are ascribed to a number of Himalayan 
plants, and the recent revival of interest in traditional medicine has created an interest in the 
flora of Nepal. This book is a contribution to the knowledge of medicinal plants in Nepal and 
their properties. It includes illustrations of the plants, an index to scientific names and an index 
to the vernacular names.

[997] Manandhar, NP: Useful Wild Plants of Nepal. Illustr. (Nepal Research Center Publications, 
14). xi, 139 p.  Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 1989.
[998] Marais, Gill: L'Amchi.  Editions Sand, Paris 1988.
[999] Marais, Gill: Right over the Mountain. Travels with a Tibetan Medicine Man. With b/w ill., 
some drawings. 154 p. Element Books, Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset 1991.
 Translated from French, translator not mentioned.- From the book-cover: "While living the 
pressured, fast-moving life of a photojournalist in Paris, the author learns of an enigmatic 
character named Sonam, a Tibetan medicine-man or Amchi. Intrigued, she inquires as to where 
she might find this extraordinary man, and she is told to go to Ladakh and 'turn right over the 
mountain . . .'. Right over the mountain is the captivating story of the journey and the amazing 
events that follow, as Gill Marais and her Indian companion, Nazir, travel through the 
mountains of Tibet. Sonam takes them out on his rounds, and together they witness 
miraculous examples of healing - even a woman who removes kidney stones without the use 
of surgery! This is an extraordinary and highly readable story, combining the best elements of 
an absorbing travel adventure with an account of one woman's spiritual search. Gill Marais 
offers a unique study of Tibetan Medicine and folk beliefs. Above all, it is a lively and 
enthralling picture of a valuable and vanishing culture."

[1000] Marakuyev, AV:  The Mystery of the Chinese-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). On the 
Frontier (Russian) Book 6-7 (1935), pp. 174-179.
[1001] Marcotty, Thomas (1930- ): Dagger Blessing. The Tibetan Phurpa Cult: Reflections and 
Materials. 107 p.  B. R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi 1987.
  German Edition planned by Fabri Verlag, Ulm 1996.- "The dagger cult is rather based on the 
idea of happiness and luck being achievable. It does not intend to deliver people from their sins 
nor to help them to attain a better status in rebirth. Yet the Phurpa cult does not keep man 
from these high aims. But it serves the main purpose of turning unhappy people into happy 
ones, and this not some other time in a life after death, but here and now. The sources of 
human misfortune are limited in number and recognizable: it all starts with misfortune of an 
exogenous nature such as war, plague and famine, hence manifestations of misfortune which 
we Central Europeans mostly know only from television. This is followed by, number two, the 
regular illnesses and diseases. In the Himalayas these were above all yellow fever, smallpox, 
and syphilis in consequence of a casual sexual morality which already made the early Christian 
missionaries frown. Number three and at last there come the mental disorders which may be 
summarized under the heading of 'meditation obstacles': psychosomatic disorders, 
concentration weakness, diffuse anxieties, mortal fear, neurosis and psychosis, i.e. 
endogenous phenomena of misfortune or unhappiness, which as for their intensity and 
expansion might as well be regarded as the main sources of misfortune in the industrialized 

[1002] Marques-Riviere, J: Tantrik Yoga - Hindu and Tibetan. Translated by H. E. Kennedy, 
B.A. 3 p., 1, ix-xiv, 15-126 p., illustr. Rider & Co.??, London (1940).
 Reedition Samuel Wiser, New York 1970; Asian Publication Services, Delhi 1987.- The book 
deals with various systems of Yoga in general and Tantrik Yoga in detail, as it should be 
understood and practised and compares its variations as already known to the ancient wise 
people of India, Tibet, China, Japanese Buddhists and Sufis and Naqsbandis in Mohammedan 

[1003] Marthe, F:  Buddhistische Heilkunde und ihr Studium in Sibirien. Globus. Illustrierte 
Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde (Braunschweig) 59 (1891), p. 93.
 Das Interessanteste dieser Arbeit im vollen Wortlaut: "Auf der 'Ausstellung des Wolga- und 
Kamagebietes', welche 1890 in Kasan stattfand, hatte man u. a. eine Abteilung eingerichtet, 
welche den Titel 'Volksmedizin' führte. Eine Unterabteilung von Arzneien und Büchern, welche 
das Heilwesen bei den buddhistischen Eingeborenen Südsibiriens, speziell Transbaikaliens, zu 
veranschaulichen bestimmt war, nahm besonders das Interesse in Anspruch. Die Tibetanische 
Medizin kennt 101 Grundkrankheiten, unter denen sich außer den auch anderwärts bekannten, 
wie Husten, Schlucken, Podagra, Syphilis etc., auch Benennungen dunkler Art finden, wie z. B. 
das feuchte Phlegma, die trübe Hitze, die feurige Geschwulst und ähnliche. Von Arzneimitteln 
kennt ein vorliegendes Verzeichnis 429 elementare, die teils aus den Wurzeln, Blüten und 
Früchten von Pflanzen bestehen, teils aus Mineralien (unter denen das Quecksilber die nämliche 
Verwendung wie bei uns findet)."

[1004] Martin, Chris: Tibetan Medicine. 10 illustr. In: Chö Yang. The Voice of Tibetan Religion 
and Culture. Year of Tibet Edition, pp. 169-180.  Council for Religious and Cultural Affairs, 
Dharamsala 1991.
 Quite adequate and clear review on the history and practice of Tibetan Medicine. I quote part 
of the author's remarks on pulse diagnosis: "The Tibetan art of pulse reading provides an 
invaluable source of information to the experienced physician. The physician places the index, 
middle and third fingers on the radial artery to read the pulse. The physician's three fingers are 
spaced 'the width of a grain of rice' apart along the radial artery, half an inch from the crease 
of the wrist. The physician will use both hands to examine the pulse on both arms of the 
patient. The left wrist of a male patient is read first while the right wrist of a female patient is 
read first. When reading the pulse, each finger exerts a varying pressure. The first presses the 
skin, the second presses the flesh, and the third presses enough to feel the bone. The three 
fingers of each hand are divided into an upper and lower division, making twelve divisions, so 
that each division reads the pulse corresponding to a particular organ. The upper division 
(nearer the thumb) of the right index finger of the physician reading the pulse of a male patient 
reads the pulse corresponding to the heart, while the lower reads that corresponding to the 
small intestine. The upper and lower divisions of the middle finger read the pulses of the spleen 
and stomach, respectively. The upper division of the ring finger reads the left kidney and the 
lower division, the seminal vesicle. The upper and lower division of the physician's left index 
finger (reading the pulse of the right wrist of the patient) read the lungs and large intestine, 
respectively. Those of the middle finger read the liver and gall bladder and, finally, the upper 
and lower divisions of the ring finger read the right kidney and urinary bladder, respectively. 
For female patients, the organs read by the index fingers are reversed. Certain dietary and 
behavioural patterns are required to enable an accurate reading of the pulse. It is noteworthy 
that these apply not only to the patient but to the physician as well. Ideally, the pulse should 
be read at dawn as the day and night energy rhythms of the body are most balanced at this 
time."- A number of pathological pulses are described.

[1005] Martyanov, NM: The Catalogue of the Folk Medicinal Remedies, Kept in the Museum of 
the Mindeinskogo Region. In: Doklad Obshchestva Vrachey Eniseyskoy Gubernii za 1892/93 
(= Report of the Society of Physicians of the Enisey Guberniya for 1892/93). The Seventh 
Year (Russian). Krasnoyarsk 1893.
[1006] Masaraki, Gianlorenzo:  I tre principi mentali della medicina Tibetana. Il Girasole 2 

[1007] Masaraki, Gianlorenzo L: Tibet Magia e medicina (Medicina e Antropologia). Illustrazioni 
di Paolo dall'Ara. 176 p. Editrice Ibis, Genova/Italien 1989.
 L'intenzione è far conoscere al pubblico occidentale la medicina Tibetana con la sua storia, le 
sue tradizioni, le sue "magie", i suoi segreti e le sue originali proposte di cura della mente e del 
corpo. Una parte molto ampia della trattazione è dedicata alla diagnosi delle malattie e ai 
sistemi di cura sia quelli farmacologici o fisici (come l' "Ago d'oro" e le cauterizzazione) sia 
quelli più strettamente "mentali" come il Mandala terapeutico o il digiuno rituale. In 
un'appendice finale sonso state inoltre raccolte le indicazioni che riguardano la donna e in 
particolre la gravidanze e il parto. Ma la lettura di questo libro può essere anche l'occasione per 
constatare come si possa costruire un sistema medico coerente partendo da un'idea filosofica 
del mondo e dell'esistenza. Per i Tibetani, tra l'altro, è solo in virtù di questa comprensione che 
è possibile realmente curare. Altrimenti senza questa "chiarezza mentale" si è inevitabilmente 
ammalati. Il solume è arricchito da oltre cinquanta immagini originali a commento visivo del 

[1008] Masaraki, Gianlorenzo, Morelli, Raffaele:  Tibet: La medicina del fiore di loto. Riza 
Psicosomatica (Milano) 18 (1982), pp. 57-63, 10 fotos.

[1008a] Maskarinec, Gregory G(abriel): The Rulings of the Night: An Ethnography of Nepalese 
Shaman Oral Texts.  xi, 276 p., with 13 photos and drawings. University of Wisconsin Press, 
Madison 1995.
This is a first rate account of one of the liveliest places of traditional shamanic practice in 
Western Nepal. The chants of the shamans are imbued with meaning, constituting a coherent 
cosmological system. G. Maskarinec is a faithful recorder and keen calligrapher of shamanic 
chants. He has studied with 15 shamans and they revealed the shamanic world and their life 
course within it.- Bibliography pp. 251-266.

[1009] Masselot, F:  La médecine tibétaine, vue par le pere Huc, pretre missionnaire de la 
congregation de Saint-Lazare (1842). (Souvenirs d'un voyage dans la Tartarie, le Tibet et la 
Chine, pages 80 et 122). La Presse médicale 67, No. 19 (Paris, 18. Avril 1959), p. 800.
[1010] Massin, Christophe: Médecine bouddhique au Tibet. 110 p., Paris 1977.
 Thèse de Doctorat en Médecine (unpublished).

[1011] Massin, Christophe: La médecine tibétaine. Illust. 162 p. Guy Trédaniel. Editions de la 
Maisnie, Paris 1982.
[1012] Mastchenko, V:  The Antireligious Activity in the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR (Russian). 
Antireligioznyi Buklet (= Antireligious Booklet) (Russian) 8-9 (1930), pp. 51-57.
[1013] Materia Medica Tibetana: Clear Mirror of Materia Medica on the Plateaus of Qing-hai and 
Tibet (Chinese, with some Tibetan and Latin). Illustr., col. plates. 3 volumes. Published by the 
Institute of Plateau Biology. 459, 406, 173 p. Qinghai Peoples Publishing House 1972, 1975, 

[1014] Materia Medica Tibetana: Bod-sman rNam-bshad (=Tibetan Materia Medica) (Chinese). 
From the Northwest Plateau Biological Institute. 670 p. Peoples Publishing House of 
Qinghai/Xining, Qinghai/China 1991.
 2nd edition 1994.- This monograph carries 431 kinds of Tibetan Materia Medica, including 
287 herbs, 91 animals, 53 minerals, most of them with illustrations. Indexes of Chinese and 
Latin titles of all these drugs are found in an appendix (Cai Jingfeng).

[1015] Matkhanov, EI: The Cytochrome P-450 Induction as the Important Property of the 
Homoeostatic Systems of the Body (Russian). In: Homoeostat and Homoeostatic Nets in the 
Management and their Use in Biological, Natural and Technical Systems (Russian), pp. 86-87. 
Irkutsk 1986.
 The cytochrome P-450 induction is a strong adaptive reaction of the homoeostatic system for 
preservation of the constancy and clearness of the media of the organism. Due to this the 
search for cytochrome P-450 bioregulators from the drug flora used in Tibetan Medicine for 
treatment of liver diseases is of interest, and some drug plants with inductive properties have 
been described.

[1016] Ma Huiping (chief compiler) and Wu Surong: Catalogue of Chinese Publications in 
Tibetan Studies (1949-1991). 428 p. Foreign Language Press, Beijing 1994.
  A very scholarly work. Tibetan medicine is covered with nearly 50 listings, in Chinese and in 
English translation, and with English annotations. Important bibliography, not only with respect 
to Tibetan medicine.

[1017] Ma Shilin, Luo Dashang, Mao Jizhu, and Wang Zhenhua: The Four Medical Tantras 
(rGyud-bzhi) (Chinese). 316 p. Shanghai Press of Science & Technology, Shanghai 1987.
 This is a Chinese-paraphrased complete translation of the "Four Medical Tantras".

[1018] McGowran, Paul:  Tibetan Medicine - Myth or Miracle? International Journal of 
Alternative & Complementary Medicine (Bagshot) 11 (12), 3 photos (1993), pp. 22-23.
 "The Tibetan Medical Tantras describe a metabphorical knowledge of energies and bodily 
'humours' which defy simple literal translation. The most fundamental causes of disease are seen 
to arise from the mind because of ignorance, hatred and greed and these in turn lead to imbalances 
of the three bodily humours which support life and can lead to disease. The three humours, with 
their many subdivisions and the organs in which they function, serve to categorise 84,000 types 
of disease into 404 broad categories, each of which can be treated according to its root cause. 
Within the Tibetan medical system cancer is considered in the category of 18 diseases predicted 
by the Buddha to result from a future environment filled with psychological and moral imbalance as 
well as environmental pollutants. 
The subtle causes of cancer are said to lead to the poisoning of the blood by a tiny micro-organism 
which is the direct cause. The disease is treated by removing the underlying factors that lead to 
this micro organism infecting the body. This is done using extremely complex herbal and mineral 
combinations and sometimes accessory therapies such as acupuncture. When the overall vause 
that led to the cancer is removed, then the cancer itself will subside, but not before. The Tibetans' 
claims regarding their cures for cancer are very impressive. 'We have had considerable success in 
curing many types of cancer', Dr Dhonden explains through his interpreter. 'It is important that 
patients come to us without having had any Western treatment first, because this treatment, 
expecially cutting, destroys the balance within the body and makes cancer far more difficult to 
cure. We are successful in curing a very great many people, particularly those suffering from brain, 
breast or lung cancers. We also have good success in curing some leukaemias like, for example, 
chronic myeloic leukaemia'."

[1019] mDzes mTshar mig rGyan: For a research paper  on ths treatise vide Batarova et al., 
Novosibirsk 1985.
[1020] Medical Thangkas: vide Sangye Gyamtso, London (and New York) 1992, Modena 1994; 
Moscow 1994. Two Chinese editions, i.e. Lhasa 1986 (Tibetan-Chinese), and Lhasa 1988 
[1021] Medicina Tibetana (Livro 1-13): Spanish translation of the "Tibetan Medicine Series", 
Dharamsala. Editora Chakpori, Sao Paulo.
[1022] Meredith, Georgette:  The Phurbu: The Use and Symbolism of the Tibetan Magic 
Dagger. 4 plates. History of Religions (Chicago) 6, No. 3 (1967), pp. 236-253.
 ". . .  In the extremely valuable work of Nebesky-Wojkowitz on the cult and iconography of 
Tibetan protective deites, one can fand many provocative references to the phurbu. Relying on the 
sadhanas, or texts describing the appearance of and the proper ritual toward these deities, he 
mentions phur-
bus made of iron, copper, gold, turquoise, conch shell, and sandalwood carried by certain of the 
deities, greater and lesser, their attendants, a magician companion of a god, a ridge deity, and reti-
nues of goddesses. Without exception, those who carry the phurbu are those who have been 
rated into Lamaism directly from the Bon religion. This explains why Hayagriva, or Tamdin, the god 
imported from India, does not have the phurbu as an attribute, that is, he never carries it in any of 
his manifestations, in spite of the fact that the phurbu is most often considered to be a 
manifestation of this deity.-  . . . We have seen that the phurbu of one kind or another is 
manipulated by lamas, monks, sorcerers, Bon priests, and deities against demons, most 
specifically of the earth and sky, or to produce or prevent illness or bad luck to prevent hail, to 
bring on hail, and to consecrate ground. In trying to determine if the phurbu is used against a 
specific class of demons associated with either rain or illness or both, one is tempted to consider 
that it is probably directed against the Nagas or lu, as the Garuda devouring the snakes on the 
blade of the phurbu seems to give a broad hint that the point is directed against evil lu. However, 
the limited evidence available from other pertinent sources seems to suggest that this is not so".

[1023] Meulenbeld, G Jan (editor): Medical Literature from India, Sri Lanka & Tibet. (Panels of 
the VIIth World Sanskrit Conference. Kern Institute, Leiden: August 23th-29th, 1987. Vol. VIII). 
137 p.  E.J. Brill, Leiden 1991.
 Contains the article by R. E. Emmerick: Some remarks on Tibetan Sphygmology; vide 

[1024] Meya, Uwe and Starrach, Helmut:  Von den "Drei Essenzen", dem "Doppelkörper" und 
einem Astronomieraum im Krankenhaus. das neue China (Berlin) 7 (1981), pp. 18-19.
 "In Tibet gab es ein großes Spektrum an wenig weisen Heilkundigen, Quacksalbern und 
Kurpfuschern. Schon die Zweideutigkeit, die Nichtvergleichbarkeit von Informationen und die 
stilistischen Eigenheiten bis hin zur Geheimsprache in der tibetischen Medizin machen eine 
Vergleichbarkeit der Folgen medizinischer Behandlungen unmöglich. Eine stationäre Behandlung 
im Sinne unserer Krankenhäuser war für die tibetische Heilkunde schlicht undenkbar. So haben 
dann aus chinesischer Sicht zur Zeit der Annexion auch horrende Verhältnisse im Gesundheits-
wesen existiert. Im Jahre 1951 gab es lediglich zwei medizinische Einrichtungen in einem Land 
von der etwa 5fachen Größe der Bundesrepublik mit ca. 1,1 Millionen Einwohnern. Mit den 
chinesischen Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Infrastruktur entstanden bis 1965 in jedem der 
über 70 Distrikte kleine stationäre Behandlungseinheiten. Die Zahl des medizinischen Personals 
hatte sich vervierfacht, etwa 4000 'Barfußärzte' versahen ihren Dienst auf dem Land. Acht Jahre 
später, im Jahre 1973, entschloß sich die Regierung zu weiteren energischen Maßnahmen. Aus 
sieben verschiedenen chinesischen Provinzen und der Stadt Shanghai wurde je ein medizinisches 
Team zusammengestellt und für jeweils zwei Jahre nach Tibet gesandt. Sie sollten medizinische 
Entwicklungshilfe leisten und Forschungsprojekte einleiten. Von diesen Teams wurden insgesamt 
18000 Tibeter als Barfußärzte, Hebammen, Schwestern oder Labor- und Röntgen-
assistenten geschult. Andere wurden in Operationstechniken unterwiesen, und mit chinesischer 
Hilfe führte man in den letzten Jahren auch komplizierte chirurgische Eingriffe bis hin zu kardio-
chirurgischen Operationen durch. Neben den von den Chinesen eingerichteten Krankenhäusern 
gibt es heute drei Kliniken in Tibet, die zumindest einen Teil der alten tibetischen Tradition 
fortsetzen: in Lhasa, der Hauptstadt, in Shigatse, der zweitgrößten Stadt und ein drittes im Nord-
Westen Tibets."

[1025] Meyer, Fernand (1947- ):  Notes sur les produits dérivés du yak et de ses croisements 
utilisés en médecine tibétaine. Ethnozootechnie (Paris) 15 (1976), pp. 35-40.
  Medical doctorate: Strasbourg 1979. B.A. in History and Philosophy of Sciences: Paris 1980. 
B.A. in Anthropology and Human ecology: Paris 1982. Chef de clinique des hnspitaux - 
Assistant universitaire at the Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Petié-Salpetrière in Paris: 1979-
1983. Researches at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique: 1983-1994.- Presently 
Professor (Directeur d'études) at the Ecole Pratique de Hautes Etudés (4ème section) in Paris: 
"Science and Civilization of the Tibetan World" (Science et civilization du monde tibétain). 
Director of the research team "Environment, Society and Culture in the Himalayas" (Milieux, 
société et culture en Himalaya) of the National Centre for Scientific Research (C.N.R.S.) in 
Paris. Lecturer on "Tibetan civilization" at the National Institute for Eastern Languages and 
Civilizations (Institut National de Langues et Civilization Asiatiques) in Paris.- Since 1974, he 
has done extensive field work in Nepal, Bhutan, and the Tibetan autonomous region (PRC) on 
Tibetan traditional medicine and popular healing, Tibetan culture and architecture.

[1026] Meyer, Fernand:  Médecine tibétaine - L'homme et son milieu. Himalaya Ecologie-
Ethnologie (Paris)  (1977), pp. 195-205.
 Colloques internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche scientifique, milieux, société, 
culture en Himalaya, Paris, No. 268

[1027] Meyer, Fernand: Contribution à l'étude des médecines traditionelles - La médecine 
tibétaine (Inaug. Diss.). 250 p. (Universität Strasbourg), Strasbourg 1979.
[1028] Meyer, Fernand: Gso-ba rig-pa, le système médical tibétain. 237 p. Editions du Centre 
National de la Recherche Scientifique., Paris 1981.
 Seconde édition revue et corrigée 1984. Rééditions 1987 et 1988.- "Dans la préface de ce 
livre, Corneille Jest souligne que "Le Dr Fernand Meyer est le seul chercheur qui ait abordé 
l'étude de la médecine tibétaine avec une triple compétence: une solide formation médicale 
scientifique complétée par une expérience pratique d'interniste, une bonne connaissance du 
tibétain parlé et littéraire, enfin un esprit très ouvert à l'observation du terrain.- Cette 
compétence se reflète dans la méthodologie appliquée à la recherche par l'auteur: l'observation 
de la pratique de la médecine tibétaine sur le terrain, surtout au Népal; l'étude, aidée par des 
maitres tibétains, des ouvrages tibétains de référence; l'identification de la matière médicale. Le 
résultat en est un livre qui augmente sensiblement nos connaissances de la médecine tibétaine, 
qui est encore un élément très vivant de la culture traditionelle tibétaine."

[1029] Meyer, Fernand: Le système canalaire et la sphygmologie en médecine tibétaine d'après 
le rGyud-bzhi et son commentaire le Vaidurya sngon po. In: Les médecines traditionnelles de 
L'Asie, actes du colloque de Paris, 11-12 Juin 1979, ed. Guy Mazars, pp. 30-40. Univ. Louis 
Pasteur, Strasbourg 1981.
[1030] Meyer, Fernand: Populations de haute altitude et santé en Himalaya. In: L'Homme et 
son environnement à haute altitude, séminaire C.N.R.S. / N.S.F., pp.  97-100.  Centre National 
de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 1981.
 [1031] Meyer, Fernand:  Les préceptes alimentares des médecines traditionnelles savantes 
d'Asie. Revue franãaise de diététique (Marseille) 106 (1983), pp. 24-34.
[1032] Meyer, Fernand:  Pratiques actuelles et approche philologique d'une médecine tradi-
tionelle savante: la médecine tibétaine. Bulletin d'Ethnomédecine (Paris) 25 (1983), pp. 5-20.
[1033] Meyer, Fernand:  Pratiques alimentaires et diététique médicale en milieu tibétain. Infor-
mation sur les Sciences Sociales (Sage, Londres, Beverly Hills, Delhi) 22, 2 (1983), pp. 283-
[1034] Meyer, Fernand: Recherches en anthropologie médicale au Népal. Une expérience de 
collaboration pluridisciplinaire. In: Une anthropologie médicale en France, pp.  43-49.  Centre 
National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 1983.
[1035] Meyer, Fernand: Une des priorités dans l'étude comparative des médecines indienne et 
tibétaine: La matière médicale tibétaine. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on 
Priorities in the Study of Indian Medicine, ed. G. Jan Meulenbeld, pp. 131-146.  Institute of 
Indian Studies, University of Groningen, Groningen 1984.
 "Il faudrait donc que les travaux futurs concernant la matière médicale tibétaine portent sur les 
points suivants: L'élaboration d'un dictionnaire critique de la matière médicale contemporaine 
employée dans les diverses régions qui forment l'aire de culture tibétaine.- L'étude comparative 
de la matière médicale contemporaine, de l'iconographie et des équivalents chinois et mongols 
proposés par les textes.- L'étude de l'évolution historique de cette pharmacopée, tant en ce qui 
concerne la terminologie que les systèmes de classification et l'identité des drogues.- La 
comparaison de la pharmacopée du Tibet (nature des drogues, description, classification, 
indications thérapeutiques) avec celle de l'Inde, étant donné que de nombreuses drogues 
trahissent, dans leur nom courant ou dans les synonymes proposés par les textes, leur origine 
indienne. Ceci devrait permettre d'élaborer un instrument de travail indispensable pour l'étude 
de la médecine tibétaine en général, mais devrait aussi éclairer la recherche concernant 
l'histoire de la pharmacopée indienne et surtout, illustrer le processus de développement et 
d'adaptation des matières médicales traditionnelles dont on a tendance à surestimer la stabilité 
dans le temps et l'uniformité dans l'espace."

[1036] Meyer, Fernand: Orient-Occident : un dialogue singulier. In: Autres médecines, autres 
moeurs, Autrement No. 85. pp. 124-133.  Editions Autrement, Paris 1986.
[1037] Meyer, Fernand: Essai d'analyse schématique d'un systéme médical: la médecine 
savante du Tibet. In: Etiologie et perception de la maladie dans les sociétés modernes et 
traditionnelles, ed. A. Retel Laurentin. pp. 227-249. L'Harmattan, Paris 1987.
 [1038] Meyer, Fernand: Médecine et bouddhisme au Tibet. In: Le Grand atlas universalis des 
religions, pp. 330-331.  Encyclopaedia Universalis, Paris 1988.
[1039] Meyer, Fernand:  La science médicale des Tibétains. Tempo Médical 355 (1989 
(Julliet)), pp. 31-33.
[1040] Meyer, Fernand: Introduction à l'étude d'une série des peintures médicales créée à 
Lhasa au XVIIe siécle. In: Tibet, Civilization et Société, ed. Fernand Meyer, pp. 29-56.  Editions 
de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, Paris 1990.

[1041] Meyer, Fernand: Théorie et pratique de l'examen des pouls dans un chapitre du rGyud-
bzhi. In: Indo-Tibetan Studies [Buddhica Britannica, Series continua II]. Papers in honour and 
appreciation of Professor David L. Snellgrove's contribution to Indo-Tibetan studies, ed. by 
Tadeusz Skorupski, pp. 209-256.  The Institute of Buddhist Studies, Tring/UK 1990.
 "En pratique médicale tibétaine, l'examen des pouls occupe un place privilégiée au point 
d'entrée souvent pris comme image-symbole de la relation thérapeutique. Ainsi, par exemple, 
dans certains textes de divination, les calculs visant à déterminer les jours fastes ou néfastes 
pour une consultation médicale et l'application d'un traitement sont illustrés par un médecin 
engagé dans la palpation des pouls au poignet d'un malade. C'est cette même scène qui est 
souvent représentée sur les peintures narratives des douze actes de la vie du buddha 
Æakyamuni où elle identifie le malade dont la rencontre, en plus de celle d'un vieillard, d'un 
convoi funèbre, et d'un religieux itinérant, décida, celui qui était encore le prince Siddhartha, à 
entreprendre sa quête spirituelle."

[1042] Meyer, Fernand: Eine Einführung in die Tibetische Medizin - Ursprung und Praxis. In: 
Dokumentation der besonderen Therapierichtungen und natürlichen Heilweisen in Europa (Hrsg. 
Zentrum zur Dokumentation für Naturheilverfahren e.V.; FFB; Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe). 
Band 1: Ganzheitliche Medizinsysteme. Halbd. 2.: Weitere Medizinsysteme, pp. 1043-1052. VGM-
Verlag, Lüneburg 1991.
 "Die tibetische 'Kunst des Heilens' ist einerseits das Ergebnis einer langen empirischen 
Beobachtung des gesunden und des kranken Menschen, seines natürlichen Umfelds und seiner 
therapeutischen Möglichkeiten. Andererseits ist sie vom Willen beseelt, ihre Erklärungsmodelle in 
der Praxis auf eine ganzheitliche rationale Theorie zu begründen, die Physiologie, Pathologie und 
Therapeutik einschließt. Die tibetische Medizin hat es verdient, als das anerkannt zu werden, was 
sie sein will, d.h. eine Kunst oder Wissenschaft im weitesten Sinne des Wortes. Ihre Humoral-
physiologie führt sie dazu, Gesundheit und Krankheit als dynamische, polymorphe und allgegen-
wärtige Prozesse, Interaktionen und Milieus und nicht als Strukturen, isolierbare pathogene 
Einheiten und lokale Verletzungen zu betrachten, eine Perspektive, wie sie heute zum Beispiel die 
Immunologie vertritt. Dabei ist das Ideal der Medizin die Prävention, die besonders durch 
Ernährung und medizinische Präparate gewährleistet wird, die den Verdauungsprozeß optimieren, 
den Organismus stärken und den Ausgleich zwischen den Körpersäften harmonisieren. Wenn eine 
Therapie nötig wird, soll sie das Ziel verfolgen, langfristig das gesamte Gleichgewicht durch 
umsichtiges Handeln wiederherzustellen, wobei nicht nur der zentrale Faktor, sondern auch alle 
anderen berücksichtigt werden sollten, die in einem wechselseitigen Abhängigkeitsverhältnis zu 
diesem stehen. Wie wiederholt in den tibetischen Abhandlungen betont, ist es außerdem ein 
Imperativ dieser Therapie, keine iatrogenen Störungen hervorzurufen."

[1043] Meyer, Fernand:  Histoire et historiographie de la médecine en Asie. Médecine et 
Hygiène (Genève) 50, Nr. 1936 (1992), pp. 1681-1685.
[1044] Meyer, Fernand: Im "Land der Heilmittel". Eine Einführung in die tibetische Medizin: 
Geschichte, Theorie und Praxis. In: Tibet und seine Medizin. 2500 Jahre Heilkunst, pp.  9-19. 
Pinguin/Umschau, Innsbruck/Frankfurt M. 1992.
 "Bei der tibetischen Medizin handelt es sich um eine der großen gelehrten medizinischen 
Überlieferungen der Menschheit - neben denen, die in Indien, China und Griechenland 
entstanden sind. Wie diese hat sie sich über die Grenzen ihres kulturellen Gebietes hinaus 
verbreitet, vom 16. Jahrhundert an vor allem unter den mongolischen Völkern. Die Eigenart der 
tibetischen Medizin besteht jedoch, wie wir noch sehen werden, in ihren Ursprüngen. Die 
tibetische Medizin hat sich nämlich nicht nur spät entwickelt (im 7. Jahrhundert), sondern 
durch Entlehnung bei fremden, besonders indischen und auch chinesischen Quellen, eine große 
Vielschichtigkeit erlangt. Während die medizinischen Errungenschaften des Hippokrates und 
Galens im Zeitalter der modernen Biomedizin so gut wie erloschen sind, haben die überlieferten 
Heilkunden Asiens seither an Bedeutung eher noch gewonnen, einschließlich des orientalischen 
Zweigs der griechischen Medizin, die durch die arabisch-islamischen Eroberungen in Südasien 
Verbreitung fanden . . .. Die im 17. Jahrhundert unter der Herrschaft des fünften Dalai Lama 
(1617-1682) für die Weiterentwicklung der tibetischen Kultur so ausschlaggebende 
Wiedervereinigung des Landes hatte auch eine wichtige Rückwirkung auf das medizinische 
Gebiet. Der Dalai Lama gründete mehrere spezialisierte Anstalten, die jedoch den Erwartungen 
des Hierarchen, eine Wiedergeburt der Medizin zu fördern, nicht entsprachen. Dieses Vorhaben 
wurde jedoch von Sangye Gyamtso (1653-1705), seinem geistlichen Sohn und letzten 
Regenten, verwirklicht. Dieser hatte, als er sich für die 'Wissenschaften' interessierte, 
feststellen können, wie auf manchen theoretischen und praktischen Gebieten die medizinische 
Tradition in Verworrenheit geraten war. Er beschloß, die gesamten Quellen nachzuprüfen und 
mit den Ansichten der Gelehrten seiner Zeit zu konfrontieren. Diese sich auf fast zwanzig Jahre 
ausdehnende ehrgeizige Arbeit führte zu der revidierten Ausgabe der vier Tantras (1694) und 
zur Abfassung eines synthetischen, meisterhaften, unter seinem gekürzten Titel 'Aquamarin' 
(Vaidurya sngon-po) berühmten Kommentars, in welchem der Regent die Schulen von Tchang 
und Zur wiedervereinigte. Nachdem die medizinische Tradition auf diese Weise zu ihrer 
klassischen Reife geführt wurde, fügen die späteren Autoren nur noch sich oft wiederholende 
Glossen dazu."
[1045] Meyer, Fernand: La démarche diagnostique en médecine tibétaine. In: Maladie et 
maladies, histoire et conceptualisation, ed. D. Gourevitch, pp. 193-218.  Librairie Droz S.A., 
Genève 1992.
[1046] Meyer, Fernand:  Quand le Maitre des médecines est Bouddha. Vogue 732 (1992),
pp. 144-177.
[1047] Meyer, Fernand: La médecine tibétaine - tradition ancienne et nouveaux enjeux. In: 
Tibet, l'envers du décor, ed. Olivier Moulin, pp. 89-95.  Olizane, Genève 1993.
[1048] Meyer, Fernand:  Medicina traditional Tibetana. Cuerpomente (Barcelona) 14 (1993), 
pp. 14-19.
[1049] Meyer, Fernand: Traumatology in Tibetan Medicine. In: Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of 
the 7th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Schloß Seggau, Graz, 
June 18th - 24th 1995.  Academy of Science of Austria,  1997 (?).
 "The Tibetan medical literature has preserved an important set of ideas and practices related 
to traumatology, specially the diagnosis and treatment of war injuries. This heritage has fallen 
nearly completely into disuse since probably a long time. It seems to be unknown, or at least 
not to be put into practice, by most of the contemporary Tibetan practitioners, and has not 
been the object of any thorough research study. And yet, it reveals a wealth of well 
systematized and often sophisticated ideas and practices, diagnostic as well as therapeutic, 
which are obviously based on long empirical experience, and which seem to constitute mainly a 
specific Tibetan tradition with no equivalents in Indian or Chinese medicine. Five chapters of 
the third volume of the rGyud-bzhi, the fundamental treatise of Tibetan medicine, are specially 
devoted to this subject, and provide an overall view of this neglected aspect of the Tibetan 
medical heritage."

[1050] Meyer, Fernand: vide also Jan van Alphen and Anthony Aris, London 1995.
[1051] Mezhov, VI: The Medicine of Non-Russians (Buryats). In: Sibirskaya Bibliographiya (= 
The Siberian Bibliography) (Russian). Vol. 3, Division 10: Medicine, pp. 217-218.  St. 
Petersburg 1903.
[1052] Mi-pham-rgya-mthso, Jamgon (1846-1912): Collected Mantras for Use in Treating 
Various Diseases and Afflictions (Tibetan). Reproduced from a recent copy of a manuscript 
from Kinnour. 374 p. Tibetan Bonpo Monastic Community, Dolanji, Himachal Pradesh 1985.
[1053] Michaylov, TM and Batuyev, BB: The Folk Knowledge of the Buryats and Evenks 
(Russian). In: Essays on the History and Culture of Buryatia, pp. 79-98. Buryat Book's 
Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1972.
[1054] Miller, Casper J(SJ): Faith-Healers in the Himalayas. An Investigation of Traditional 
Healers and their Festivals in Dolakha District of Nepal. xv, 201 p., 1 folded map. Centre for 
Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 1979.
[1055] Minayeva, VG: The Medicinal Plants of Siberia. 2nd revised and enlarged edition 
(Russian). 146 p., Novosibirsk 1956.
 Third revised and enlarged edition (149 p.), Novosibirsk 1960.

[1056] Ministerium des Inneren von Rußland:  Einige Worte über den Zustand der Heilkunde bei 
den Burjäten. Medicinische Zeitung Russlands (St. Petersburg) 6, Nr.37 (1849), pp. 289-292.
 "Die medicinischen Kenntnisse, welche die Burjäten besitzen, wurden ihnen besonders mit dem 
Buddaismus, der tibetanischen Literatur und der Stiftung von Schulen zur Bildung der Lamas 
zugeführt. Jeder Lama ist zugleich auch Arzt. Aber noch ehe die Burjäten sich zum Lamaismus 
bekannten, waren sie im Besitz medicinischer Kenntnisse: der persische Geschichtschreiber 
Raschid ed Din sagt schon in seiner Schilderung der Völker, welche im 13. Jahrhundert in der 
Nähe des Baikalsee's wohnten, daß die Urassuten, Telenguten und Kestimer (die heutigen 
Kyschtymer) durch die Kenntniss heilkräftiger Pflanzen bekannt waren. So findet man bei den 
Burjäten eine doppelte Heilkunde, die eigene ältere und die der Lamas. Die erstere ist dem Volke 
eigen, und wird von den Vätern auf die Kinder vererbt, die letztere befindet sich ausschließlich 
in den Händen der Lamas . . .. Die Burjäten heilen auch den Wahnsinn, und zwar durch 
Einwirkung auf die Psyche vermittelst einer heftigen Nervenerschütterung. Die Behandlung 
besteht darin, daß man die Kranken auf irgend eine Weise plötzlich zu erschrecken sucht; man 
lässt ihn z. B. allein in der Jurte, und wenn man ihn ganz in Tiefsinn versunken sieht, feuert 
man eine Flinte ab, oder man geht mit ihm spazieren, geleitet ihn wie von ungefähr zum hohen 
Ufer eines Sees, Teiches oder Flusses, und benutzt einen passenden Augenblick, um ihn ins 
Wasser zu stürzen; der Schreck bringt eine heftige Erschütterung der Nerven hervor, und der 
Kranke erlangt die verlorene Gesundheit wieder. Die Epilepsie heilen sie durch die Abkochung 
eines Krauts, und es ist kein Beispiel vorgekommen, daß die Krankheit wiedergekehrt, oder 
ihrem Heilverfahren widerstanden hätte."

[1057] Misra, BN and Mohanty, BK: Hazards of Mercury in Ayurvedic Drugs. 62 p. Darbari 
Prokashan, Delhi 1993.
 "The results obtained in the project show substantial bio-accumulation of mercury in the 
experimental animals administered with the master drug 'Kajyolo', a mercurial indigenous drug. 
The effects are summarised in the schematic diagram (Appendix-I) which reveal a significant 
toxic effect on mammalian system. It is therefore suggested that such drugs should be avoided 
as far as praticable. The results further indicate that the mercury purified by the most 
complicated process in Ayurvedic therapy still retains it's toxicological properties as evident 
from the results presented here. The claim of Ayurvedic therapists that the mercury loses it's 
toxic properties after purification process is therefore not acceptable."

[1058] Misra, RP: Traditional, Social and Cultural Facts in Traditional Medical Systems. In: 
National Conference of Primary Health Care, Kathmandu. Kathmandu 1977.
[1059] Mitra, Jyotir: A Critical Appraisal of Ayurvedic Material in Buddhist Literature, with 
special reference to Tripitaka. Foreword by Dr. G. J. Meulenbeld. xxxii, 512 p. Jyotiralok 
Prakashan, Varanasi 1985.
[1060] Mizutani, Kosho:  The Principles of Tibetan Medicine in the rGyud-bzhi (Japanese, with 
Engl. titles in list of contents). Indogaku-bukkyogaku-kenkyu [Journal of Indian and Buddhist 
Studies] (Tokyo) 6, No. 2 (1958), pp. 137-141 (448-453).
[1061] Moise, Regolo: Nota sulla medicina e l'igiene nel Tibet. In: Giuseppe Tucci, A Lhasa e 
oltre, pp. 139-148. La Libreria dello Stato, Roma 1952.
 This famous book by Giuseppe Tucci appeared in an English translation, i. e. "To Lhasa and 
Beyond. Diary of the Expedition to Tibet in the year 1948. With an Appendix on Tibetan 
Medicine and Hygiene by R. Moise". Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, Roma 1956, Moise: pp. 
163-179: reprinted: East-West Publications, Hounslow (U.K.) 1985; also Pauls Press, New 
Delhi, no date.- 
Regarding Dr. Moise, who is the author on the part of Tibetan medicine, he remarks not only on 
the frequency of smallpox, tuberculosis and goitre, but makes also the following points: "The 
nearly absolute lack of facts about health and sanitation over the whole huge territory of Tibet, 
still so inaccessible to foreigners, led me to record the following impressions, which should be 
taken only as a mere sketch, as unfortunately I could not carry out any accurate research nor 
dwelve deep into the matter. As the whole country is still shrouded in mystery, even these few 
notes may enable the reader to get a glimpse of Tibet's main hygienic and sanitary problems . . 
Before dealing with the only illnesses of real epidemiological interest in Tibet, I want to stress 
the frequency of rheumatic affections in that country, ranging from acute rheumatism, often 
coupled with endocarditis, to chronical arthritis, to myositis and neuritis (especially of the hip). 
As I was saying above, venereal illnesses are of the utmost importance in Tibetan pathology. 
They are remarkably widerspread and are mentioned by all travellers. Things may have been 
overstressed and all diagnoses may not have been correct, but, the fact cannot be doubted and 
my observations can but confirm it. Pox and blennorrhoea were probably imported from China 
and their spreading is due to an absolute ignorance and lack of preventive measures and as 
well as to an unrestrained sexual intercourse. . .. As to the neuro-psychical affections, the 
monasteries would, I thought, supply a good deal of mental cases, as I saw in the conditions 
prevailing there hotbeds of mental derangement. However, I could only observe fairly frequent 
cases of psycho-neurosis, epilepsy and hysteria, but I could never lay hands on a real 
psychosis. On the other hand I had twice to cure very serious wounds of people who had tried 
to commit suicide. They were both monks. One had slit his belly open and the other had cut his 
own throat. Isolated cases of monks who had run amuck and attacked other monks were also 

[1062] Mokhosoyeva, VK: The Effect of Preparations from Salsola collina Pall. on Cytochrome 
P-450 (Russian). In: Vklad Molodykh Biologov Sibiri v Reskenie Voprosov Prodovol'stvennoi 
Programmy i Okhrany Okruzhayushehey Sredy (= The Contribution of Young Biologists of 
Siberia to the Solution of Questions of the Food Programme and Preservation of Environment). 
Abstracts of the Conference (Russian), pp. 140-141. Ulan-Ude 1984.
 The pathophysiological mechanism of preparations from the plant Salsola collina Pall. was 
investigated, because decoctions from this plant are widely used in Indo-Tibetan and Chinese 
medicines for the treatment of liver and gastro-intestinal tract diseases.

[1063] Molvray, Mia:  A Glossary of Tibetan Medicinal Plants. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication 
for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 11 (1988), pp. 1-85.
 The introduction to the Glossary stresses the lack of information concerning the Tibetan 
pharmacopoeia, but also the pharmacopoeia's potential value. Headings in the introduction 
include: Background, Misidentification of Tibetan plant names, Discussion of the major sources 
cited, Explanatory remarks concerning the Glossary. The Glossary includes both Latin-Tibetan 
and Tibetan-Latin sections giving the translations of medicinal plant names. The author writes: 
"Identification of the many plants referred to in the extensive Tibetan medical literature, or 
mentioned by Tibetan doctors and local informants, is difficult at this point due to the 
inaccessibility and geographical bias of the extant translations. For instance, Pozdneyev's 
(1908) generally valuable work does not list the plants in any alphabetical order, either Tibetan, 
Russian, or Latin: and the identifications lean towards Mongolian and Siberian plants, as is 
usual in Russian work, neglecting elements of the Chinese, Himalayan and Indian floras which 
are commonly used in the various regions of Tibet. This Glossary attempts to give some 
perspective on regional substitutions by drawing on sources with different geographical biases, 
including the author's own work at a Tibetan refugee settlement in India. A Tibetan-Latin 
section has been included both to make the use of Tibetan sources easier and, primarily, to 
make explicit the number of different identifications applied to given Tibetan names. The large 
amount of indeterminates in the Tibetan-Latin section, all found in only one Tibetan herbal, hint 
at the vast quantity of work that remains to be done."

[1064] Monaco, G (ed.): Medicina Tibetana. 175 p., many col. illustr., Mestre 1979.
[1065] Montmollin, Marceline de: Liberation de la douleur et destruction du mal reflets 
iconographiques tirés du bouddhisme tibétain. In: Le mal et la douleur, ed. J. Hainard et R. 
Kaehr. pp. 123-158. Musée d'ethnographie, Neuchatel 1986.
[1066] Morse, William Reginald (born 1874):  Tibetan Medicine. Journal of the West China 
Border Research Society 3 (1926/29), pp. 114-133.
"The Tibetans believe that a man who has been bad in this life may after death cause disease, 
that is, his transgression of religious ordinances has caused the disease. Suggestion 
undoubtedly plays a great part in the medical treatment of the Tibetans. This does not imply 
that the priests are necessarily deceivers. Their practice is based on belief in their powers with 
the world of spirits. In other words, they are rational in their treatment of disease; it is not a 
mere medley of deception and witchcraft. . .". And he continues: "In the city of Lhasa there is 
a Temple of Medicine, that contains a school of medicine, called Chag-po-ri ['Ja-pori' by the 
author], or the Iron Hill. It was founded some two and a half centuries ago. The lamas are both 
doctors and priests. This lamasary (sic!) contains the Healing Buddha, the Tibetan Aesculapius 
and God of Medicine. The lamasary and school are said to be well financed and stocked with 
Indian, Chinese and Tibetan Medicines. The so-called practices of medicine are taught at this 
place. It takes some three to eight years to master the curriculum of the school, depending on 
the brilliance of the student. The curriculum consists largely of the memorising of long 
passages of the sacred books. Very few are said to pass the examinations. Both those who 
pass and those who fail remain at the lamasary. The school and those trained therein are 
limited to Lhasa. The poor people are not treated, only the rich are attended. The students 
come from all classes of the people. There are ten so-called professors at the school. Chinese 
and Indian medical books are also used.- They teach a crude anatomy, based not on dissection 
but on a phantastic chart of the human figure ruled off in squares, in which the supposed 
positions of the body organs are marked. The heart of a woman, according to this chart, is in 
the middle of the body, and that of a man on the left side. Their anatomy is thus shown to 
contain both truth and phantasy. According to their physiology the blood contains four humors, 
viz. wind, similar to the Chinese Ch'i; blood or tra; bile or tri-ba; and phlegm or begum. There is 
also another designation, blood, choler, heat and cold. These things are related to the five 
elements, metal, earth, air, fire and water somewhat as in Chinese medicine. The humors are 
imparted to the child by the mother before birth".

[1067] Morse, William Reginald: The Three Crosses in the Purple Mist. An Adventure in Medical 
Education under the Eaves of the Roof of the World. With illustr. ix, 306 p. Mission Book Co., 
Shanghai 1928.

[1068] Müller, F(riedrich) W(ilhelm) K(arl):  Ein uigurisch-lamaistisches Zauberritual aus den 
Turfanfunden. Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) XXIV 
(1928), pp. 381-386.
 Erschien auch als Sonderabdruck im Buchhandel. Der Inhalt besteht aus Anrufungen, 
Betrachtungsvorschriften, aus Aufzählungen von "Göttermädchen", 24 "Helden", "Lehrreden", 
heiligen Stätten in Indien, Schutzgottheiten mit ihren Panzern und Handstellungen, und vor 
allem aus Zauberformeln und Vorschriften für Opferzeremonien. Heruka als Vater und Mutter, 
sowie Vajravarahi werden besonders geehrt. Der Text wurde wohl direkt aus dem Sanskrit 
übersetzt, sein Inhalt ließ sich durch Auffinden tibetischer Paralleltexte erschließen.

[1069] Müller, Leopold:  Parallelen zwischen der Heilkunst des Paracelsus und der Tibeter. 
Krebsgeschehen (Heidelberg) 14 (1) (1982), pp. 11-14.
 ". . . gehören zu solchen Denk-Würdigkeiten des geistigen Raum-Zeit-Kontinuums auch die 
geradezu verblüffenden Parallelen der tibetischen Medizin mit der des großen deutschen Arztes, 
Naturforschers, Alchimisten und Philosophen, Paracelsus? Was jedenfalls Th. Burang aus 
eigenen Studien am Ort über die Tibetische Heilkunde zu berichten weiß, enthält so viele und so 
wesentliche Übereinstimmungen derselben mit der Medizin des Paracelsus, daß man daran 
nicht vorübergehen kann, ohne sich Gedanken zu machen; zumal es in diesem Falle wohl 
ebenso schwerfallen dürfte, die eine Quelle auf die andere zurückzuführen, wie der Versuch, 
eine dritte, gemeinsame Quelle aufzudecken oder eine solche in Abrede zu stellen. Erwächst 
doch die 'Arzeney' des Paracelsus durchaus - zumindest vordergründig und nach seinem 
eigenen Bekenntnis - auf christlichen Fundamenten, die der Tibeter auf lamaistischen; in beiden 
spielt der religiös-philosophische Unterbau eine entscheidende Rolle."

[1070] Müller, Reinhold F(riedrich) G(ustav):  Ein Beitrag zur ärztlichen Graphik aus Zentralasien 
(Turfan). Mit 3 Figuren. Sudhoffs Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin (Leipzig) XV (1923), pp. 
 "Unter dem Material der Deutschen Turfanexpedition 1902 bis 1907 befindet sich eine 
buddhistische Buchrolle, anscheinend aus Broussonetiapapier, 72 cm lang, 18,7 cm hoch. Auf 
ihre Rückseite hat ein unbekannter Verfasser etwa im 11./12. Jahrhundert n. Chr. einen 
medizinischen Text in osttürkischer Sprache geschrieben und diesem drei Zeichnungen in roher 
Ausführung eingefügt. Trotz der primitiven Darstellungsart mag jedoch die Seltenheit 
medizinischer Zeichnungen aus Zentralasien eine Besprechung rechtfertigen."

[1071] Müller, Reinhold F(riedrich) G(ustav):  Über Votive aus Osttibet (Kin-tschwan). Mit 6 
Abb. Anthropos (St. Gabriel/Mödling bei Wien) 18/19 (1923/24), pp. 180-188.
 Zu einem medizinischen Aspekt der tibetischen Medizin kann die folgende Ausführung gezählt 
werden: "Unter der ethnologischen Ausbeute der Stötzner'schen Sze-tschwan-Expedition 1914 
findet sich eine runde, dünne Marienglasscheibe von etwa 6 cm Durchmesser, welche an ihrem 
Rande von einem schmalen, schwarzen Tuchstreifen eingefaßt ist. Sie war an einem Faden 
gemeinsam mit einem Kha-btags von weißer Farbe und gewöhnlicher Beschaffenheit an einer 
Statue der Göttin Kwan-Yin aufgehängt angetroffen worden. Der Tempel dieser Göttin stand 
einsam vor Rumi-tschang-ku an der Straße von Moukung. Auskunft an Ort und Stelle konnte 
der genannte Forschungsreisende nicht erhalten und so schrieb er dem Fundobjekt bei: 'Sollte 
wohl Heilung von einem Augenleiden bringen . . .' Nach den vorhergehenden Ausführungen 
dürfte demnach ohne wesentlichen Zwang das Fundobjekt als ein tibetisches Brillenvotiv 
gedeutet werden. Doch erscheint allein auf die zusammengestellten Gründe hin eine solche 
Annahme immerhin gewagt, weil aus der Literatur - und zwar sowohl der asiatischen als auch 
der umfangreichen europäischen - Brillenvotive dem Verfasser nicht bekannt geworden sind."- 
Und an anderer Stelle: ". . . dieser zweite Fund entstammt demselben Tempel der Kwan-Yin 
und besteht aus zwei Papierblättern, welche an ihrem oberen Rande ein Querhölzchen tragen 
und an diesem hintereinander aufgehängt waren. 
Das Papiermaterial ist anscheinend tibetischer Herkunft. Das eine, weißfarbene Blatt trägt 
dreimal untereinander den Abdruck eines Holzblockes, welcher seinerseits je fünfmal die 
Dharani: Om mani padme hum hri enthält. 
Das zweite, rotgefärbte Blatt (Abb. 3 und 4) zeigt als Blockdruck folgende Gebetsanrufung an: 
Om wagisvari mum. Om mani padme hum. Om vajrapani hum pha tra . . .. 
Vor diesen beiden Votivblättern findet sich ein Scherenschnitt aus dünnerem Papier und dieser 
stellt mit voller Deutlichkeit eine Brille dar. Beim Ausschneiden ist das Papier gefaltet gewesen, 
so daß die beiden symmetrischen Brillenanteile gleichzeitig ausgeschnitten worden sind. Die 
Kongruenz der Hälften beweist diese Herstellungsart, ferner die beiden gleichartigen, 
augenscheinlich versehentlichen Einschnitte in der Verlängerung der oberen Bügelumrandung. 
Auch ist infolge ungenauer Berechnung der Bügelkrümmung von der Faltstelle aus ein 
unmotivierter Vorsprung des Bügels in der Richtung auf den Nasenrücken zu entstanden."

[1072] Müller, Reinhold F(riedrich) G(ustav):  Die Heilgötter des Lamaismus Sudhoffs Archiv für 
Geschichte der Medizin (Leipzig) XIX (1927), pp. 9-26.
 (born 1882) "Der früheste Bericht über den Heilgott fällt für Tibet mit der Missionsgeschichte 
des Padmasambhava zusammen. Letzterer stellte das Bild des Gottes beim Tempelbau bSam-
yas, in einem Nebenhaus (dGe-rgyas) der einen Königin auf neben einer Amitabhastatue. Später 
wird sMan-bla in dem Tempelführer von Lhasa, dem dkar c'ag des ersten Dalai Lama, 
wiederholt erwähnt. Wann diese Gottheit in prägnanter Weise als Heilgott in Tibet 
angesprochen worden ist, läßt sich nicht mit Bestimmtheit angeben." Aber in dem zuletzt 
vorgebrachten Beleg - also um die Mitte des 15. Jahrhunderts - treten entsprechende 
Eigenschaften deutlicher hervor: "Er, der allen von widriger Fieberhitze Gequälten Linderung 
bringt, ein gnadenvolles Gefäß mit Kampfertropfen für Weib und Kind den gläubigen reinen 
Sterblichen spendet: Bhaiæajyaraja, dessen Tätigkeit für alle, Hoch und Niedrig, gilt, hier ist er." 
Die typischen Abbildungen in Tibet (und Nepal) zeigen sMan-bla als Buddha, mit gekreuzten 
Schenkeln sitzend. Seine linke Hand ruht im Schoß und hält die Almosenschale (patra), die 
Rechte hängt einwärts des Knies herab mit nach vorn offener Handfläche und hält so einen 
Zweig mit einer Frucht oder nur die Frucht selbst, die Myrobalane: a-ru-ra."

[1073] Müller, Reinhold F(riedrich) G(ustav):  Die Krankheits- und Heilgottheiten des 
Lamaismus. Eine medizingeschichtliche Studie. Mit 21 Abb. Anthropos (St. Gabriel/Mödling bei 
Wien) 22 (1927), pp. 956-991.
 In Heftform als Einzelpublikation, Wien 1927.- Unter den Original-Arbeiten über die tibetische 
Medizin kann diese Arbeit als eine der besonders gründlichen und aussagekräftigen bezeichnet 
werden. Die Medizin im ärztlichen wie im philosophischen und religiösen Bereich wird, 
hervorragend mit Quellen untermauert, unter diesen Aspekten nicht nur getrennt, sondern auch 
synoptisch und aufeinander bezogen dargestellt.

[1074] Mukherjee, Girindra Nath:  The Tibetan Surgical Instruments. With 8 illustr. The Journal 
of Ayurveda (Calcutta)  (1933), pp. 5-15.
 "These Tibetan block prints are illustrations which contain representations of a large number of 
surgical instruments, some of them of an elaborate nature, including specula, saws, catheters, 
exploring needles, instruments for tapping hydrocele, and midwifery and other forceps. The 
block-prints were brought by Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur from Lhasa, and a description of 
the figures was given by the late Lama Shes-rab rGya-mtsho, the Abbot of the Ghoom 
Monastery, near Darjeeling, who was formerly physician to the late Tashi Lama. They were 
explained in a paper read by Dr. Sarada Prasad Banerjee entitled: A Note on the Illustrations of 
the Surgical Instruments of Tibet."

[1075] Mullin, Glenn H (1949- ): Ama-La: Mother of Tibetan Medicine (Editor Kate Abel). ?? p. 
Vajrapani Press, Boulder Creek, ca. 1978.
 Biography of and interview with Dr. Lobsang Dolma (1934-1989).

[1076] Mullin, Glenn H:  Doubts about Tibetan Medical System. Tibetan Review (Delhi) 13, 9 
(1978), pp. 24-25.
 Besides discussion of Dr. Buskirk's coverage of the talks given by Dr. Dolma in Berkeley (see 
J. Buskirk, Delhi 1978) the author stresses the following points: "I would also like to take this 
opportunity of commenting on a probable error in my article 'Lobsang Dolma: Tibet's Foremost 
Lady Doctor' published in the May '78 issue. The section on 'A Brief History' (page 11, col. 1) 
states, 'Buddha once manifested the Medicine Mandala and spoke the three Medical Tantras, 
but one of these is not from Buddha himself but rather is a latter commentary on Buddha's 
words.' This should perhaps read '. . . spoke the four Medical Tantras. Sometimes we speak of 
three Medical Tantras, because many doctors study only three of the four.' I would like to 
thank Dr. Pema Dorje of Dharamsala for bringing this to my attention. Dr. Pema Dorje also 
expressed dissatisfaction with the passage, 'Treatment by medicines means application of 
whichever of the pills compounded from herbs, flowers, barks, metals, animal substances, etc. 
are appropriate to the disease . . .. 
This category includes herbal teas, oils to be applied externally, and so forth.' As Dr. Dorje 
points out to me, this grouping also includes many more subjects, such as syrups, powders, 
salves, etc. To Dr. Dorje and anyone else who may have been disturbed by this statement, I 
can only say that I think Dr. Dolma was perfectly reasonable in stressing pills (ril-bu) and not 
mentioning the others because in actual practice 99% of 'treatment by medicines' these days 
means prescription of various natural substances to be taken orally in the form of a pill. This is 
easily ascertained by a quick glance at any modern Tibetan doctor's collection of 

[1077] Mullin, Glenn H:  Lobsang Dolma: Tibet's Foremost Lady Doctor. A Profile & and 
Interview. Tibetan Review (Delhi) 13, 5 (1978), pp. 9-15.
 Biography of Dr. Lobsang Dolma, but in addition Dr. Lobsang Dolma's view on the history of 
Tibetan Medicine, mental illnesses, sexual problems, and on death.

[1078] Mullin, Glenn H: Death and Dying. The Tibetan Tradition. xvi, 251 p. Routledge & Kegan 
Paul, London 1986.
 Also Arkana Publ., Boston 1986.

[1079] Mullin, Glenn H: Die Schwelle zum Tod. Sterben, Tod und Leben nach tibetischem 
Glauben. Geleitwort von Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Rüdiger 
Majora. 292 S. Eugen Diederichs, Köln 1987.
 (Death and Dying. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1986).- Das Buch entstand nach 
mehrjähriger Studienarbeit (1972-76) an der 'Library of Tibetan Works & Archives' in 
Dharamsala. Dort wurde der Autor (geb. 1949 in Quebec) in Überlieferung und Gebräuche von 
Tod und Sterben eingeführt. Während die westlichen Kulturen weitgehend des Memento mori 
verlustig gegangen sind, versteht sich der Tod im Buddhismus als Entwicklungsstufe, als ein 
notwendiges Element des vergänglichen Lebens selbst. Mullin bringt uns diese kulturelle 
Differenz näher über sorgfältig ausgewählte Texte aus den Schriften der Dalai Lamas und 
berühmter tibetischer Autoren, sowie über Berichte vom Sterben großer Lamas, unter ihnen 
auch seines eigenen Lehrers, des ehemaligen Abtes des Dalai Lama-Klosters in Dharamsala. In 
den ungewöhnlichen Sterbevorgängen, die Wochen andauern können, erteilen die Sterbenden 
oft noch eine Lehre oder einen Rat besonders an jene Schüler, die weiterhin einer Führung 
bedürfen (Renate Wagner).- Glenn H. Mullin ist auch der Herausgeber und Übersetzer (nur in 
Englisch erschienener) ausgewählter Werke früherer Dalai Lamas.

[1080] Mullin, Glenn H: Profile of a Tibetan Doctor. Illustrations by Kevin Rigby. Cover by Janet 
Brooke.[Part two of a booklet together with Dr. Losang Dolma: Pulse Diagnosis], pp.  17-37. 
The Dekyi Khangkar, Dharamsala, no year.
 "By the end of the fourteenth century the ''White House Hospital'' in Tibet had become one of 
the two most important hospitals of the Kyerong District. It was unique in that it was both a 
free clinic and a medical school. It was also unique in that its lineage of medical knowledge 
was handed down from father to son, or, occasionally, to daughter. One day the Kargyu Lama 
Bariwa, one of the main teachers of the insurpassable yogi Tsong Khapa (1357-1419), founder 
of the Geluk sect, came to the hospital for treatment. Bariwa was particularly famed for his 
frequent manifestation of clairvoyant powers. He advised that the father-son tradition of 
medical succession in the 'White House Hospital' be practised with diligence; for, he 
prophesied, the day the lineage would be broken would be an omen of extremely dark times in 
Tibetan history.- As was the tradition with most provincial medical schools in Tibet, the 'White 
House Hospital' continually maintained strong communications with the Great Medical College 
of Lhasa, which had been reformed by the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Losang Gyatso, in the 
mid-seventeenth century into an institution for training doctors and administration officials to 
run the free medicare system that he had established shortly after having been given spiritual 
and temporal authority over Tibet in 1642 A.D. Most of the leading doctors who were trained 
in the 'White House Medical College' were sent to the Great Medical College of Lhasa for 
several years to complete their studies, and the hospital's programs were keyed to meet the 
general policies of the Lhasa College.- Twelfth in the unbroken blood-lineage of chief 
physicians at the 'White House Hospital' was Dr. Tsering Wangdu. As well as ascending to 
fame as a doctor, Dr. Wangdu was renowned for his spiritual learning and practice. His 
popularity grew to such an extent that he was once appointed as Governor of Kyerong 
District.- In 1934 Dr. Wangdu fathered the child destined to fulfil the ancient prophecy of Lama 
Bariwa and to carry on the bloodline medical tradition of the 'White House Hospital'. The child, 
a daugther, was given the name Losang Dolma [vide Dolma]".

[1081] Mullin, Glenn H:  vide auch Jampa Gyaltsen Drakton 1980.
[1082] Mullis, Marie-Louise:  Metaphysische Medizin im fernen Osten, am Beispiel Tibet. Die 
Heilkunst (München) 92 (Heft 3) (1979), pp. 1-8.
 Die traditionelle Medizin Asiens ist einer dogmatischen Philosophie unterworfen, welche 
wesentliche Fortschritte oder etwa eine Beeinflussung durch die abendländische Medizinlehre 
weitgehend verhindert hat und auch jetzt noch eine dynamische Entwicklung verunmöglicht. 
Dies gilt auch für die tibetische oder besser lamaistische Heilkunde, die eine Vermischung von 
Religion, Philosophie und schematisierter Naturwissenschaft darstellt. Darüber hinaus existiert 
in Tibet noch eine animistisch-schamanistische Priestermedizin, die auf die alte Bon-Religion 
zurückgeht, durch Geisterglaube und Geisterfurcht gekennzeichnet ist und die das Eindringen 
des Buddhismus in Tibet überstanden hat, sogar teilweise in diesen integriert wurde. Der 
vorliegende Beitrag als Vortrag für den Internationalen Herbstkongreß für Ganzheitsmedizin in 
Velden 1978 zum Tagesthema "Magie und Medizin" verfaßt, beschränkt sich darauf, einige 
wenige diesbezügliche Aspekte aus dem tibetischen Heilwesen herauszugreifen. Er versucht 
aber auch klarzumachen, daß das Fortbestehen einer traditionellen Medizin wie z. B. der 
tibetischen immer eine Quelle der Anregung auch für die westliche Medizin sein kann, daß es 
aber falsch wäre, diese Form der Medizin "à la mode" in unseren Kulturkreis zu übernehmen, 
der dafür gar nicht geschaffen ist.

[1083] Multanovsky, MP: The History of Medicine (Russian). 272 p., Moscow 1967.
[1084] Mumford, StanRoyal: Himalayan Dialogue: Tibetan Lamas and Gurung Shamans in 
Nepal. xii, 286 p. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison/Wisconsin 1989.
[1085] Muratov, SN: The Principles of Medicinal Therapy of Malignant Tumours in Tibetan 
Medicine (Russian). In: Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka 
(= Problems of the Assimilation of the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts 
of the Reports of the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian), pp. 256-258. Novosibirsk 
 While studying the basic treatises of Tibetan Medicine, the author has distinguished two 
principles of treating malignant tumors: 1) general treatment independent of localization of the 
process is aimed at increasing protective forces of the body and prevention of process 
generalization (metastases) and 2) at the same time particular treatment of the affected organ. 
The author considers that in spite of some peculiarities of recommended techniques and 
remedies, experimental and clinical tests of the most valuable remedies on oncological patients 
appear rather promising.

[1086] Nagarjuna (tib. Klu grub, 2nd century AD): "sMan-'Tsho-ba'i mDo (Vaidya-Jiva-Sutra)". 
For an English translation vide V.B. Dash and Doboom Tulku, Delhi 1991.
[1087] Nagarjuna (tib. Klu grub): "Yoga Æataka". German translation vide H. H. M. Schmidt, 
Bonn 1978.- For an English translation vide V. B. Dash, Dharamsala 1976, for a French 
translation Jean Filliozat, Pondichéry 1979.

[1087a] Nagarjuna (tib. Klu grub): sMan-dpyad Zla-ba'i rGyal-po [=Somaraja] (Chinese modern 
version). Translated by Ma Shilin, Wang Zhenhua and Mao Jizhu. With Chinese-Latin appendix 
for names of plants, animals and minerals mentioned in the book. 344 p. Gansu Nationality 
Press, Gansu 1993.
 Claimed to be the earliest extant Tibetan medical classic, this canon is attributed to Klu-grub
(= Nagarjuna), and according to the introduction of Dr. Tashigang (this minor Tibetan text 
Somaraja entitled "sMan dPyad Zla-ba'i rGyal-po" - "The Somarajabhaisajyasadhana" was 
published in ist Tibetan version by Dr. Tashigang, reproduced from a set of prints from the Sde-
dGe blokus [Smanrtsis Shesrig Spendzod, vol. 135], Leh 1989, 407 fol.) it was originally 
written in Sanskrit. On the other side the teaching of healing art was taught at Wu Tai Shan in 
inland China. Traditionally it is therefore considered by others that the original text of Somaraja 
[The King of Moon] was written in Chinese, but unfortunately at present we do not have any 
exact information about the existence of this original. 
In the opinion of Sangye Gyamtso (1653-1705), the author of the 'Vaidurya sNgon-po' (1687-
88), the Chinese version of Somaraja was translated into Sanskrit and was introduced into 
Tibet afterwards. The Tibetan translation was done by the translators Vairocana and Hashang 
Mahayana during the reign of king Khri Srong Deutsan (755-797). The fate of this treatise (i.e. 
Somaraja), which played the most important role in the creation and formation of the Tibetan 
text rGyud bzhi, remains therefore mysterious until the Chinese original will be discovered. The 
genuine author is still under dispute. However, in view of its contents with the rlung-mkhris-
badkan theory, five viscera theory and diagnostics of pulse taking and urinanalysis, this classic 
should be considered as a compilation incorporating ancient Chinese, Ayurvedic and the 
medical experience of the Tibetan people themselves at a time about half a century earlier than 
the advent of rGyud-bzhi (Natalia Bolsokhoyeva/Cai Jingfeng).

[1088] Nagaslayeva, LA (1942- ) and Garmayev, RB: The Pharmacotechnological Study of 
Extracts from the Plants of Scrophulariaceae (Russian). In: Medicinal Plants in Traditional and 
Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  103-104. 
Ulan-Ude 1987.
 This work refers to dry extracts from the aerial parts of Peduncularis palustris L., Linaria 
buriatica Turcs., and Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum. The data obtained demonstrate that these 
plants possess good prospects for further scrutiny.

[1089] Naifeh, Karen Hempel: Meditation, Rest, and Sleep Onset: A Comparison of EEG and 
Respiration Changes (Thesis). 97 p. California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley 
 Meditation has been linked to an extension of the wake-sleep transition on the basis of EEG 
studies. This study looked at patterns of EEG and respiration (alveolar pCO2, thoracic vs. 
abdominal movement, and respiratory rate) during meditation in 3 different meditation groups 
(Yoga, Zen Buddhist and Tibetan Buddhist), as well as during relaxation in non-meditating 
controls, and compared them to established EEG and respiration patterns.

[1090] Namba, Tsuneo: Tibetan Medicine and Materia Medica. Studia Bonorum Materiarum 
Medica No. 2 (Japanese, in part English). 262 p., 3 maps. Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku 
(Oriental Medicines), Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama/Japan 1988.
 "During August to November in 1986, we made the field investigation around the mountainous 
districts of Tibet (autonomous region of China), Nepal and India for Tibetan medicine and other 
related medicinal resources. Recently, the Tibetology has gained importance in the Western 
countries. The Tibetan medicine also has drawn attention and some literatures have been 
published in Germany, France, U.S.A., India, China, and other countries. However, those 
related to the crude drugs are very few. In this booklet, we report the medicinal resources of 
Tibet based largely on our field works in 1986, modelled after our previous report published in 
1985. It is our pleasure to reproduce here photocopies of some rare Tibetan medicinal 
manuscripts provided from an Amchis (Tibetan doctor) from Nepal, from Tibetan Hospital 
Lhasa, China, from Tibetan Medical and Astro-Institute and Library of Tibetan Works Archives 
in Dharamsala, India, which we obtained during our course of collecting medicinal plants and 
crude drugs in those areas. We expect to translate them into English and/or Japanese and to 
introduce them soon."

[1091] Namba, Tsuneo and Komatsu, K:  Tibetan Medicine and Medicinal Resources 
(Japanese). Gakujutsu geppo (Japanese Scientific Monthly) 42, 12 (1989), pp. 37-?.
[1092] Namgyal, Ansar:  Das Leiden am isolierten "Ich". Bericht von Ruth Kuntz-Brunner. 
Deutsches Akademisches Sonntagsblatt  vom 30. Juli 1993.
 "Ansar Namgyal betreut den Dalai Lama medizinisch und leitet im indischen Dharamsala das 
Tibetische Medizinische Institut. Der Arzt Ansar Namgyal scheint diese wohl älteste 
ganzheitliche Heilkunst zu verkörpern. Nie verrutscht eine Geste, ein Wort, ein Lächeln. Nichts 
an ihm wirkt gekünstelt, aber alles ist hohe Kunst. Körper, Geist und Seele stehen miteinander 
im Einklang. In Gegenwart des tibetischen Arztes schrumpft der westliche Lebensstil zu einem 
grellen Popanz. Wer Namgyal sieht, begreift es intuitiv: Gesundheit gilt in der tibetischen 
Tradition als Zustand der Ausgewogenheit; Krankheit ist Disharmonie. Neben Pharmakologie 
und Botanik müssen tibetische Ärzte vor allem Anatomie, Physiologie, klinische Medizin, Ethik 
und buddhistische Philosophie studieren. Die klassischen medizinischen Studientexte sind die 
vier Tantras, 'Gyushi (=rGyud-bzhi)' genannt. Ihre 156 Kapitel enthalten auch den spirituellen 
und philosophischen Kern der tibetischen Medizin: den Buddhismus. Der Buddhismus wird 
häufig als psychologische Religion bezeichnet. Und tatsächlich erinnert der Mediziner Ansar 
Namgyal in vielem an einen Psychotherapeuten. Er läßt sich auf den Patienten ein, schafft 
Vertrauen und Offenheit. Er weiß längst, was sich (durch die Psychosomatik) auch hierzulande 
langsam herumspricht: daß ein harmonisches Arzt-Patient-Verhältnis Heilungsprozesse 
beschleunigt. 'Jeder Arzt muß sein Bewußtsein so entwickeln', lautet die rigorose tibetische 
Ethik, 'daß er allen Patienten gegenüber Mitgefühl, Freude und Toleranz empfinden kann. Denn 
Menschen brauchen Liebe, Fürsorge und Respekt'."

[1093] Namkhai Norbu (1938-  ): Bon and Bonpos. Tibetan Review (Delhi) XV, 12 (1980), pp. 8-
 "Bonpos and their practices were known as Bon. Therefore, it is wrong to trace the origin of 
Bon to one particular source. When Shenrab Miwo, the founder of Bon, came into this world 
there were already in existence groups of Bonpos who based their beliefs on bDud (Devils) and 
were known as bDud Bon (Devil Bon), and on brTsan (a kind of spirit and deity) known as 
brTsan Bon, etc.- From the text 'Gro-shes 'Phrul-Bon (Bon of the miracle which can crush all 
negativity) we can learn that there was astrology in Tibet before the reign of King Srongtsen 
Gampo. The origin of Tibetan Medicine is also very similar to that of astrology. According to 
the historical sources, among the eight sons of Lord Shenrab Miwo, the oldest, Prince dPyad-bu 
Khri-shes, was mainly responsible for the introduction and spread of Tibetan Medicine. 
It is recorded that during the reign of King sTag-ri gNyan-gZigs, physicians from Sum-ba were 
invited to cure his eyes. Sum-ba, which belongs to Zhang zhung, is part of the present-day 
Amdo province of Tibet. The recognized source and origin of Tibetan Medicine is Yuthog 
Yonten Gonpo.- The fact that Yuthog Yonten Gonpo himself states that he unified the Indian 
system of medicine or Ayurveda, the Chinese system of medicine and the West-Tibetan 
system of medicine proves that Tibet had its own medical system.- 
Westerners today refer to the treatment of cauterisation known as Me-bTsa with the term 
Moxa and regard it as of Chinese origin. But as the Chinese language has no word pronounced 
as Moxa and as the Tibetan word Me-bTsa is a common word meaning 'spark of fire', it is clear 
that the word Me-bTsa corrupted slightly into Moxa. This also proves that Tibet had its own 
medical system from ancient times."

[1094] Namkhai Norbu: Entstehen und Leben. Abhandlung zur tibetischen Medizin. Aus dem 
Tibetischen übersetzt von Enrico dell'Angelo. Ins Deutsche übertragen von Jörg Kollnberger. 50 
p. Shang-Shung Edizioni, Arcidosso 1983.
 (On birth and life: A treatise on Tibetan Medicine. Shang-Shung Edizioni, Arcidosso 1983). Eine 
Neuauflage der deutschen Übersetzung erschien 1991 bei Edition Tsaparang, 
Gleisdorf/Österreich.- Prof. Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche, in Derge in Osttibet geboren, wurde 
schon in frühester Kindheit als Reinkarnation eines großen Meisters des Dzog-chen erkannt und 
erhielt eine umfassende traditionelle Ausbildung als 'Tulku'. Giuseppe Tucci lud ihn 1960 nach 
Rom zu wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten an seinem Institut ein. Seit 1964 lehrt Namkhai Norbu 
tibetische und mongolische Sprachen und Literatur am Institut für Orientalistik der Universität 

[1095] Namkhai Norbu: On Birth and Life: A Treatise on Tibetan Medicine. Translated from the 
Tibetan by Enrico dell' Angelo. English version by Barry Simmons. 50 p. Shang-Shung Edizioni, 
Arcidosso 1983.
Professor Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche was born in 1938 in the village of Ge-ug in the Chongra 
part of Derge, Kham. At the age of three he was recognised as the reincarnation of Adzom 
Drugpa - a great nineteenth century master of Dzogchen and a Terton (discoverer or shower of 
hidden texts, revealer) - and later was confirmed as the mind emanation of the seventeenth 
century Lama Lhodrag Zhabdrung. In 1954, as the Chinese occupation of Eastern Tibet was 
accelerating he was invited to China as a representative of Tibetan youth. He briefly taught 
Tibetan language at the Southwestern University of National Minorities in Szechuan. 
In China he met the Lama Gankar Rinpoche from whom he received instruction on the Six 
Yogas of Naropa, Mahamudra, Konchog Chidu and Tibetan Medicine. He also learnt to speak 
Chinese and Mongolian. When he was seventeen he met his Root Lama, Nyala Rinpoche Rigzin 
Changchub Dorje, who lived in the Khadro Gar valley to the east of Derge. From him he 
received initiation and transmission of the Semde, Longde and Mengagde teaching of 
Dzogchen. After a year he set out on a pilgrimage to Central Tibet, Nepal, India and Bhutan. On 
his return he decided to leave Tibet for exile, due to the Chinese occupation, and from 1958 to 
1960 he was in Gangtok, Sikkim, working as author and editor of Tibetan textbooks for the 
government. In 1960 he was invited to Italy by Prof. G. Tucci (1894-1984) and became a 
research associate at the Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. From 1964 on he has 
been a full professor at the Istituto Orientale, University of Naples.

[1096] Namkhai Norbu: Yantra Yoga - Yoga of Movement. Over 250 illustr. on 31 plates. 120 
p. Tsaparang Edition, Gleisdorf/Austria 1988.
 Under identical title as short booklet published by Shang-Shung Edizioni, Arcidosso/Italy 
already in 1983.

[1097] Namkhai Norbu: Yantra Yoga. Yoga der Bewegungen. Herausgegeben von Oliver F. 
Leick. Mit zahlreichen s/w Demonstrations-Photos im Text und 32 Bildtafeln im Anhang (über 
250 s/w Demonstrations-Fotos). 95 S. Edition Tsaparang, Gleisdorf/Österreich 1988.
 Das Werk beruht auf dem tibetischen Text des tibetischen Meisters und Übersetzers 
Vairocana, der diese besondere Art von Yantra-Yoga (Yantra der Vereinigung von Sonne und 
Mond) im 8. Jh. in Tibet eingeführt hat, und dem Kommentar von Namkhai Norbu. Es ist die 
erste Veröffentlichung hierzu in deutscher Sprache. Yantra-Yoga ist ein spezieller tibetischer 
Yoga, der auf dem Anuttaratantra beruht; er beinhaltet eine Methode, um seinen natürlichen 
Zustand und seine natürliche Atmung wiederzufinden.

[1098] Namkhai Norbu: Nascere e Vivere. Secondo la Medicina Tibetana. A cura di Luigi 
Vitiello. Traduzione dal Tibetano: Namkhai Norbu, Enrico Dell'Angelo. 86 p. Shang-Shung 
Edizioni, Merigar, Arcidosso/Italien 1992.

[1098a] Namkhai Norbu: The Bön of Medicine: The Healing Methods. In: Drung, Deu and Bön. 
Narrations, Symbolic Languages and the Bön tradition in ancient Tibet. pp. 133-146. Translated 
from Tibetan into Italian, edited and annotated by Adriano Clemente. Translated from Italian 
into English by Andrew Lukianowicz. Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala 1995.
"Medical knowledge and the various healing methods belong traditionally to the Bön of the 'Shen 
of the Cha'. It is handed down that the Master Shenrab Miwoche transmitted them to his son by 
his wife Hoza Gyelmed called Chedbu Trishe, known for his marked intelligence, and to Tobum, 
Selwai Senge Sabmo and the others known as the 'eight sages of medicine' (gso rig 'dzin pa'i 
drang srong chen po brgyad) to satisfy their requests. The Master taught various kinds of 
medical sciences and therapies, such as those contained in texts such as the 'Variegated 
Collections of Therapies' (dPyad 'bum khra bo) and the 'White and Black Collection of Medicines 
(sMan 'bum dkar nag), and delivered them all to Chedbu Trishe and the 'Eight sages of Medicine' 
who subsequently disclosed them. The series of teachings on medicine in the 'Shen of the Cha' 
speaks of twenty-one thousand different types of therapeutic methods (dpyad thabs), but the 
fundamental principles, briefly expounded in the Zijid, are the following: First of all one must 
carry out the diagnosis on the basis of four tests: understanding of the primary and secondary 
causes (rgyu rkyen mthong la dpyad pa), identification of the type of pulse (ngos 'dzin rtsa la 
dpyad pa), ascertainment of the state of health or illness through examination of the urine (phan 
gnod chu la dpyad pa) and examination of the characteristic signs of death or recovery ('chi sos 
khams la dpyad pa). In this way it is possible to identify whether the kind of disturbance 
afflicting the patient is an illness or a dön (provocation). The illness will then be treated through 
diet (zas), behaviour (spyod), medicine (sman) and external cures (dpyad); in the case of a dön, 
however, first of all divination and astrological calculations are performed to determine how the 
particular class of being has managed to cause the disturbance, what is the present condition, 
and how to eliminate it. In general, to increase the sick person's positive force and remove 
negativities the To rites 'which remove adverse conditions' (rkyen sel gto) are performed and, 
finally, definitively to avert the danger of death and re-establish full health, the appropriate 
external curative methods ('chi bslu dpyad) are applied."

 [1099] Navchoo, Irshad A and Buth, GM:  Medicinal System of Ladakh, India. Journal of 
Ethnopharmacology (Lemerick) 26, No. 2 (1989), pp. 137-146.
 "The Ladakhi system of medicine, popularly known as the 'Amchi System' (the practitioner is 
called an 'Amchi') is an offshoot of Tibetan Medicine, which originated and evolved in the 
highlands of the country. There are certain modifications, but both have much in common. The 
literature on the Amchi system is in the Tibetan language and has not to this date been 
translated. The Amchi system broadly resembles the Ayurvedic practice, the ancient system of 
the Rigveda that evolved in India. Amchi medicine makes use of minerals, hot water springs, 
branding with hot metals or other substances, puncturing of veins, prayer, animal organs and 
herbs for the treatment of disease. The actual practice is very complex and has to be learned 
through years of experience and guidance under a professional Amchi. It is usually a family 
affair, with knowledge passed on from father to son. 
There are no institutions for formal Amchi education. When an apprentice wants to be declared 
a full-fledged Amchi to practice independently, his teacher or 'guru', who is often his father or 
his father's friend, calls a few experienced Amchis to conduct a sort of viva-voce examination. 
If the performance of the aspirant is satisfactory, he is declared fit to practice. Otherwise he 
has to continue his training and re-appear for another viva-voce until he passes. The Amchis 
enjoy more trust than modern allopathic doctors, who usually are non-resident and cannot 
speak the Ladakhi language. Even though all the Amchis are Buddhists, people of other 
religious beliefs have equal faith in them. People who have personal experience with the 
system as patients often testify to its cures, even in cases where modern allopathic treatment 
has failed. There is no doubt that these experiences are authentic. They are probably the main 
reason why the Ladakhi people have not fully accepted allopathic practice as an alternative to 
the Amchi system."
[1100] Naydakova, TsA: Interinfluence of Folk and Tibetan Medicine of the Buryats (Russian). 
In: The All-Union Session on the Results of the Field's Ethnographical Investigations. Abstracts 
of the Reports, part II (Russian), pp. 447-448.  Chernovtsy 1984.
[1101] Naydakova, TsA: The Mineral Analysis of Plants Used in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: 
Estimation of Biological Activitiy of Plants of Transbaikalia (A Collection of Articles) (Russian), 
pp. 99-103.  Ulan-Ude 1985.
 An analysis is reported of  the trace elements in drug plants used in Tibetan Medicine against 
diseases of digestive organs.

[1102] Naydakova, TsA: On Drugs of Tibetan Medicine Regulating Disturbances of the rLung 
System (Russian). In: Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk Medicine. Abstracts of the 
Scientific Conference, p. 106.  Ulan-Ude 1987.
 The paper gives comparative analysis of plants able to normalise the rlung system.

[1103] Naydakova, TsA and Badmayev, DD: Trace-Elements of Some Components of Indo-
Tibetan Medicines, used for Chronic Pulmonary Diseases (Russian). In: The Trace-Elements in the 
Biosphere and their Use in Agriculture and Medicine of Siberia and the Far East, pp. 285-286. 
Ulan-Ude 1972.
[1104] Naydakova, TsA and Khapkin, IS: The Study of Some Indo-Tibetan Drug Preparations 
with Hemostatic Properties (Russian). In: The Materials of the IVth Republican Scientific-
Practical Conference of the Physicians of Buryatia. Vol. IV. (Russian), p. 48.  Ulan-Ude 1984.
 The coagulation effect of decoctions from some plants and multi-component preparations has 
been demonstrated experimentally.

[1105] Naydakova, TsA and Kuzmin, VK: Contents of Trace-Elements in Medicinal Plants of 
Transbaikalia (Russian). In: Flora, Rastitel'nost'i Rastitel'nye Resurzcy Zabaikal'ya i Sosednikh 
Rayonov (= Flora, Vegetation and Plant Resources of Transbaikalia  and Neighbouring 
Regions). Issue 5, pp. 90-91.  Chita 1975.
[1106] Naydakova, TsA and Kuzmin, VK: On the Mineral Contents of Medicinal Plants of 
Transbaikalia, used in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i 
Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= Studies of Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) 
(Russian), pp. 83-84.  Tomsk 1978.
[1107] Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE: The Rational Aspects of Tibetan Phytotherapy (Russian). In: 
Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific 
Conference (Russian), pp.  104-106. Ulan-Ude 1987.
 Studies of Tibetan Medicine demand complex approach to investigation of its theory and 
practice including general and particular problems of phytotherapy.

[1108] Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE and Badarayev, Bal-Dorje B: Some Problems in Studying Tibetan 
Pharmacology (Russian). In: Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, 10th-12th  March 1975, on 
"Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny" (= Ethnographical Aspects on 
Studying Folk Medicine) (Russian), pp.  38-39.  Science, Leningrad 1975.
[1109] Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE, Khapkin, IS, Shagzhiyeva, GA, and Bazaron, E(lbert) 
G(ombozhapovich): Phytotherapy of Experimental Pancreatitis (Russian). In: Problemy 
Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= Problems of the Assimilation of 
the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of the Reports of the All-Union 
Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  208-210.  Novosibirsk 1983.
 The therapeutical effect of two preparations from the arsenal of Tibetan Medicine, i. e. gar-nag 
bzi thang and the preparation No. 6 have been investigated. These remedies include Artemisia 
sieversiana Willd., Iris flavissima Pall., Polygonum aviculare L., Rhamnuus dahuricus Pall., 
Berberis sibirica Pall. and others. The remedies have been studied regarding their curative 
properties against experimental pancreatitis.

[1110] Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE and Malakshinova, MM: The Effect of Tibetan Multicomponent 
Phytopreparations on Hematopexis (Russian). In: Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. 
Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  387-388. Kiev 1988.
 The effect of the multi-component preparations aro-lo-bzhi thang and tig-ta-bzhi thang on blood 
coagulation has been studied. These preparations include the following plants: Chenopodium 
aristatum L., Malus baccata (L.) Borkh., Sophora flavescens Soland., Glycyrrhiza uralensis 
Fisch., Odontites rubra (Baumg.) Pers., Stellaria dichotoma L., Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch. 
The tig-ta-bzhi thang has demonstrated a moderate anticoagulant action which is shown in the 
early stages of hematopexis, and the aro-lo-bzi thang possesses procoagulation action 
intensifying coagulation possibilities of in vivo animal blood.

[1111] Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE and Ubeyeva, IP: Regulation of the Liver Functional Disturbance by 
Natural Compounds (Russian). In: Resul'taty i Perspektivy Nauchnykh Issledovaniy v Oblasti 
Sozdaniya Lekarstvennykh Sredstv iz Rastitel'nogo Syr'ya  (= Results and Perspectives of 
gations in Creating Medicinal Remedies from Raw Drug Materials). Abstracts of the Reports of 
the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  129-130.  Moscow 1985.
 The pharmacological action of multi-component preparations is demonstrated in the important 
homoeostatic systems of the body. The obtained results prove expediency of treatment of liver 
diseases by using multi-component Tibetan preparations.

[1112] Nebesky-Wojkowitz, René M von (1923-1959):  Die Heilkunst der Bön-Priester. In: Die 
tibetische Bön-Religion. Archiv für Völkerkunde. Hrsg. Museum für Völkerkunde in Wien und 
Verein 'Freunde der Völkerkunde'.  Band II, 1947 [Wilhelm Braumüller Universitätsverlag 1948], 
pp. 26-68.
 "Der Glaube an die übernatürlichen Kräfte der Bön-Priester bedingt bei weiten Kreisen der 
tibetischen Bevölkerung ihre Beliebtheit als Helfer bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen. Dies hat 
allerdings zur Folge, daß die heilkundigen Lamas in ihnen sehr unwillkommene Konkurrenten 
sehen. Sie halten deshalb ihre eigenen medizinischen Erfahrungen vor den Bönpos streng 
geheim. Einige interessante Einzelheiten über die ärztliche Tätigkeit der Bön-Priester sind uns 
aus Osttibet bekannt. Hier ist es üblich, in bestimmten Krankheitsfällen einen Hahn auszu-
setzen oder zu schlachten. Manchmal werden aus Tsampa Tierköpfe und Figuren hergestellt, 
die man dann an Wegkreuzungen oder im Wald auslegt. 
Oft versucht man, die Krankheitsgeister zu täuschen und sie aus dem Körper des Kranken 
lockend auf eine Teigfigur zu überführen, die gleich nach Beendigung der Heilungsriten zerstört 
wird. Handelt es sich bei dem Kranken um eine hochstehende Persönlichkeit, so wird gegen 
entsprechendes Entgelt ein Mensch herbeigeschafft, der bereit ist, die Krankheitsgeister in 
seinen eigenen Körper aufzunehmen. Sobald nun der Exorzismus beendet ist und die Krank-
heitsdämonen auf den Körper des Ersatzmannes übergegangen sind, muß dieser sofort den 
betreffenden Ort verlassen und darf bei Lebzeiten der angeblich auf diese Weise geheilten 
Person nicht mehr dorthin zurückkehren. Bön-Werke erwähnen neben Heilmitteln, die für 
Menschen bestimmt sind, auch solche, die zur Heilung verletzter Nagas dienen sollen. Dies 
seien insbesondere Fichtennadeln, Schlangenhäute, 'Wasserdrachenschleim', Muskatnuß, 
Kampfer, Safran, Meerschaum, Zinnober, Quecksilber u.a. Eine Ähnlichkeit zu den Heilungs-
riten mancher Schamanen liegt darin, daß auch der Gebrauch von roten Wollfäden zu 
mystischen Heilungszwecken empfohlen wird."

[1112a] Nebesky-Wojkowitz, René M von: Das Tibetische Staatsorakel. Archiv für Völkerkunde 
(Wien), 1948, Band III, pp. 136-155.
"Ein sehr charakteristischer Wesenszug des tibetischen Volkes ist sein fester Glaube an die 
Möglichkeit einer sicheren Voraussage künftiger Ereignisse. Es ist deshalb nicht verwunderlich, 
daß das Schneeland eine große Anzahl verschiedener, mehr oder minder berühmter Wahrsager 
besitzt. Sie werden von Tibetern aller Stände aufgesucht, die sich von ihnen Prognosen für die 
Zukunft stellen lassen, den günstigsten Zeitpunkt für den Antritt einer Reise, die Ursachen einer 
Krankheit und manch anderes erfragen. Die Mehrzahl dieser Orakel sind lamaistische Priester 
niederer Weihegrade oder sind Einsiedler, die gegen entsprechendes Entgelt bereit sind, mit 
Hilfe von Kalendarien und astrologischen Tafeln aufgrund der sich aus den Geburtsdaten, der 
Stellung der Planeten und verschiedener sonstiger Umstände ergebenden Einflüsse eine 
Prognose  zu stellen. 
Oft werden von den Wahrsagern im Feuer geglühte Schulterblätter von Schafen verwendet, 
wobei an Hand der entstandenen Risse ein Urteil über künftiges Geschehen abgegeben wird. 
Andere Orakel wiederum benutzen verschiedenerlei Orakelbücher, wobei eine durch beliebiges 
Aufschlagen ausgewählte Stelle des Textes als Hinweis auf zukünftie Ereignisse aufgefaßt 
wird. Daneben gibt es noch zahlreiche andere Methoden der Weissagung, so z.B. das Abzählen 
der Kugeln eines lamaistischen Rosenkranzes, Werfen von Würfeln, Körnern und bunten 
Steinen, weiters die Auslegung verschiedener Naturerscheinungen wie Donner und Sturm, 
Beobachtung des Vogelfluges usw. Von den Tibetern werden solche Wahrsager meist als 
Lhakha oder Ngagpa, in Osttibet auch als Srungma bezeichnet."

[1112b] Nebesky-Wojkowitz, René M von: Tibetan blockprints and manuscripts in possesion of 
the Museum of Ethnology in Vienna. Archiv für Völkerkunde (Wien), 1958, Band XIII, pp. 174-209.
The author describes besides other manuscripts those related to Tibetan medicine, and in this 
context one rather rare book, which he himself had acquired during  his mission to Kalimpong 
1950-1956. Ist long title is given, the abbreviated title reads rGya mdud: "As reported by my 
Tibetan informants, this is a very rare book. The blocks of this work which, according to the 
colophon, are the property of the monastery l C a g s  r i   r i g   b y e d  'g r o  p h a n   g l i n g, 
the foremost school of lamaistic medicine, are kept under the seal of the Tibetan government. 
The printing  of a new copy of this book may only be undertaken with the permission of the 
Tibetan authorities. Such permission is very difficult to obtain and involves the payment of a 
considerable fee. The reason for the close control of the distribution of this book is the fact that 
the text contains numerous secret medical traditions whose knowledge should remain limited to 
a small group of selected persons.- 
The  r G y a   m d u d  is an important supplement ot the above-mentioned  lHan thabs.  It 
explains in the same sequence observed in the lHan thabs, the cryptic and abbreviated 
expressions found in the latter work. It gives further information on the iconography of several 
deities who stand in relation to lamaistic medicine and it also adds some material which had been 
handed down by oral tradition. Considerable space is devoted to the use which various 
substances, otherwise applied in Tantric practices, may also find in medicine. Such substances 
are according to the  rG y a   m d u d,   the heart of a middle-aged person which has been cut 
out by means of a knife (d a r   m a' i   g r i    s n y i n g),  the skull and marrow of a person who 
has committed suicide (r a n g   s h i' i   t h o d   p a   d a n g    r k a n g   m a r),  the uterine 
blood of a widow   ( y u g s   m o ' i  m n  g a l   k h r a g   or    y u g s    s a ' i m n g a l    k h r 
a g),   the menstrual fluid of a young woman whose uterus is free from any disease ( b u d   m e 
d   g z h o n   n u   m a   m n g a l    n a d   m e d   p a ' i   z l a   m t s h a n),  the flesh of a 
child sprung form an incestuous union (n a l   b u ' i   s h a), and the flesh of a middle-aged man 
who has never cohabitated with a woman (m i   d a r   m a   b u d    m e d   l a   m a   s p y a d   
p a ' i   s h a   c h e n)."

[1113] Nefed'yev, N:  The Physicians and the Methods of their Treatment among the Kalmyks 
(Russian). Severnaya Pchela (= The Northern Bee) (Russian) 117 (1844).
[1114] Nepal Ministry of Forests: Medicinal Plants of Nepal. 153 p. Govt. of Nepal: Ministry of 
Forests, Kathmandu 1976.
 With illustrations.

[1115] Newhouse, Sandy R:  Tibetan Medicine: A Study in Cross-Cultural Health Care 
Systems. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) 
Series No. 5 (1982), pp. 47-56.
 "My studies in cross cultural health care systems has brought me into contact with many excep-
tional native healers. This article is based on my studies with a Tibetan physician, Dr. Lobsang 
Dolma: 'We have here a problem with the downward clearing wind, one of the five winds. This 
particular wind is responsible for such functions as the elimination of wastes in the body. In this 
case a lack of strength of the wind is manifested in the urinary bladder. This loss of energy is 
conditioned by thought patterns of worry and unhappiness. This also results in a type of poor 
circulation in the legs indicated by small blue spots on the skin. Bone marrow is a source of 
strength for this circulation; here, the strength of the bone marrow is diminished.'- 
This brief example of a medical diagnosis by Dr. Lobsang Dolma, chief physician and director of 
the Kangkar Hospital in Dharamsala, India, hints at the intricate relationship between the mind 
and body in Tibetan medicine. During her two month speaking tour in the United States this past 
spring, Dr. Dolma explained some of the philosophy, diagnosis and treatment of physical and 
mental disorders in the Tibetan tradition."

[1116] Nicolazzi, Michael Albrecht: Mönche, Geister und Schamanen. Die Bön-Religion Tibets. 
Mit Illustrationen und Karten.  207 S. Walter, Solothurn/Düsseldorf 1995.
 In diesem interessanten Buch finden sich immer wieder einzelne Hinweise auf Krankheit und 
Heilung, insbesondere in dem Kapitel "Krankheit" (S. 146-151). Hier wird ein Manuskript 
übersetzt, das schildert, wie der Mensch den Zorn der Geistwesen herausforderte. Er stört 
durch Eingriffe in die Natur ein bestehendes Gleichgewicht. Krankheit wird direkt oder indirekt 
durch die Klu oder andere böse Mächte verursacht. Der Text geht dann auf die verschiedenen 
Heilungsverfahren ein und auch darauf, daß im Laufe der Zeit Bön und Bön po einen großen 
Schatz an pharmakologischen und medizinischen Kenntnissen gesammelt haben.- Auch die 
Absätze über die Fadenkreuze (S. 134-137), die 'Das log (S. 90) und aus psychologisch-
psychiatrischer Sicht das Kapitel über die Srung ma (S. 92 ff.) sind für den medizinischen 
Kontext von besonderer Bedeutung.

[1117] Nikolayev, SM (1944- ): The Study and Prospects of Use of Tibetan Medicine Heritage 
(Russian). In: Problemy Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= 
Problems of the Assimilation of the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of 
the Reports of the All-Union Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  49-50.  "Science", Siberian 
Division, Novosibirsk 1983.
 Theoretical principles of Tibetan Medicine and their connection with concepts of the 
Ayurvedic, Chinese, Arabian medical schools are discussed. Complex studies are performed to 
evaluate and make use from the heritage of Tibetan Medicine, specially such as the 
introduction of Tibetan medical treatises into scientific use and the search for effective drugs 
of Tibetan Medicine with practical prospects. The author acquaints us with the most prominent 
results of investigations for biologically active substances from Tibetan medicines, conducted 
by the Institute of Biology, the Buryat Branch, Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of 

[1118] Nikolayev, SM:  Utilization of Combined Studies and the Perspectives on the Legalised 
use of Tibetan Medicines (Russian). Meditsinskaia Sestra [=Nurse] 46 (11) (1987), pp. 54-56.
[1119] Nikolayev, SM: Perspectives for the Study and Introduction of Drugs from the Arsenal 
of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Abstracts of the 1st Russian National Congress "Man and 
Drug", Moscow, 12th-16th April 1992, p. 211.  Moscow 1992.
[1120] Nikolayev, SM and Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich): Experience of Complex Studies 
and Prospectives of the Use of Medicinal Raw Material of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: 
Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific 
Conference (Russian), pp.  111-112. Ulan-Ude 1987.
 Complex investigations of medicinal raw material allows to define species of plant drugs with 
good prospects, to work out techniques of obtaining biologically active substances out of 
plants with high pharmacological action and to test their pharmacological and therapeutic 
effectivity in affected digestive organs.

[1121] Nikolayev, SM, Dargayeva, TD, Rossiyskaya, GI, Brutko, LI, and Glyzin, VI:  Multi-
component Dissoluble Teas as a New Drug Form of Complex Preparations (Russian). Bulletin 
of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (Novosibirsk) Nr. 4 
(1986), pp. 11-18.
 On the basis of traditional principles of Tibetan Medicine this new form of complex 
preparations has been evaluated.
[1122] Nikolayev, SM, Dashiyev, D(andar) B(azarzhapovich), and Batorova, S(of'ya) 
M(ayorovna):  General Principles of Composing Multi-Component Drugs in Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). Pharmacy [Moscow] (Russian) Nr. 2 (1988), pp. 51-54.
 The authors describe experience of composing traditional multi-component drugs in Tibetan 
Medicine based on the concrete diagnosis. According to the Tibetan traditional medical system, 
an illness is considered as a disturbance of vital action of the human body, and with the help of 
pharmacotherapy the functional state and structural organization of the body as an  entirety is 
to be reestablished. They show the definite regularity which Tibetan practitioners had been 
adherent to while composing multi-component drugs.

[1123] Nikolayev, SM, Fedotovskikh, NN, Artishevsky, EV, Tolmachyova, EL, Polyntseva, LV, 
Barashvili, DI, Dargayeva, TD, and Patudin, AV: The Antiinflammatory and Antiulcerogenic 
Action of the Dry Juice of Aloe L. (Russian). In: The Second Republican Conference on Medical 
Botany. Abstracts of the Reports (Russian), pp. 389-390.  Kiev 1988.
 The administration of the dry juice of Aloe L. has resulted in a 23,7% inhibition of formalin 
oedema, that's 10% less than the antiexudative action of butadion, but unlike the latter it has 
stimulated the proliferation process and granuloma formation by 19,6%. The dry juice of Aloe 
L. has also protected the mucous membrane of the stomach from petechia, erosion and ulcers 
in the butadion- and atophan induced injury. The gastroprotective action of this juice has 
demonstrated 2-5 fold exceeding of the effect of plantaglucidum according to different indices.

[1124] Nikolayev, SM and Garmayev, RB:  On the Choleretic Action of Odontites serotina 
(Lam.) Dum (Russian). "Rastitel'nye Resursy" = Plant Resources [Leningrad] (Russian) No. 1 
(1982), pp. 91-93.
 The medicinal properties of Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum, for treatment of inflammatory liver 
diseases have been described in the Tibetan medical treatise Shel phreng. Detailed information 
is given about the use of this plant for gastro-intestinal diseases by Transbaikalian 
practitioners. The choleretic action of the dry extract from Odontites serotina (Lam.) Dum. has 
been experimentally analysed and results are presented.

[1125] Nikolayev, SM, Khundanova, Lydia L, Ubasheyev, IO, Lonshakova, KS, Badarayev, Bal-
Dorje B, and Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): The Search for Cholagogic Drugs from Tibetan 
Medicine's Arsenal (Russian). In: The IVth All-Russian Congress of the Pharmacists. Abstracts 
of the Reports, pp.  79-80. Voronezh 1981.

[1126] Nikolayev, SM, Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE, and Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich):  Drugs 
and Features of Pharmacotherapy in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Pharmacy [Moscow] (Russian) 
No. 6 (1984), pp. 44-49.
 Basic principles and features of pharmacotherapy in Tibetan Medicine are discussed. According 
to ancient medical treatises, medicinal drugs are distinguished according to their origin, taste, 
effect and form. For a successfull treatment the Tibetan doctors considered many factors in 
their prescription and remedies: the degree of disturbance of the three regulating systems, the 
character of an illness, the patient's age, climatic conditions, astro-physical fluctuation in 
nature, etc. Data on results of complex investigations conducted in the 'Department for 
Biologically Active Substances, the Buryat Branch, Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of 
Sciences' are presented.

[1127] Nikolayev, SM, Nazarov-Rygdylon, VE, and Bazaron, E(lbert) G(ombozhapovich):  Drugs 
and Peculiarities of Pharmacotherapy in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Pharmacy (Moscow) 33 
(1984), pp. 44-49.
 Some data on drugs and peculiarities of pharmacotherapy of diseases in Tibet are presented. 
Results are reported of investigations of a number of biologically active substances which are 
potentially promising.

[1128] Nikolayev, SM, Sambuyeva, ZG, Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), and Khingeyeva, SL:  
Plants with Choleretic Action from the Arsenal of Tibetan Medicine with Good Prospects 
(Russian). Bulletin of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR 
(Russian) Issue 1 (1987), pp. 48-51.
 The article deals with the study of choleretic action of decoctions from some plants used in 
Tibetan Medicine for hepatobiliary diseases.

[1129] Nikolayev, SM, Sambuyeva, ZG, Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna), Naydakova, TsA, and 
Tankhayeva, LM:  The Choleretic Effect of Extracts from some Plants of Transbaikalia 
(Russian). Bulletin of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR 
[Novosibirsk] (Russian) No. 4 (1987), pp. 120-123.
[1130] Nikolayeva, GG: The Search for Biologically Active Compounds, i. e. gamma-pyrone 
Derivatives in the Plants of Gentianaceae (Russian). Autoreferat of the Candidate of 
Pharmaceutical Sciences.  17 p., Moscow 1982.
 Gentiana barbata Froel. is one of the drug plants widely used in Tibetan Medicine. The dry 
extract from the aerial parts of Gentiana barbata Froel. shows choleretic and antiinflammatory 
activity. The main gamma-pyrone compounds characteristic of this plant have been isolated 
and analysed in the dry extract.
[1131] Nikolayeva, GG, Glyzin, VI, and Patudin, AV: Chemical Analysis of Some Species of 
Gentianaceae (Russian). In: Otsenka Biologicheskoy Aktivnosti Rasteniy Zabaiykal'ya
(= Estimation of Biological Action of Plants of Transbaikalia) (A Collection of Articles) (Russian),
 pp. 104-113. Ulan-Ude 1985.
 Gentianaceae have been widely used in prescriptions of Tibetan Medicine. In this article the 
results of the chemical study of G. turkestana are discussed. Xanthone compounds with 
substitution in 1,3,5,8-positions, namely 1-8-dioxy-3,5-dimethoxy-xanthone (swerhirin), 1,5,8-
trioxy-3-methoxy-xanthone (bellidifolin) and 1,3,5,8-tetra-oxy-xanthone (desmethyl-bellidifolin) 
have been isolated from the aerial part of Gentiana turkestana.

[1132] Nikolayeva, GG, Glyzin, VI, Sambuyeva, ZG, Nikolayev, SM, Patudin, AV, and 
Mladentseva, MS: Flavonoids and Xanthones of Gentianaceae (Russian). In: Problemy 
Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= Problems of the Assimilation of 
the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of the Reports of the All-Union 
Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  138-139. Novosibirsk 1983.
 Results of chemical analysis of Gentiana barbata Froel., which is used as the substitute for 
Swertia chirata (tib.: tig-ta), an important plant in Tibetan Medicine, are reported. Other species 
of Gentianaceae have been studied for comparison as well.

[1133] Nikolayeva, GG and Lubsandorzhiyeva, PB: The Phytochemical Study of Lomatogo-
nium carinthiacum (Wulfen) A. Br. (Russian). In: Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medi-
cine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  112-114. Ulan-Ude 
 In Tibetan Medicine the plant named tig-ta is often encountered in prescriptions for treatment 
of different diseases. In Transbaikalia Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulfen) A. Br. (Tib. gsum-
cu-tig-ta) served as the substitute of this plant. It was used in Tibetan and Mongolian Medicine 
for treatment of infectious and chronical hepatitis, gall-bladder diseases, fever and dermatitis. 
The presence of gamma-pyrones, xanthone and triterpene compounds was established.

[1134] Nil (Archbishop of Yaroslavl'): The Art of Treatment of the Transbaikalian Lamas 
(Russian). In: Review of the Russian Geographical Society, Book 4, Part 20, Division 5, 
pp. 28-33.  St. Petersburg 1857.
 The brief description of the main books of Tibetan medicine (Shadzhot - anatomy, Dzhadzhot - 
pathology, Man-a-dzhot - physics, Chimejdzit - pharmacology, Lhatob-chimbo - therapy).
 a) Shadzhot (the anatomy): Shadzhot is a combination of all nature forces found in the man. 
Due to Shadzhot the man consists of 1) msnganmuzu - thousand compositions; 2) tabun tzuly - 
five main inner parts (heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs); 3) 360 dry and blood veins; 4) 12 
main veins - sudazu; 5) five locks - tabun onisu

 b) Dzhadzhot - pathology. This science assumes that man has seven superior and inferior 
forces (dolon tamir). After the detailed description of a) and b) the author writes about the 
methods of cure offered by the book Lhantob-chimbo.

[1135] Nil (Archbishop of Yaroslavl'): The Therapeutic Art of the Lamas (Russian). In: 
Buddhism, Studied in Relation to its Adherents Living in Siberia (Russian), pp. 265-276. 
St. Petersburg 1858.
 The author concludes that scientific investigations on the part of sinologists show that, in 
ancient times, Mongolian and Tungu tribes lived in regions north-east of the Great Wall of 
China. These were the only tribes living in the southern part of Siberia. The author also 
describes in detail the origins of Buddhism, common views on the Buddhist religion and the 
organization of the Buddhist clergy, the struggle of Buddhism against Shamanism, the medical 
skills of the lamas and their main medical manuals: Shadzot (Anatomy), Dzha-dzhot (Patho-
logy), Man-a-dzhot (Physics), Chemejdzit (Pharmacology) and Lhantob-cheem bo (Therapy).

[1136] Nissanka, HSS: Buddhist Psychotherapy. An Eastern Therapeutical Approach to Mental 
Problems. Foreword by Prof. L. P. N. Perera. 172 p. Wisdom Books, London 1993.
 Also published by Vikas Publishing House, Delhi 1993. "Buddhism looks upon man as a 
psycho-somatic unit, the balanced functioning of which is considered necessary for the 
attainment of the objectives recommended by the Buddha. This would involve the recognition 
(now increasingly admitted in modern medicine) of a fundamental interdependence between 
mind and body at all stages of illness and health. Since the mind and body react on each other, 
the health of both are equally important. However, as the Dhammapada puts it, 'the mind is the 
fore-runner of all phenomena' (Dh, 1:1&2) and this means that in the Buddhist perspective the 
framework within which health should be looked at, takes mental health into account first. And 
mental health needs physical, psychological and social support, which means that mental 
health itself is not a one-dimensional phenomenon. It involves an interplay between mind, body 
and environmnet. Thus, health, in general, may be said to result from a balance - a dynamic 
balance - involving the physical and psychological aspects of man as well as his interactions 
with his natural and social environment. The task of psychotherapy, therefore, is 
multidimensional, demanding a broad, holistic approach if it is to be successful. This is the 
message of this publication; this is what Dr. H. S. S. Nissanka, the author, wishes to convey 
within a Buddhist frame of reference (from the foreword by Prof. Perera)."

[1137] NM (sic!):  The Ethnographical Information on Kalmyks and on Strangers in General in 
Astrakhan Province (Russian). Review of the Russian Geographical Society [St. Petersburg] 
(Russian) 4, St. Petersburg 1857.
[1138] Nobel, Johannes (1887-1960):  Ein alter medizinischer Sanskrit-Text und seine Deutung. 
Journal of the American Oriental Society (Baltimore) 11 (supplement) (1951), pp. 1-35.
 "Das dem Mahayana-Buddhismus angehörende Suvarnaprabhasasutra (Goldglanz-Sutra) 
enthält als sechzehntes Kapitel unter der Überschrift vyadhipraæamana, 'Heilung der 
Krankheiten', einen kurzen medizinischen Text. Der Sanskrittext unserer kleinen Abhandlung ist 
leider an einigen Stellen, besonders in den Strophen 5 ff., lückenhaft und schlecht überliefert. 
Wir besitzen aber eine vollständige tibetische Übersetzung des Goldglanz-Sutra. Trotz ihrer 
Kürze ist dieser 'Leitfaden' der Medizin für uns aber doch von großem Interesse. Denn er 
berührt immerhin die Grundgedanken der indischen theoretischen Medizin und gibt auch ganz 
allgemeine und sogar einige spezielle Anweisungen in der praktischen Heilkunde. Wir können 
zudem aus dem Traktat entnehmen, was dem Verfasser als das Wesentliche erschienen ist. 
Von ganz besonderer Wichtigkeit aber ist die Abhandlung wegen ihres Alters. Es läßt sich zwar 
nicht genau feststellen, wann das Goldglanz-Sutra entstanden oder, richtiger gesagt, wann es 
zusammengestellt worden ist. Da jedoch Dharmaksema den Sanskrittext zwischen 414 und 
421 n. Chr. ins Chinesische übersetzt hat, können wir annehmen, daß das 
Suvarnaprabhasasutra als Ganzes bereits in der ersten Hälfte des vierten Jahrhunderts 
vorgelegen hat."

[1139] Nölle, Wilfried:  Nachruf auf W.A. Unkrig. Anthropos (Posieux) 51 (1956), pp. 1083.
[1140] Nölle, Wilfried:  Nachruf auf Dr. h.c. W.A. Unkrig. Nachrichten der Gesellschaft für 
Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens (Hamburg) 81 (1957), pp. 60.
[1141] Nolling, Th(eodor):  Lamaistische Zaubermedizin. Die 3 Essenzen im menschlichen 
Körper und die 400 Heilpräparate des Tibet-Arztes. Berliner Illustrierte 52, Nr.42 (1943), 
pp. 499-500.
 Theodor Nolling (weitere bekanntestes Pseudonym Th. Burang) ist Pseudonym für Theodor 
Illion.- Hier schreibt der Autor einen interessanten Artikel (ohne daß eigene Erfahrung von 
Sekundärquellen zu trennen ist), zum Teil auch von ethisch hohen Wunschvorstellungen 
geprägt. Einige Passagen wie folgend: "Bei der Untersuchung des Patienten nimmt sich der 
lamaistische Arzt sehr, sehr viel Zeit. Oft stellt der tibetische Arzt eine halbe Stunde lang 
Fragen, ehe er überhaupt mit der eigentlichen Untersuchung beginnt. Er will oft haargenau 
wissen, wie jede einzelne Speise, die der Kranke im Laufe der letzten Tage genossen hat, auf 
ihn gewirkt hat und stellt auch umständliche Fragen über kleine und kleinste Umstände, die der 
Erkrankung vorausgegangen sind. Dann erst folgt die eigentliche Untersuchung. In der Regel 
glaubt er schon nach dem Belag der Zunge und der Beschaffenheit des Urins zu erkennen, 
welche fundamentale Essenz-Entmischung stattgefunden hat. Trotz der umständlichen 
Untersuchungsmethoden und der Reichhaltigkeit ihrer Heilmittel und ihres Arzneischatzes 
behaupten die tibetischen Ärzte nicht, alle Krankheiten heilen zu können. Das klassische 
tibetische Medizinwerk, das in tibetischen Texten oft zitierte 'Traktat in vier Abschnitten' 
enthält die folgende Bemerkung: 'Helfe nur dort, wo dem Kranken wirklich zu helfen ist.' In 
allen unheilbaren Fällen soll man ihn sich selbst überlassen. In einer Zusammenfassung von 
mehreren hundert verschiedenen Krankheitsformen erklärt das oben erwähnte lamaistische 
Medizinwerk, daß beinahe ein Viertel aller Krankheiten unheilbar seien. Unter den 308 
verschiedenen heilbaren Krankheiten seien nur 49, die den Eingriff eines Arztes benötigen. Alle 
anderen, also die verbleibenden 259, könnten auch von Nichtärzten behandelt werden. Unter 
diesen Umständen kann man kaum behaupten, daß Geltungsdrang und Unbescheidenheit die 
Kennzeichen der tibetisch-lamaistischen Ärzteschaft sind."

[1142] Norbu, Dawa: vide Dawa Norbu.
[1143] Norbu, Thubten Jigme (1922- ):  Report On A Visit to The Tibetan Fund of the Institute 
of Asian Peoples in the Leningrad Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The Tibet 
Society Newsletter, New Series (Bloomington) 11 (1983), pp. 16-17.
 "In the summer of 1982, I was privileged to be allowed to spend one week in Leningrad, 
working in the Tibetan Fund of the Institute of Asian Peoples in the Leningrad Branch of the 
Soviet Academy of Sciences. This institute houses an enormous collection of original Tibetan 
xylographs and manuscripts, unparallelled anywhere else in the West. The staff of the Tibetan 
Fund, under its director L. S. Savitsky, showed me every courtesy and furnished me with a 
handlist of titles, from which I was given full freedom to select and read any volumes I wished. 
The fund is contained in two rooms, where the volumes are piled on shelf after shelf. Along the 
bottoms of the shelves and along the walls are scrolls of old Tibetan writings from Tun-huang 
and East Turkestan. In the collection I found complete copies of the Co-ne, Sde-dge, Snar-
thang, and Peking Kanjurs, and a complete copy of the Peking Tanjur. 
I also saw numerous gsung-'bum, including those of Tsong-kha-pa, Mkhas-grub-rje, Rgyal-
tshab-rje, the lst, 2nd, 5th and 7th Dalai Lamas, the first five Panchen Lamas, Se-ra Rje-btsun-
pa, Se-ra Bstan-dar-ba, Klong-rdol bla-ma, Rngul-chu, Rgyal-ba Dben-sa-pa, the lst and 2nd 
'Jam-dbyangs bzhad-pa, Gung-thang Dkon-mchog bstan-pa'i sgron-me, and Dpal-mang Dkon-
mchog rgyal-mtshan. There are also works by A-khu Blo-gros, A-khu Shes-rab rgya-mtsho, A-
lag 'Jigs-med bsam-gtan, and Shar Skal-ldan rgya-mtsho. Other items in the institute's 
collection include various gdan-rabs and dkar-chag, the complete Sa-skya bka'-'bum, and 
miscellaneous works by Sde-srid Sangs-rgyas rgya-mtsho. There are also numerous medical, 
astrological, grammatical, and lexicographical works. The dictionaries held by the fund include 
Tibetan-Tibetan and Tibetan-Mongol works, and guides to special terminology of medicine and 
other disciplines."

[1144] Norbu, Thubten Jigme: The Development of the Human Embryo According to Tibetan 
Medicine: The Treatise Written for Alexander Csoma de Körös by Sangs-rgyas Phun-tshogs. In: 
Silver on Lapis. Tibetan Literary Culture and History. Edited by Christopher I. Beckwith, 
pp. 57-62. The Tibet Society, Bloomington/Indiana 1987.
 "Csoma de Körös's first meeting with Sangs-rgyas Phun-tshogs took place in 1823 in the 
valley of Zangskar. Sangs-rgyas Phun-tshogs was 'the chief physician of Ladakh' at the time. 
He wrote for Csoma de Körös a short survey of Tibetan medicine called Gso dpyad yan lag 
brgyad pa rGyud-bzhi'i bsdoms tshig bkod pa, Verses of the Four Treatises, the Eight Branches 
of Healing and Diagnosis. After the initial benedictions, Sangs-rgyas Phun-tshogs says: 'I will 
write a little here to repay my debt to my friend who was born in Rum of India, a place in the 
world of Jambudvipa, a scholar joined (to me) by the karmic threads of past deeds'. The book 
then starts with a general history of medicine in India; subsequently discusses the content of 
the Four Treatises: the Root Treatise (Rtsa rGyud), Explanatory Treatise (Bshad rGyud), 
Precepts Treatise (Man ngag gi rGyud) and Later Treatise (Phyi ma'i rGyud); and ends with a 
history of medicine in Tibet. The part I have chosen to talk about is the section on how the 
fetus develops, explained according to the second chapter of the Explanatory Treatise. This 
section is translated in this article."

[1145] Norbu Chophel:  Tibetan Superstitions Regarding Childbirth. Compiled by Norbu 
Chophel. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine. (Dharamsala) 
Series No. 7 (1984), pp. 25-29.

[1146] Norkina, T:  Mumiyah in the Laboratory (Russian). Zdorov'e (= The Health) (Russian) 7 
(1969), p. 28.
[1147] O'Malley, Maureen and Simon, Beth:  Taking the Essence. Wisdom. Magazine of the 
Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (London) ?? (1983), pp. ??
 "Venerable Lama Thubten Yeshe prepared his first batch of bCud len (Taking the Essence) pills 
according to traditional procedures using extremely valuable natural ingredients."-  Includes 
methods of taking these pills as well as their lineage. Also "The motivation and qualifications 
required to practice the pill retreat."

[1148] Obergard, IA: The List of Herbs Used in Scientific and Folk Medicine Growing in Irkutsk 
Province (Russian). 18 p., Irkutsk 1921.
 The complete list of herbs identified by different explorers in Irkutsk province consists of more 
than 1500 species. The majority of them are not used in medical practise, although some 
practitioners of quack-medicine employ them. A list of 281 herbs is given (in Russian and 
Latin), with the botanized parts of the plants, their conditions of growth and the requirements 
for drying and preserving them. The author also compiled a bibliography on the flora of Irkutsk 

[1149] Obergard, IA: Herbs of the Irkutsk Province (Russian). In: Collected Works of the 
Medical Department of Irkutsk State University, issue 1, pp.  285-314. Irkutsk 1922.
 The science of pharmacopoeia originated in the curing and processing of herbs. A brief history 
of pharmacy and pharmaceutical work is given. Courses for training personnel in drying herbs 
were organized in Irkutsk in 1920.- The Peoples Commissariate for Military Affairs, the 
Tsentrosoyuz (All-Russian Central Union for Consumer Goods) and the Peoples Commissariate 
for Health Protection gathered about 540 puds (approx. 8860 kg) of herbs in 1920. The 
following herbs were collected: raspberry leaves, billberry leaves, cowberry leaves, strawberry 
leaves, fern roots, camomile flowers, rhubarb roots, absinth flowers, juniper berries, ashberries 
and many others. As a result of this collection they documented the distribution of the main 
officinal herbs and published a" Report on the Quantity of Collected Herbs in Siberia" in 1921. 
The author makes recommendations regarding the drying of herbs in 1922 and provides a 
"Table of Herbs Growing in Irkutsk Province".

[1150] Obermiller, E(vgeny) E(vgen'ovich) (1901-1936):  Ways of Studying Tibetan Medical 
Literature (Russian). Bibliografija Vostoka [Bibliography of the Orient], (Moscow/Leningrad)
 8-9 [1935] (1936), pp. 48-60.
 For an English translation see the following listing.

[1151] Obermiller, E(vgeny) E(vgen'ovich):  Ways of Studying Tibetan Medical Literature. 
Translated from the Russian by Harish C. Gupta. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study 
of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 12 (1989), pp. 3-18.
 This is an English translation of Obermiller's article, Moscow/Leningrad 1936. In this excellent 
early work he writes: "In the literature to be studied a pivotal position is held by a text, the full 
title of which in translation reads: 'The Essence of Medicine: A Treatise Containing Secret 
Precepts Concerning Eight Main Articles of Medicine' (dbud-rtsi-snying-po-yan-lag-brgyad-pa-
gsang-ba -man-ngag-gi-rGyud), and which in Tibetan is mentioned usually by its short title 
rGyud-bzhi, that is, 'Four Treatises', as per its four main sections. First of all, it must be 
remembered that what we call 'Tibetan Medicine' is basically by no means an original creation 
of the Tibetan soil. And here, as in all other domains of culture of Tibet, the original home is 
The spread (beginning with the 7th century A.D.) of Buddhism in Tibet was accompanied by 
the penetration into Tibet of those scientific disciplines which were dominant in India of that 
time, also including the Indian medical science. It is enough to mention that the very text of 
rGyud-bzhi, in its original form, is regarded as a translation from Sanskrit, and that the entire 
scientific terminology and all scientific special symbols are literal renderings of Sanskrit words 
and expressions. It is therefore quite clear that the Tibetan medical literature cannot be studied 
outside the context of the medicine of India. With the analysis of the rGyud-bzhi virtually in its 
existing form, we pass over to the Tibetan soil proper.

 Now we must come to the second main factor, without which it is impossible to think of a really 
exhausting study of the theoretical part of Tibetan Medicine. We are talking of the most 
extensive Tibetan literature of commentaries on rGyud-bzhi. For persons not familiar with the 
Indo-Tibetan scientific tradition, it is to be mentioned that for every scientific discipline there 
exists the main 'root' (Sanskrit mula = Tibetan rtsa-ba), containing the main rules, positions or 
aphorisms, for the most part in the form of short verses (karika), intended for quick committing 
to memory. On these main rules there are then compiled detailed commentaries and 
subcommentaries in which the given theme also finds its complete development. The rGyud-bzhi 
is a main text of this type, expounding the fundamental positions of medical science in the form 
of aphorisms in verses. The language of such works is extremely brief and laconic; some places 
just cannot be understood without a detailed commentary. Along with the usual technical 
terminology, an extremely difficult terminology of abridged symbols is also found. In our studies, 
therefore, we would have to reckon all the available elucidations and all Tibetan commentaries 
which could possibly be acquired.
 The best known amongst these commentaries is Vaid'urya-sngon-po, the work of Sangs-rgyas 
rgya-mtsho, also known as the regent (sde-srid) after the death of the Fifth Dalai Lama (1682). 
This work is widely used in the Tibetan medical schools both in Tibet as well as in Mongolia and 
Buryatia (in the Aga and Atsagat manba-datsan). It is based on works which appeared after Yon-
tan mgon-po the junior. The latter himself compiled for the first time a commentary on rGyud-
bzhi, entitled Cha-lag bCo-brgyad. All the commentaries published after this first work cannot 
possibly be enumerated here. It is only necessary to mention Mes-po-zhal-lung, the work of bLo-
gros rgyal-po, as one of the main ones. Apart from this literature related, so to say, to the 
general course of medicine, we have numerous individual works of specialized nature. We shall 
here mention one called Lhan-thabs, compiled by Sangs-rgyas-rgya-mtsho, which is a sizeable 
book of practical medical treatment. Thereafter, we shall mention the specialized works on 
pharmacology Shel-gong and Shel-'phreng ascribed to Tenzin Phun-tshog of Derge. The so-called 
sbyors that is, collection of prescriptions, also belong to this class of literature on 

[1152] Obermiller, E(vgeny) E(vgen'ovich): Historical Information about Tibetan Medicine 
(Russian). [Manuscript, 5 Notebooks. Kept in the Archives of the Orientalists, Leningrad Branch 
of the Institute for Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Fund 100, Inventory 1, 
No. 20].
[1153] Obermiller, E(vgeny) E(vgen'ovich): see also "Buryat-Mongolian ASSR", Leningrad 1930. 

[1154] Olschak, Blanche Christine (1913-1992):  Auf den Spuren uralten Heilwissens im (sic!) 
Tibet. Mit 8 Abb. Ciba Symposium (Basel) 12, 3 (1964), pp. 129-134.
 Erschien in Parallelausgaben auch in holländischer, französischer und englischer Sprache. Die 
Autorin beginnt ihre Ausführungen mit einem historischen Abriß, der hier wörtlich folgt: "Tibet, 
das 'Land der Gletscher' wird auch 'Land der Heilpflanzen' oder 'Land der Heilkunde' genannt. 
Dieser Ruf reicht bis in die vorbuddhistische Epoche zurück. Damals entstand der sogenannte 
Heilkräuterpalast im Yarlung-Tal inmitten von Königsburgen und Grabstätten. Dieser Bau heißt 
mit anderem Namen 'Palast der Hunderttausend Heilmittel'. Aus der Regierungszeit des 29. 
Königs, zu Beginn des 7. Jahrhunderts, ist überliefert, daß man dort Heilkräuter getrocknet, 
sorgfältig geordnet und aufbewahrt hat. Der 30. König, der von 629 bis 650 regierte, das 
mächtige Reich Groß-Tibet gründete und den Buddhismus offiziell einführte, verlegte die 
Residenz nach Lhasa. Er baute die Königsburg, über der dann Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts ein 
vielstöckiger Prachtbau errichtet wurde, der bis in unsere Tage Sitz des Dalai Lama war. Von 
diesem Palast führt, über einen Felsenkamm, der Weg zum 'Eisenberg'. Dort erhebt sich 
burgartig die alte medizinische Hochschule von Lhasa, die der geistige Mittelpunkt der 
tibetischen Heilkunde war. Die hier verfaßten Werke und Übersetzungen bildeten die Grundlage 
der zentralasiatischen Medizin."

[1155] Olschak, Blanche Christine:  Ein Zentrum tibetischer Heilkunde im Nordost-Punjab. Mit 5 
Abb. prescription Sandoz. Die Zeitschrift für Apotheker (Basel) I, No. 9 (1967), pp. 12-13.
 "Im Nordosten des Punjab, in der Umgebung von Dharamsala, der Flüchtlingsresidenz des Dalai 
Lama, entstanden in den letzten Jahren viele kleine Schulungszentren - vom Kindergarten bis 
zur Schule für junge Lamas. Es sind noch sehr hilfsbedürftige Horte der tibetischen Kultur, dazu 
bestimmt, die geistigen Werte dieser mit dem kulturellen Völkermord bedrohten Nation 
aufrechtzuerhalten und außerdem den Tibetern auch durch moderne Schulung, gestützt auf 
Sprachunterricht, die Gelegenheit zu geben, den Wissensschatz eigener Tradition der heutigen 
Zeit zu erhalten und anzupassen. So sind in der gebirgigen Gegend des Punjab, von wo aus man 
sogar die tibetischen Grenzberge des Himalaya sehen kann, kleine Zentren aufgebaut worden, 
von denen auch eines für die praktische und wissenschaftliche Erhaltung der tibetischen 
Heilkunst bestimmt ist. Es soll den tibetischen Flüchtlingen der näheren und ferneren Umgebung 
medizinische Hilfe bieten und außerdem den Nachwuchs der jungen tibetischen Medizinlamas 
fördern, für den erfahrene alte Medizinlamas zur Verfügung stehen. 
Schon im Anfangsstadium, als dieses Projekt kaum bekannt war, haben sich 15 tibetische 
Medizinstudenten gemeldet, die immer noch auf Unterbringungsmöglichkeiten warten, die in 
dem derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden kleinen Haus nicht gegeben sind. Sogar das Wasser muß 
von weit her geholt werden, was eine arge Belastung für die Patienten und die medizinischen 
Hilfskräfte bedeutet. Noch gibt es nicht einmal genügend Raum für die wartenden Patienten 
und ambulanten Fälle, geschweige denn für die schwer Erkrankten, die von weit her über die 
Berge kommen, um Hilfe zu suchen. Der ganze Plan dieses tibetischen Medizin-College mit 
ambulanten Hilfsstellen befindet sich noch im Anfangsstadium. Es wird von einem gelehrten 
Lama geleitet, der dreizehn Jahre lang an der medizinischen Hochschule in Lhasa, der 
Hauptstadt Tibets, studierte und auch sieben Jahre dort praktizierte."

[1156] Olschak, Blanche Christine:  Art of Healing in Ancient Tibet. Tibetan Review (Delhi) IX, 
4-5 (1974), pp. 16-17.
 "Tibet 'Land of the Glaciers' is sometimes known as the 'Land of Medicinal Herbs' or the 'Land 
of the Healing Art'. This reputation reaches back into the pre-Buddhist era; which saw the 
foundation of the so-called Palace of Herbal Remedies, amidst the royal castles and tombs of the 
Yarlung valley. As far back as the Vth century, we find mention of a famous Tibetan physician. 
His name was Dung-gi-thor-cog-can, and he was a physician to the court. His son followed in his 
footsteps, becoming the Royal physician in his turn. In the second half of the VIIth century, we 
find mention of another eminent doctor, Dorje-vajra by name. Towards the end of the VIIIth 
century came the so called 'Turquoise Physician', who wrote important manuscripts in Tibetan, 
and who is said to have visited India on three occasions, in order to study medical works in 
Magadha, in the Buddhist school of Nalanda. The account of his life, later discovered in Lhasa, 
records that he lived to the ripe old age of 125 years [708-833]; gods and demons had rewarded 
him with vast quantities of turquoise and other precious stones which were piled up on the roof 
of his home. For this reason, he was also given the name of gYu-thog-pa, literally 'The 
Turquoise-Roof One', which was subsequently handed down in his family."

[1157] Olschak, Blanche Christine: The Art of Healing in Ancient Tibet. In: Dawa Norbu, An 
Introduction to Tibetan Medicine, pp. 1-4. Tibetan Review Publishing House, Delhi 1976.
 Same as previous listing.

[1158] Orgyen Chödor: Bhaisajya Guru Vaidurya Prabha Raja Sutram. Die Verdienste der 
fundamentalen Schwüre des Meisters der Medizin des Lapislazuli-Strahlen-Tathagatas. 
Übersetzt und niedergeschrieben für die Schüler von 'Dorje-Ying' von Lama Orgyen Chödor. 
25 p. Dharma-Zentrum, (place of publication not given), 1989.
[1159] Orofino, Giacomella:  The Diagnosis of the Signs of Death in the Tibetan Traditional 
Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) 
Series No. 8 (1984), pp. 15-23.
 "In Tibetan medicine texts much space is dedicated to the treatment of the signs which foretell 
the death of a sick patient, in order to prevent it, or, at worst, to be able to give the appropriate 
religious preparation to the moribund patient. To the physical signs which announce the end of the 
vital energy and which have a real scientific value, others are added which belong to the field of 
magic and oneiromancy. They are the proof of the deep contacts of the Tibetan medical science 
with the magico-religious substratum of the ancient folk traditions. In the tantra bDud-rtsi snying-
po yan-lag brgyad-pa gsang-ba man-ngag-gi rGyud: 'The Ambrosia Heart Tantra: the Secret Oral 
Teaching on the Eight Branches of the Science of Healing', an important text which makes a 
synthesis of the Tibetan medical system, there is a full chapter dedicated to the meticulous 
treatment of the prognostics of death.

Besides the strictly physical signs which have to be analysed, in the behaviour of the patient 
(sudden changing of the character, of the voice, of the way of walking) and in his physical 
condition (blood streaming from the nose, or any other orifice, sudden cessation of the sense of 
smell, taste, or touch, changing in the sexual stimuli, upsetting of the body temperature) other 
prognostics are described, linked to the interpretation of dreams and other 'signs of premonition', 
such as the kind of messenger sent to the doctor, which in the text are analyzed in detail. In this 
brief study we will go into two different systems of investigation of the signs of death, found in 
Tibetan medical science. The first method of analysis is taken from a text of the Bonpo tradition in 
which the magico-religious derivation of the material is more evident. The other method of analysis 
is taken from two recent texts in which more empiric diagnosis criteria are used linked with the 
pulse analysis and the examination of the urine."

[1160] Ortner, Sherry B (1941- ): The Sherpas Through Their Rituals. (Cambridge Studies in 
Cultural Systems. 2.). xii, 194 p. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York 1978.
[1161] Ortosi, Lucia de:  Cenni sulla terapeutica Tibetana. Rassegna di Medicina Omeopatica 
(Roma) 24, (1-2) (1977), pp. 23-27.
[1162] Osokin, GM: Notes on the Buryat Lama's Life (Russian).  The Priamur Department of the 
Russian Geographical Society,  1898.

[1163] Osokin, GM: At the Border of Mongolia. Essays and Materials on the Ethnography of the 
Transbaikalian Region (Russian). 304 p., St. Petersburg 1906.
 A brief description of the region, its climate and ecology is given at the outset of the work. The 
geographical position, physical relief, soils, flora, lakes and rivers are described in greater detail. 
Descriptions of the largest settlements Kyakhta (formerly named Troitskosavsk) are given in 
independent essays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the population of the Transbai-
kalian region. The Russian population consists of the indigenous Siberians (descendants of the 
Russian conquerors of the region), the "Old Believers" living in the villages of Bol'shoy Kunaley, 
Bichura, Kocheny etc., and the so-called karymy, i.e., baptized non-Russians from the Tsogolov 
family. The life of the Buryat population is also detailed. The author deals with their history, 
religion, religious leaders, the state of their agriculture and its peculiarities, medical care, trade, 
handicrafts, as well as their private life, including superstitions, omens and proverbs. In the third 
part, the population of the border regions of Mongolia is described. A vocabulary of local Transbai-
kalian terms and a list of folk remedies is given in an appendix.

[1164] Otto, Bettina and Jork, Klaus:  Naturheilverfahren am Beispiel der tibetischen Heilkunde. 
Anwendung von Phytotherpeutika aus traditionell-empirischer und natur-
wissenschaftlicher Sicht.  28. Kongreß der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeinmedizin 
22.-24. September 1994.
 Zunächst werden die Grundlagen der Erkenntnistheorie der tibetischen Heilkunde dargestellt, 
anschließend die Indikationen der Arzneimittel nach dem "Handbook of Traditional Tibetan Drugs" 
zusammengestellt.- Aufgrund der Analyse naturwissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen werden die 
wirksamen Substanzen in den 9 wichtigsten pflanzlichen Arzneimitteln benannt und ihre objektiv 
überprüfbare Wirksamkeit erörtert.- Es wurde eine katamnestische Befragung von 110 Patienten 
durchgeführt, die 1993 durch einen tibetischen Heilkundigen behandelt wurden. 
Schlußfolgerungen: Die empirisch-logische Erkenntnistheorie tibetischer Heilkunde liefert die 
Basis für Zubereitung und Wirksamkeit ihrer Arzneimittel. Die Paradigmata der Beurteilung sind 
mit denen der naturwissenschaftlich klinischen Medizin nicht vergleichbar. Beide Bezugssysteme 
sollten vor ihrem speziellen kulturellen Hintergrund untersucht und interpretiert werden. Die 
unreflektierte Anwendung von Arzneimitteln aus anderen kulturellen Zusammenhängen muß 
kritisch beurteilt werden, zumal Diagnosevergleiche nicht unmittelbar möglich sind.

[1165] Ovchinnikov, M:  The Irkutsk Farmers: How Do They Cure Themselves? Ethnographical 
Review (Russian) 3 (1893), pp. 156-160.
[1166] Ovchinnikov, VS: Tibetan Medicine as an Instrument of Economic and Spiritual 
Domination by the Lamaistic Clergy (Russian). In: Problems of Regional History and 
Topography. Proceedings of the Second Transbaikalian Regional Conference. Issue 2, 
pp.  53-57. Chita 1966.
 Bibliography in the footnotes.

[1167] Ovchinnikov, VV: The Journey to Tibet (Russian). 222p., illustr. State Publishing House 
for Children's Literature, Moscow 1957.
 On Tibetan Medicine and astrology pp. 88-103.

[1168] Palibin, Ivan Vladimirovich:  Materials for the Flora of Transbaikalia. I.: Vegetation of the 
Mountains of Burin-Khan (Russian). Publications of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the 
Priamur Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society vol. 5, issue 1 (1902), pp. 12-21.
[1169] Palibin, Ivan Vladimirovich:  The Materials for the Flora of Northern Mongolia (Russian). 
Publications of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the Priamur Division of the Imperial 
Russian Geographical Society vol. 6, issue 2 (1903), pp. 42-51.
[1170] Palibin, Ivan Vladimirovich:  The Materials for the Flora of Transbaikalia (Russian). 
Publications of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the Priamur Division of the Imperial 
Russian Geographical Society vol. 6, issue 2 (1903), pp. 24-41.
[1171] Palibin, Ivan Vladimirovich:  Notes on the Khunchir Root - Eine Notiz über die 
Chungtschir-Wurzel [das asiatische Süßholz = Glycyrrhiza glabra] (Russian). Publications of the 
Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the Priamur Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical 
Society vol. 6, issue 1 (1903), pp. 7-20, 46-52.
 Es handelt sich um Glycyrrhiza glabra (uralensis?), tibetisch: shing mngar (= Süßholz), 
mongolisch neben chunchir auch: shiker ebesün (= Zuckerkraut); sie hilft nach den tibetischen 
Kräuterbüchern bei Krankheiten der Lungen und der Blutgefäße (shing mngar glo nad sel par 

[1172] Palibin, Ivan Vladimirovich:  Essays on the Vegetation of the Mongolian Desert between 
Urga and Kalgan (Russian). Publications of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the Priamur 
Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society vol. 7, issue 3 (1905), pp. 24-39.
[1173] Palibin, Ivan Vladimirovich and Galvyalo, MYa:  Eatable Astragalus of the Chinese-
Mongolian Flora (Russian). Publications of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the Priamur 
Division of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society vol. 11, issue 1-2 (1908), pp. 6-26.
[1174] Pálos, Stephan: Tibetisch-Chinesisches Arzneimittelverzeichnis. 73 S. Otto 
Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1981.
 Eine sprachwissenschaftlich-pharmakologische Arbeit, mit lateinischem, chinesischem und 
tibetischem Index für die über 400 Einzelmittel pflanzlichen, tierischen und mineralischen 
Ursprungs, die sowohl in der tibetischen wie auch in der chinesischen Pharmakologie allgemein 
bekannt und auch in Gebrauch sind. Als Quellen gibt der Autor an: 1) Tibetisch-chinesisches 
Entsprechungswörterbuch allgemeingebräulicher Wörter. Sichuan Minzu Chubanshe, Chengdu, 
1980.- 2) Handwörterbuch der chinesischen Pharmakologie. 3 Bde, Shanghai Kexue Jishu 
Chubanshe, Xianggang, 1977-1978. Die vierstelligen Zahlen bei den einzelnen Angaben ent-
sprechen der fortlaufenden Numerierung in diesem Werke.- 3) Medikamentenverzeichnis der VR. 
China (alias Chinesische "Rote Liste"). Zusammengestellt von der Medikamenten-
kommission des Gesundheitsministeriums der VR. China. Beijing, 1978. Befinden sich die 
einzelnen Angaben auch in diesem Werk, dann sind die Drogenbezeichnungen ungekürzt 
wiedergegeben (z.B. Cortex Phellodendri). Sonst sind die Drogenbezeichnung nur mit "Radix, 
Flos, Semen" usf. angegeben.

[1175] Pandit Amar Nath: An Echo of the Unknown.  Mangalore 1931.
[1176] Panglung, Jampa L (1937- ):  Zwei Beschwörungsformeln gegen Schlangenbiß im 
Mulasarva-stivadin-Vinaya und ihr Fortleben in der Mahamayurividyarajni. In: Heilen und 
Schenken. Festschrift für Günther Klinge zu seinem 70. Geburtstag. Herausgegeben von Herbert 
Franke und Walther Heissig. (Asiatische Forschungen. 71), pp. 66-71. Otto Harrassowitz, 
Wiesbaden 1980.
 "Zu den Gefahren, die seit Urzeiten das Leben des Menschen bedrohen, zählt zweifellos auch die 
Gefahr durch das Gift. Im Laufe der Jahrtausende hat die Erfahrung die Menschen gelehrt, 
bestimmte Pflanzen und Früchte zu meiden und bei Vergiftungen gewisse Gegenmittel anzu-
wenden. Gegen viele tierische Gifte und insbesondere gegen das Schlangengift gab es bis zur 
Entdeckung der modernen Medizin keine wirksamen Heilmittel . . ..  In der ältesten buddhisti-
schen Literatur, dem Vinaya, der die Regeln für die Mönche festlegt, sind zwei Erzählungen über 
Schlangenzauber enthalten. Im Vinaya der Mulasarvastivadin-Schule (MSV), der in seiner Ge-
samtheit nur in der tibetischen Übersetzung erhalten ist, ist am Ende des Bhaisajyavastu, das die 
Speisen und Heilmittel im weitesten Sinne behandelt, eine Schlangenbeschwörungsformel, die 
Mahamayuri-Dharani überliefert. Eine weitere Formel findet sich im Bhiksuvibhanga in der 
Erzählung über den Mönch Upasena. Diese beiden Formeln sind die einzigen, die sich im MSV und 
den Vinayas der übrigen buddhistischen Schulen nachweisen lassen und beide richten sich gegen 
Schlangengift. Das Vorkommen solcher 'Zauberformeln', Ansätze tantrischer Ideen im 
Buddhismus, in einem auf strenge Ordensdisziplin ausgerichteten Werk, wie dem Vinaya, ist 
höchst bemerkenswert. Unter der Herrschaft des tibetischen Königs Ral-pa-chan (817-836), 
möglicherweise schon etwas früher, wurde die Maamayurividyarajni ins Tibtische übersetzt und 
ist in die Abteilung Tantra (tib. rGyud) des tibetischen Kanons eingegangen."

[1177] Pardo, Eduardo:  La Medicina Tibetana Natura Medicatrix (Barcelona) 7 (1984), pp. 4-
[1178] Parfionovitch, Yuri M (1921-1990):  The Tibetan Medicine. The Pulse Diagnosis and the 
Fortune-telling according to the Pulse (Russian). Peoples of Asia and Africa (now "Orient") 
(Moscow) No. 1 (1990).
[1179] Parfionovitch, Yuri M: vide also Sangye Gyamtso.
[1180] Parshin, V:  Curative Force of the Plant called Walfish Root (Russian). Zhurnal 
Ministerstva Vnutrennikh Del (= Journal of the Ministry of Inner Affairs, St. Petersburg) 
(Russian) 6 (1844), pp. 493-494.
 The detailed description of this plant discovered in Irkutsk province not long before this 
publication is given. Its exterior and showing are described for application (cold, diarrhoea etc.). 
The story of the discovery of this plant is presented, which explains how the plant received 
such a strange name.

 [1180a] Pasang Yonten (sMan rams-pa): Bod-kyi gSo-ba Rig-pa'i lo-rGyus kyi bang mdzod gYu-
thog Bla-ma dran-pa'i pho-nya (= A Historical Survey of the Tibetan Medicial Science). Yuthok 
Institute of Tibetan Medicine Choglamsar. 311 p., preface in English and Tibetan. Leh/Ladak 
 Bibliography pp. 277-311.- "This history of Tibetan medicine is based on a detailed 
comparison of history books on the Indian Ayurvedic system and western scholars' books and 
so forth concerning Tibetan medicine. I have also done some research on the origins of Tibetan 
medicine in relation to the Greek medical system and ancient Asian medical systems.
According to authentic accounts from the reign of King Songtsan Gampo (617-650), three great 
medical traditions: Indian Ayurvedic, Chinese Medicine and Tibetan Medicine (Greeko-Arabian 
Medicine) were established. The Greek-Arabian tradition flourished in Tibet until the time of King 
Langdarma 'Udum Tsan'. Then, from the time of the great translator Rinchen Zangpo (949-1055) 
onward the Indian Ayurvedic tradition flourished widely in Tibet. It can be understood that the 
unique Tibetan Medical system was formed of the cream of these two main medical systems and 
many other medical systems also nurtured in Tibet. Thereafter, until the 18th century AD the 
remaining history is straightforward, based on Sangye Gyamtsos' (1653-1705) 'Khog 'bugs legs 
bshad vailurya' melong drang srongdgyaspa' dga' ston'. -  I have done as much research as I can 
on technical points such as the date of the rediscovery of the four medical tantras from a 
concealed Treasure. I have also given due importance here to 'lcogs ri rig byad 'gro phen gling'  
after its founding by Sangye Gyamtso in 1696, the flourishing of the Tibetan medical system in 
other countries both near and far off and the development of the Tibetan Medical & Astro. 
Institute since its inception in 1961 at Dharamsala, India.
Nevertheless, source-materials are scarce and while writing this history of Tibetan science of 
medicine I was prevented from pursuing further details, as I was unable to locate source-
materials other than those I have mentioned in the bibliography. Thus there is need for further 
research to be done on the origins of the ancient Tibetan medical system."

[1181] Pasang Yonten (sMan rams-pa):  A history of the Tibetan Medical System. Bulletin of 
the Indian Institute of the History of Medicine (Hyderabad) 17 (1987), pp. 130-149.
 A very profound review article by a Tibetan medical doctor, with bibliographical references to 
original Tibetan literature.- "Description of how the ancient system of Tibetan Medicine 
developed from a rudimentary form to the present system. Next it is outlined how the Greek 
medical tradition came into contact with the Tibetan medical system and how the Indian 
Ayurvedic medical system was gradually introduced into Tibet during the 4th century (sic!). It 
describes the accounts and circumstances of the political, commercial and cultural ties 
between Persia, India and China, etc., which led to their contribution to the art of healing in 
Tibet during the 7th century. A summary of these accounts follows with introduction to the 
various medical traditions that developed within Tibet, finally explaining how these traditions 
are unified. The article concludes with a brief account of the difficulties of re-establishing the 
present Tibetan Medical and Astro-Institute in Dharamsala, India."

[1182] Pasang Yonten (sMan rams-pa):  A History of the Tibetan Medical System. Translated 
from the Tibetan by Tsepak Rigzin and Philippa Russell. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the 
Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series 12 (1989), pp. 32-51.
[1183] Pasang Yonten (sMan rams-pa):  The Philosophy of Tibetan Medicine. India International 
Culture Quarterly 18, 2 & 3 (1991), pp. 26-29.
[1184] Pasang Yonten (sMan rams-pa) and Clark, Barry:  Tibetan medical institute. Tibet-Forum 
(Bonn) 2 (1985), p. 21.
 "Anfangs wohnten die wenigen Ärzte, denen die Flucht aus Tibet gelungen war, mit ihren 
Mitarbeitern in Zelten und primitiven Bambushütten. Es war eine ungeheuer schwierige Zeit, 
denn die Tibeter vertrugen das Klima und die Lebensbedingungen in Indien schlecht, und sie 
wurden Opfer vieler Krankheiten. Außerdem  hatten sie keinerlei Geld für Krankenhaus-
besuche und Medikamente, was bedeutete, daß das TMI viele Jahre umsonst behandeln 
mußte. Die Kosten wurden also vom TMI getragen, das dann selbst betteln gehen mußte, um 
seine Arbeit weiterführen zu können.- Außer ökonomischen Problemen gab es die 
Schwierigkeit, die für die traditionelle Heilkunde notwendigen Pflanzen und Kräuter in Indien zu 
finden. Sprachbarrieren erschwerten diese Arbeit weiter. Für das Medizinstudium und die 
kologie benötigten wir auch die Lehrbücher, die oft von den geflüchteten Ärzten in Tibet 
zurückgelassen werden mußten, und nun von den Chinesen zerstört wurden. Mit der Zeit ist es 
dem Institut gelungen, Texte aus Grenzregionen wie Ladakh, Bhutan und Nepal, wo das 
tibetische Medizinsystem auch sehr beliebt ist, zusammenzutragen."

[1185] Passang Yonten: Vide Pasang Yonten (sMan rams-pa).
[1186] Patchu, Yasmina:  Die vier Tantras der Medizin. Esotera (Freiburg/Br.) Februar (1995), 
pp. 32-37.
 "Was im Westen zur Zeit als ganzheitliche Medizin Schule macht, wird in Tibet seit 
Jahrhunderten praktiziert und gelehrt: eine Heilkunst, die dem Geist dieselbe Aufmerksamkeit 
widmet wie dem Körper. Die älteste tibetische Medizinschule ist 'Chagpori', geleitet von Dr. 
Trogawa. 1993 in Indien neu eröffnet, unterrichtet sie heute auch westliche Studenten in 
diesem spirituellen Heilsystem."

[1187] Pathak, Suniti Kumar: The Indian Nitiæastras in Tibet. 134 p. Motilal Banarsidass, 
Delhi 1974.

[1188] Paul, Robert A: The Tibetan Symbolic World. Psychoanalytic Explorations. 347 p. The 
University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London 1982.
 "The charge most often raised against symbolic analyses in general, and psychoanalytic ones 
in particular, is that they cannot be validated. I believe this problem can be overcome through 
the use of a mode of research inspired by the structuralism of Lévi-Strauss. If one examines a 
wide enough range and great enough quantity of related symbolic material in a systematic and 
formalized way, then both the overall pattern and the system of discrete symbols, operations, 
and transformations show themselves in the fabric of the entire corpus.- A cultural analysis 
such as the present one also avoids the criticism that whereas in clinical psychoanalysis one 
can validate interpretation through free association and the intelligent response of the patient, 
similar feedback is not possible with a culture at large. While it is true that dreams, for 
example, cannot be interpreted without the assistance of the dreamer, cultural symbols are not 
individual dreams but collective phenomena whose power resides in being accessible to all by 
virtue of the fact that their structure and symbolism are not disguised behind personal and 
idiosyncratic distortions."

[1189] Pech, T:  Die tibetische Medizin.  Globus. Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und 
Völkerkunde (Braunschweig) 73 (1898), pp. 294-295.
 Als Fußnote zum Titel: "Nach einem Vortrage des Professors der mongolischen und 
kalmückischen Sprache in St. Petersburg, A. M. Pozdneyev, gehalten am 2. (14.) Dezember 
1897 in der Kaiserlichen Russischen Geographischen Gesellschaft". Pozdneyev gibt hierbei 
nicht nur einen kurzen Abriß über die Geschichte der tibetischen Medizin, als deren wesentliche 
Quelle er Indien erkennt, sondern er hält auch eine ihm angetragene Übersetzung der 
verfügbaren tibetisch-mongolischen medizinischen Texte nicht für sinnvoll, ohne vor Ort in den 
tibetischen Klöstern mit ausgebildeten und erfahrenen tibetischen Ärzten deren Medizin zu 
studieren und mit ihnen zusammen die Texte zu übersetzen. Darüber hinaus werden Zweifel 
angemeldet, ob die westliche Medizin von der tibetischen Medizin etwas lernen könne, was für 
Sprachforscher und Ethnologen aber in jedem Fall gegeben sei. Pozdneyev übersetzte später als 
erster Teile der rGyud-bzhi in eine westliche Sprache (vide Pozdneyev, St. Petersburg 1908).

[1190] Pelliot, Paul M (1878-1945): Le Bhaisajyaguru. Bulletin de l'Ecole Franãaise d'Extrême 
Orient (Paris) III (1903), pp. 33-37.

[1191] Pema Dorjee: vide Dorjee, Pema.
[1192] Pemba, Tsewang Y: Young Days in Tibet. 184 p. Jonathan Cape, London 1957.
 The author was the first Tibetan to receive a western medical doctor's degree (England). Dr. 
med. Pemba recalls his youth in Tibet, but as a modern western medical man, he has no 
apparent connection to traditional Tibetan Medicine.

[1193] Peng, B, Feng, W, Wang, L, Li, L, and Zhang, Y:  Effect of Tibetan Drug Arenaria 
kansuensis Maxim. var. ovatipetala Tsui on Inflammation and on Immunological Functions 
(Chinese). China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica [Beijing] (Chinese) 16 (6) (1991), 
pp. 363-366, 383.
 It has been found that the Tibetan drug Arenaria kansuensis has significant inhibitory action on 
edema in the ears of mice induced by cotton oil and granuloma, on acute inflammation in the 
form of swollen feet of rats induced by albumin injection and carrageenan, on phagocytosis of 
histocytes in the abdomen of mice, and on the formation of antibody (serum HC50). Being low 
in toxicity, the drug is conducive to the smooth functioning of the liver and kidney.

[1194] Peng Mao and Lin Tongde:  Observation of Effects Treating Plateau Rheumatic Carditis 
100 Cases with Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and 
Ethnopharmacy [Kunming/Yunnan Province] (Chinese) 13 (1995), pp. 14-16.
 A group of patients suffering from rheumatic heart disease was treated with ready-made 
Tibetan pills and powders with satisfactory results. The rates of marked effectiveness were 56 
%, and for amelioration 41 %. Only 3 % of the patients did not respond to this treatment.

[1195] Pesterev, A:  Tibetan Medicine and the Struggle for a Healthy Life in Buryat-Mongolia 
(Russian). Antireligioznik [= Antireligious Pamphlet] (Russian) 8-9 (1930), pp. 57-63.
[1196] Peters, Larry G (1942- ): Shamanism among the Tamang of Nepal: Folk Curing and 
Psychotherapy. Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. of California. University of California, Berkeley 1978.
[1197] Peters, Larry G: Psychotherapy in Tamang Shamanism. Ethos: Journal of the Society for 
Psychological Anthropology (Washington DC) 6, No. 2 (1978), pp. 63-91.

[1198] Peters, Larry G:  Shamanism and Medicine in developing Nepal. Contributions to 
Nepalese Studies (Kathmandu) 6, 2 (1979), pp. 27-43.
 "The major social function of the shaman in Tamang society is the diagnosis and treatment of 
illness. This paper has two purposes: first I investigate the indigenous categories of illness and 
examine the unique relationship that exists between modern medicine and shamanism in the 
Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Then I turn to the curing practices of the Tamang shaman, 
comparing these to certain concepts of psychotherapy in order to show how the shaman 
accomplishes much the same task as his modern counterpart albeit within the context of a very 
different cultural belief system. Thus the shaman performs a positive function and role which, 
if abrogated or disrupted due to acculturation, will cease to fulfill certain deeply imbedded 
social and psychological aspects of community life."

[1199] Peters, Larry G: Ecstasy and Healing in Nepal. An Ethnopsychiatric Study of Tamang 
Shamanism. (Other Realities. 4). 179 p., illustr. Undena Publ., Malibu, Calif. 1981.
 Valuable bibliography for shamanistic healings in the Himalayas.

[1200] Peters, Larry G:  Trance, Initiation, and Psychotherapy in Tamang Shamanism. American 
Ethnologist (Washington) 9, 1 (1982), pp. 21-46.
 "The Tamang are the largest ethnic group in Nepal, numbering about 52.000. They speak a 
Tibeto-Burmese language and reside primarily in the Himalayan mountains surrounding the 
Kathmandu Valley and in the valley itself.- In Tamang religion, there are two principal religious 
specialists: lamas and shamans (bom-bo). Both are part-time practitioners fulfilling different 
social roles. Lamas officiate at the funeral ceremonies and calendrical rituals; shamans, whose 
'calling' and altered states of consciousness are the subject of this paper, perform rituals in the 
treatment of mental and physical illness."

[1201] Petrenko, A:  The Balsam of the Ancient People (Russian). Baikal (Russian) 1 (1969), 
pp. 132-134.
[1202] Petrov, B D: History of Medicine (Chinese). 295 p. Peoples Health Publishing House, 
Beijing 1957.
 Translated from the Russian edition 1954 [not known or available to me].- In this book the 
author devoted about 3 pages to Tibetan medicine, claiming that Tibetan medicine is derived 
from ancient Indian medicine. Its main classic 'Four Treatises' is, according to the author, the 
Tibetan version of a Sanskrit original, no longer extant in India. The celebrated Tibetan doctors, 
the Elder and Younger Yu-thog, are also mentioned briefly (Cai Jingfeng).

[1203] Petry, BE: The Old Faith of Buryats (Russian).  78 p., Irkutsk 1828.
 Shamanism is explained by the author as one of the most interesting and fantastic religions. 
Shamanism is an antimystical religion, i.e. it animates not only such phenomena as wind, 
thunder, wave, but also such insignificant things as a spoon, a gun, copper etc. Everything that 
exists has a soul. Soil, deity, spirit, master - all these notians are of the same meaning for the 
Siberian shamanists and are named ezi or ezhi. Shamanists think that there is the real mankind 
and besides also the mankind of spirits. The author considers shamanism to be a form of 
animism. He writes in details about Shaman's role in the Buryat society, which has clear 
connections to medicine, and describes the pantheon of the Buryat deities.
[1204] Petryayev, ED: The Medicinal Plants of Transbaikalia (Russian). 140 p., illustr.  Chita 
 Bibliography pp. 138-140.
[1205] Petryayev, ED: N. V. Kirilov (sic!) is the Researcher of Transbaikalia and the Far East 
(Russian). 78 p. Chita Book's Publishing House, Chita 1960.
[1206] Petryayev, ED: Method and Technique of Historico-Medical Studies (Russian). 60 p., 
Moscow 1972.
[1207] Pevtsov, M(ichail) and V(asilevich) (1843-1902): The Publications of the Tibetan 
Expedition [1889-1890] (Russian). Part I., xiv, 432 p., St. Petersburg 1895.
 Part III, 126 p., St. Petersburg 1896.

[1208] Pezzi, Guiseppe:  L'Italia ed i rapporti medici con la Cina ed il Tibet durante i sec. XVI e 
XVII. Annali di medicina navale e coloniale (Roma) 75 (1) (1970), pp. 41-51.
 The personalities, the works and the activity of Italian physicians and travellers who have 
visited China and Tibet in the 16th and 17th centuries as explorers or scientists are outlined.

[1209] Podgorbunsky, I:  On the Buddhist Calendar (Russian). Review of the East Siberian 
Division of the Russian Geographical Society 21, No. 2 (1890), pp. ??
[1210] Podgorbunsky, I:  The Ideas of Buryat-Shamans on the Soul, Death, Next World and Life 
(Russian). Review of the East Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society 22, No. 1 
(1891), pp. ??
[1211] Podgorbunsky, I:  Materials for the Characteristics of Lamaistic Astrology (Russian). 
Review of the East Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society 23, No. 2 (1892), 
pp. 40-61, illustr.
[1212] Podgorbunsky, I:  Materials for the Characteristics of the Lama's Astrology (Russian). 
Irkutskie Eparchial'nye Vedomosti [= Irkutsk Eparchial Review], Appendices [to this weekly 
publication] (Russian) No. 37-39 (1892), pp. 37 (1-9); 38 (1-7); 39 (11-12), illustr.
[1213] Podgorbunsky, I:  Mongols' and Buryats' Shaman Beliefs (Russian). Irkutskie 
Eparchial'nye Vedomosti [= Irkutsk Eparchial Review] (Russian) issue 2-8 (1895), pp. ??
[1214] Podgorbunsky, I: On the Lamaistic Medicine (Russian). In: The Catalogue of the 
Buddhist Collection. Division XVII, pp.  74-76.  Irkutsk 1908.
[1215] Podgorbunsky, I and Potanin, Grigoriy Nikolaevich: The Catalogue of the Museum of the 
East-Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society (Russian). 59 p., Irkutsk 1888.
 This catalogue lists material mainly on Lamaistic medicine.

[1216] Pohle, Perdita: Useful Plants of Manang District. A Contribution to the Ethnobotany of 
the Nepal-Himalaya. 8 plates, 3 fig. (Nepal Research Center Publications, 16). 65 p. Franz 
Steiner, Stuttgart 1990.
 "This survey was carried out in part with the help of local specialists - Tibetan doctors 
(amchis), priests (lamas), and Gurung shamans - and in part with that of other villagers who 
possessed knowledge of plants. It took place in the monsoon period of 1984 and was extended 
during later sojourns (spring 1985). In order to check on the local names and uses, the plants 
were generally shown to several different persons, though uses could often be observed 
directly. The identi-
fication of the plants was accomplished in the herbarium at Godavari in collaboration with the 
botanist N. P. Manandhar. The transliteration and transcription of the local names were under-
taken together with the linguist R. Bielmeyer in Bonn. Plants were collected from three regions 
of Manang District: Gyasumdo (2000-3800 m), Nyeshang (3200-4600 m) and Nar (3400-4400 
m). As these are inhabited by different ethnic groups, the survey was at the same time able to 
give an impression of the knowledge of plants among the Gurungs and Gyasumdopas from 
Gyasumdo, the Manangis from Nyeshang and the Narpas from Nar. The use and significance of 
the plants are given in detail, and some information is provided concerning the natural features 
of Manang District, its inhabitants and their economic activities as well as some general 
remarks on the orthography and folk etymology of the local plant names."

[1217] Pollak, OJ:  Impressions of health and medicine in Tibet. Delaware Medical Journal 
(Wilmington) 56 (11) (1984), pp. 691-694.
 "The Tibetan Medical College, located in the center of Lhasa, a city of 60,000 inhabitants, has 
only 30 beds. Its projected expansion to 200 beds in 1985, however, is proof that traditional 
medicine is not about to be displaced by Western medicine, a process that is rapidly progressing 
throughout most of the Peoples Republic of China. Although most patients are examined and 
treated as outpatients, the hospital's daily census reaches 800. Many of the patients present for 
acupuncture. The potential pool of patients consists of 300,000 'members' of the institution, 
coming from a wide area of the autonomous region of Xizang, known to us as Tibet. The hospital 
staff includes 215 doctors who have had four years of formal education and from nine to 15 
years of additional training during which they learned herbal medicine and astrology. The college 
has three goals: teaching, research, and treatment. At present, it has 60 students and six 
teachers, i. e. five doctors and one pharmacist. The latter plays a major role.- Treatment at the 
Tibetan College Hospital is entirely medical. For surgery, patients are referred to a western-type 
hospital. Herbs, fungi, and spices, often mixed with powdered precious or semiprecious gems, 
antlers, or ram's horns, are dispensed as powders, extracts, or decocta, some for oral use and 
some for intravenous infusion. The college pharmacy processes 10,000 kg of drugs annually."
[1218] Popov, AA:  About Medicinal Plants (Russian). Zabaykal'skiy Khozyain (= The 
Transbaikalian Owner) (Russian) 12 (1915), pp. 5-18.
[1219] Popov, AA: Materials for the Bibliography of the Russian Literature on Studies of 
Shamanism of North-Asian Peoples (Russian). 114 p., Leningrad 1923.
[1220] Potanin, Grigoriy Nikolaevich (1835-1920): Essays on North-Eastern Parts of Mongolia 
(Russian). Vol. 2 (1881); Vol. 4 (1883).
[1221] Potanin, Grigoriy Nikolaevich:  The Buryat Names of Herbs (Russian). Proceedings of the 
East-Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society (Russian) 21, No. 3 (1890), pp. 64-
   In this essay, the author provides a list of 66 herbs. The author compiled this list in the 
summer of 1889 in the ulus of the Khorinsk Buryats, which is 17 versts (ca. 18.1 km) from 
Verkhneudinsk (now Ulan-Ude) up to the Uda River. The Buryat name for this ulus is Erkhirik, 
the Russian name Gryaznukha. Beside the Buryat names, the author included some Tibetan 
names, which were known to the lamas who had studied Tibetan medicine.

[1222] Potanin, Grigoriy Nikolaevich: The Tangut-Tibetan Outskirts of China and Central 
Mongolia (1884-1889), Vol. I (Russian). 567 p., St. Petersburg 1893.
[1223] Potanin, Grigoriy Nikolaevich: vide also E. Simon, 1895.
[1224] Pozdneyev, Aleksey Matveevich  (1851-1920):  The History of the Development of 
Buddhism in the Transbaikalian Area (Russian). Notes of the Oriental Division of the Russian 
Archaeological Society (Russian) 1, issue 1 (1886), pp. 169-188.
[1225] Pozdneyev, Aleksey Matveevich: Esquisses de la vie des monastères et de la spiritualité 
bouddhique en Mongolie - Skizzen aus dem Leben der buddhistischen Klöster und der 
buddhistischen Geistlichkeit in der Mongolei, in Zusammenhang mit Attitüden der Letzteren 
gegenüber der Bevölkerung - A Survey of the Way of Living in the Buddhist Monasteries and of 
the Buddhist Clergy in Mongolia, in Connection with Attitudes of the Latter towards the People 
(Russian). xvi, 492 p., St. Petersburg 1887.
 Contains an analysis of the Tibetan Medical Treatise "lHan-thabs" (pp. 163-164).

[1226] Pozdneyev, Aleksey Matveevich: Mongolia and the Mongols. 2 vols. (Russian). vol. I, 
xxx, 696; vol. II, xxix, 517 p., St. Petersburg 1896.
 In vol. I, p. 89 'Medicine temple', p. 90 'Early history of Tibetan medicine', p. 148-9 'Burial 
customs', p. 313-14 'Street cleaning public hygiene', p. 398-435 'Statues of Medicine 
In vol. II, p. 169-70 'Smallpox epidemic', p. 295 'Famous Amchi Lama', p. 433 'Medical 
The Russian Geographical Society tried to explore Inner Asia There were several expeditions, 
equiped by the RGS sent to the most unknown and unaccessible places of China, Mongolia and 
Tibet, which brought back a lot of new data. Scientists studied soils and relief, irrigation and 
earth's crust, climate and vegetation, and also natives living in this country, their anthropology, 
ethnography and life conditions, and in this context also Tibetan medicine.  In 1872 A. M. 
Pozdneyev, famous explorer and scientist, travelled to Mongolia to make a versatile study of 
the Mongolian population.

[1227] Pozdneyev, Aleksey Matveevich: Uchebnik tibetskoy mediciny (es folgen der tibetische 
und mongolische Titel in Originallegenden). Tomus I. S mongol'skogo i tibetskogo perevel 
A. M. Pozdneyev. [Lehrbuch der tibetischen Medizin, Band I. Aus dem Mongolischen und 
Tibetischen übersetzt von A. P. - Textbook of Tibetan Medicine, the Original Titles in Tibetan 
and Mongolian. Volume 1. Translated from Mongolian and Tibetan by A. M. Pozdneyev] viii, 
425 p. Kaiserliche Russische Akademie der Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg 1908.
 Reprint 'Ecopolis i kul'tura', 'Andreyev i synovya', und 'Dazan Gounzechoyney', Leningrad 
1991, zusammen mit E. E. Obermiller (1901-1936): Ways of Studying Tibetan Medical Litera-
ture.- Enthält die beiden ersten "Wurzeln" der Gyud bzhi, in mustergültigem Druck, links der 
mongolische Text, en regard die russische Übersetzung, beides ungekürzt; dazu viele Anmer-
kungen. Bei Aufzählung der Arzneistoffe, vor allem der Heilpflanzen, sind die lateinischen 
botanischen Bezeichnungen und die Äquivalente auch in Tibetisch und Chinesisch gegeben. Das 
Kapitel über die Instrumente enthält 55 Strichzeichnungen. Diese Zeichnungen sind zwar nicht 
in den Blockdrucken der "Zweiten Wurzel" der rGyud-bzhi, aber auf den Thangkas des 17. Jh. 
(vide Sangye Gyamtso) abgebildet.

[1228] Pozdneyev, Aleksey Matveevich: The Essence of the Curative. Manuscript (Russian),
115 p. - Stored at 'The Archives of the Orientalists of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute for 
Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences', Fund 44, inventory 1.
[1229] Pozdneyev, Aleksey Matveevich: vide auch T. Pech, 1898; W. A. Unkrig, Berlin 1930, 
sowie W. A. Unkrig, Augsburg 1953.

[1230] Prasaad-Steiner, R: vide Steiner, R. Prasaad.
[1231] Prein, Ya P:  Materials of the Flora of Folk Medicinal Plants of East Siberia (Russian). Re-
view of the East Siberian Division of the Russian Geographical Society 29, No. 1 (1898), pp. 1-
[1232] Przhevalsky, Nikolay M (1839-1888): Flora Tangutica. [Scientific Results of the Travels of 
N. M. Przhevalsky in Central Asia]. The Treatment of K. Maksimovich (Russian). Vol. 1, issue 1. 
xviii, 110 p., St. Petersburg 1889.
[1233] Ptizyn, V: Ethnographical Information  about Tibetan Medicine in Transbaikalia 
(Russian). 32 p., and 4 p. with illustr.  St. Petersburg 1890.
 The same article appeared in: Abstracts of the 8th Congress of the Russian Natural Scientists 
and Physicians in St. Petersburg, 28th December 1889 to 7th January 1890, published in 
St. Petersburg 1892, vol. 2, pp. 5, 13-17.

[1233a] Pubayev, RE (1929-1991) and Bolsokhoyeva, N(atalia) D:  Tibetan Buddhism and its 
Role in the History of Culture of Central Asian People in the Middle Ages (English sic!). 
Informatsionnyy Bulleten' (= Information Bulletin) (Moscow) [UNESCO] issue 16 (1989), 
pp. 98-102.
 The same article also in Russian, same journal, but Russian edition (pp. 80-83).

[1234] Pupyshev, VN (1944- ): Philosophical Methodological Principles in the Formation of the 
rGyud-bzhi, the Basic Canonic Work of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: The Analysis of the 
Signs, Symptoms, History, Logic and Methodology of Science (Russian), pp. 130-131. Kiev 
 In this abstract the author discusses the problem of correlation between the form and the 
contents in the rGyud-bzhi, and he shows the criterion of the truth which was followed by the 
rGyud-bzhi's authors and which represents the unity of the method as thought development 
according to the given programme, and intuition which cuts off mind's errors.

[1235] Pupyshev, VN: Principles of Approach for Studying Tibetan Medicine in Relation to 
Pulse Diagnosis. Appendix I (Russian). In: Ch. Ts. Tsydypov: Pul'sovaya Diagnostika v 
Tibetskoy Meditsine (= Pulse Diagnosis in Tibetan Medicine.  Problems of Automatisation) 
(Russian), pp. 36-44. Ulan-Ude 1988.
 Substantiation of the methodology how to approach the study of Tibetan Medicine, specially 
pulse diagnosis, as an integral phenomenon. Tibetan Medicine is organically unseparable from 
the whole system of knowledge represented by 'the ten sciences' system (rig-pa bcu) of Tibet.

[1236] Pupyshev, VN: Pulse Diagnosis as Concentrated expression of the Theoretical Base of 
Tibetan Medicine. In: Pulse Diagnosis of Tibetan Medicine, ed. Ch. Ts. Tsydypov (Russian), pp.  
41-57. The Academy of Science of the USSR. Siberian Division, Buryat Institute of Natural 
Sciences, Novosibirsk 1988.
 A discussion on the relation of pulse diagnosis with the whole system of Tibetan Medicine on 
the basis of its initial conceptual constructions.

[1237] Pupyshev, VN: The Tibetan Medical Terms Rtsa, Rlung, Mkhris, Bad-kan: Problems of 
Semantics (Russian). Autoreferat of the Thesis of the Candidate of Philological Sciences. 16 p., 
Leningrad 1988.
 The synopsis of the thesis presents an approach to the Tibetan medical language as a complex 
phenomenon. Three levels of meaning for the main medical terms, i. e. their literal sense, word 
meaning and true meaning are discussed.

[1238] Pupyshev, VN: On the Way to Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Tibetan Medicine: The 
History, Methodology of the Study and Perspective of its Use, pp.  45-57. The USSR Academy 
of Science, Siberian Division, Buryat Division, The Institute of Biology, Ulan-Ude 1989.
[1239] Pupyshev, VN: The Fundamentals of the Tibetan Medicine (Series "The Mirror of the 
Human Wisdom") (Russian). 128 p. The International Institute of Tibeto-Mongolian Medicine 
and the National Library of the Republic of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude 1992.
 Bibliography pp. 127-128.

[1240] Pupyshev, VN and Balzhirov, BG: A Few Features of the rGyud-bzhi's Structure 
(Russian). In: Pul'sovaya Diagnostika v Tibetskoy Meditsine (= Pulse Diagnosis in Tibetan 
Medicine), ed. Ch.Ts. Tsydypov (Russian), pp.  57-64. Buryat Institute of Natural Sciences, 
Buryat Branch of the Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences.  Novosibirsk 1988.
 A few characteristic features of volume I of the rGyud-bzhi, the key to all treatises and 
techniques of mastering medicine as well as peculiarities of application of this key to other 
parts of the text are considered.

[1242] Quick, Michael: Über die Kenntnis der vier medizinischen Traktate Tibets, der rGyud-
bzhi. Anmerkungen und bibliographische Notizen zu den Grundlagen tibetischer Heilkunde. In: 
Würzburger medizinhistorische Mitteilungen. Band 5, pp.  323-345. Institut für Geschichte der 
Medizin der Universität Würzburg, Würzburg 1987.

[1243] Qusar, Namgyal (1960- ):  Medical Systems with a Holistic Approach. Tibetan System 
(Varanasi)  (1993), pp. 69-78.
Dr. Namgyal Qusar was born on Oct 2nd, 1960 in Shimla, India. He passed the 'All India Senior 
School Certificate' in 1979 from CST, Darjeeling and graduated in Tibetan medicine from 
Tibetan Medical & Astro College, Dharamsala in 1986. Dr. Qusar has extensively visited Europe 
to assist senior doctors as their interpreter as well as to deliver lectures on Tibetan medicine. 
He has attended and presented research papers and articles related to Tibetan Medical Science 
in International & National Conferences and Seminars. Dr. Qusar has a wide experience on the 
Clinical Study on Hypertension, he is presently the Deputy Director of the Research & 
Development Deptt., and started as the the coordinator between the Tibetan and Austrian Joint 
Research Project in documentation of Tibetan Medicinal Plants and the Editor of the sMan-rTsis 
Journal [new series].
[1244] Qusar, Namgyal:  The Problems and Scope of Integrating Tibetan and Allopathic 
Medicine. Paper presented at First Annual Tibetan Health Review Meeting organised by the 
Department of Health, Central Tibetan Secretariat, Dharamsala (H.P.), India, 4th -11th Oct. 
1993 (unpublished).
 ". . . now let us consider some of the problems of integration of the two systems. The question 
of integrating allopathic medicine and that of Tibetan medicine may be obtained by investigating 
the differences between the basic foundations of two systems. First, there is a difference in the 
understanding of the organic nature of the living body. The theories, principles and methods of 
treatment upon which our Tibetan medical science is based are very different from modern or 
western medical science. For example, Tibetan medical system is built upon the theory which 
view that everything in this universe is made up of five elements (earth, water, fire, air and 
space) whereas modern theory is atomistic based.-
 Allopathic and Tibetan medicine differ also in the recognition of patients' individuality. It is 
important in elucidating the nature of a disease to analyze pathology at the cellular and molecular 
levels. However, this method leads to explanation of a pathology assumed general to all patients, 
avoiding each patient's individuality. It is therefore almost impossible to predict the special 
reactions of each patient after uniform and mass treatment. Hence, the expression 'idiosyncrasy' 
is often encountered in the field of modern medicine. In contrast, Tibetan medicine is 
characterized by the identification of the personality based on the rlung, mkhris pa and bad kan 
principles, and the individuality of a patient is considered very important. Because individuals' 
constitutions differ, their responses to the same pathological process will also differ. For 
example, an infection with the same pathogen may not show an identical clinical picture in two 
different patients. Thus the nature and symptom of the disease is identified on the basis of the 
phenomenology of the interaction between pathological process and inherent constitution. 
Accordingly, since every patient is an individual, the term 'idiosyncrasy' has no place in Tibetan 
 Subjective intuition also plays an important role in Tibetan medicine, since everything cannot be 
expressed on a quantitative basis. There are other differences therefore, to the cause of 
diseases, pharmacology, dietetics, physiology and diagnostics, etc.- 
If we lack a common policy for integration, our endeavors are bound to fail. The Research 
Department of TMI undertook a 'Preliminary Pilot Study of Tibetan Medicine in the treatment of 
Hypertension' in 1989 for a period of six months. Right from the beginning we encountered 
various problems due to the lack of model study, lack of experience and guidance in 
implementing this study. The result of this study was not satisfactory as expected, although the 
study was successful in some respect. Therefore in my experience the main problems are a lack 
of coordination between different departments of the TMI, scarcity of man power, lack of study 
models and financial constraints. I believe that we will face the same kind of problems in 
implementing our ideas to integrate Tibetan Medicine into PHC if we neglect these important 
issues. I think we need proper and careful planning and clear policy if we are to implement our 
ideas and to achieve our goals. However, despite our differences, both systems have their own 
usefulness.- Assertions and anecdotal case histories attesting to the efficacy of traditional 
Tibetan medicines and therapies are plentiful. Yet, conclusive data from random controlled trials 
are difficult to obtain. In part this has to do with the fact that Tibetan and allopathic medicine 
have radically different theoretical foundations, diagnostic approaches and intervention strategies 
as discussed earlier. Without further integrating modern and traditional research in these areas, 
the efficacy and applicability of traditional Tibetan medical practice to the world community will 
still remain uncertain".

[1245] Qusar, Namgyal (editor):  TMAI Newsletter.- This is the official Newsletter of the 
Tibetan Medical & Astro Institute, Gangchen Kyishong, Dharamsala.  1 (1993), cont.

[1246] Qusar, Namgyal and Sergent, Jean Claude: Médecine tibétaine et alimentation. 333 p. 
Éditions Calmann-Lévy, Paris 1995.
 "Food and lifestyle are the two important subjects in Tibetan Medicine. This book is helpful for 
serious students and scholars of Tibetan medicine and will help clear those questions that are 
incomprehensible in other books on Tibetan medicine. It is divided into three sections. The first 
section is an introduction to the Tibetan Medicine from its brief historical background and its 
relation with Buddhism. This part deals with the concept of the five elements and the three 
bodily energies. It also includes the translation of the first chapter of rTsa-rGyud, the Root 
Tantra. Discussion on diet begins in the second section with its relation of the five elements. 
This section discusses the role of six tastes, three postdigestive effects, eight potencies, 
twenty qualities and is concluded into hot and cold nature. List of food items and their uses is 
mentioned in this section. Translation of chapter 17 and chapter 18 about diet restrictions and 
concept of proper amount of food intake in included in it. The last section begins with the 
simple means to identify diseases and specific dietary regimens for rlung, mkhris-pa and bad-
kan. It also includes food habit during each season and dietary regimens recommended for 
some chronic diseases. Interestingly, it also includes traditional Tibetan food recipes, which are 
specially meant for those who would like to prepare and try simple Tibetan food."

[1247] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Dermatology: Diagnosis & Cure in Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medi-
cine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 3 (1981), pp. 21-
 "It is impossible, in a few thousand words, to cover the whole subject of dermatology 
according to Tibetan Medicine; or for that matter even to deal with the major skin disorders 
mentioned in the Tibetan medical texts. When confronted by a dermatological problem, the first 
thing a Tibetan physician does is to carefully examine the total distribution and character of 
individual lesions, keeping in mind that the lesions could be signs of serious diseases like 
tuberculosis and leprosy. The examination is conducted in bright daylight. The physician 
carefully takes the history, including a record of previous treatment of the patient and records 
how it has been applied and the reactions it has produced. Though skin problems mainly 
consist of those diseases or irritations that affect the skin only, there are many types of skin 
problems that affect the whole body, and also many which are signs of serious diseases such 
as tuberculosis and so forth. Types of skin disorders are discussed: erysipelas, ringworm, pinta 
and leucoderma, scabies, pellagra, contact dermatitis, eczema, abscess, psoriasis."

[1248] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Digestive System According to Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, 
a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 3 (1981), pp. 27-31.
 "In order to keep ourselves healthy, we must provide our constituent cells with a wide variety 
of substances to be used as sources of energy and nourishment for the maintenance of the 
body. In recent years the type of material we provide our body with is becoming an increasing 
concern and also acquiring great importance to the extent that allopathic doctors are re-
examining their relevance and relation as methods of preventing and treating different types of 
disorders. However, in order to understand dietetics and its application as a preventive and 
therapeutic agent, it is necessary to understand the complex process of digestion and how 
different food ingredients undergo metabolism in the body in dependence on their inherent and 
acquired qualities, powers, tastes and so forth."

[1249] Rabgay, Lobsang:  The Origin and Growth of Medicine in Tibet. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 3 (1981), pp. 3-20.
 "Tibetan medical texts attribute the origin of the science of medicine to Æakyamuni Buddha. As in 
the case of major Tantric teachings, Æakyamuni Buddha is believed to have taught the science of 
medicine simultaneously with the teachings of the first, second and third wheels of Dharma. He 
manifested himself as Bhaishaja-guru, the Medicine Buddha, and showed the medical teachings to 
four main types of disciples namely, a) Gods, b) Rishis, c) non-Buddhists, d) Buddhists. However, 
Tibetan medical texts record that previous Buddhas (the three Buddhas preceding Æakyamuni 
Buddha) also taught medicine to their respective disciples in accordance with their requirements 
and conditions. There is specific mention of how Kashyapa Buddha taught medicine. Further-
more, this is corroborated by the great scholar and writer, Desi Sangye Gyatso, in his 'Survey of 
Tibetan Medical History'. He states that though there are no written documents about Buddhas 
preceding Kashyapa Buddha teaching medicine, there is, at the same time, no evidence that they 
did not teach medicine. Yuthok Yonten Gonpo, the Elder, in his biography told the visiting Mongo-
lian physician that the very first origin of medicine can be traced back to 550 great aeons ago (a 
great aeon is a countless number of years) when Brahmin Hala Mig-yangs received the medical 
teachings with the help of the physician Rishi Karma Dri-ma-med. The above references have been 
mentioned to depict the extreme difficulty that one comes across in trying to arrange a 
chronological presentation of Tibetan medical history. Here an attempt is made by taking the four 
lineages of disciples who received the present medical teachings, and arrange them in a 
chronological order as far as possible. Accounts of how Tibetan Medicine first originated hardly 
vary from the Vedic sources which explain the origin of Ayurveda. The only exception is that the 
Buddha is regarded as the source of medicine while the Ayurvedic texts consider Brahma as the 
source of medicine."

[1250] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Pulse Analysis in Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication 
for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 3 (1981), pp. 45-52.
 "Disease is identified by its signs and symptoms. The relationship between these two is like that 
of fire and smoke. As symptoms are the pathogenetic results of the disease and the best means of 
identification, a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of a disease is absolutely essential in 
being able to diagnose it accurately. The theory of diagnosis, therefore, involves symptomatology 
and pathology, and an ability, acquired through theoretical study and practical experience, to relate 
one to the other. Diagnostic application consists of two sections: 1) The three examinations, 2) 
The three methods of diagnosis. The three examinations are: a) Etiological examination, b) 
Pathogenetic examination, c) Interrogative examination. The three methods of diagnosis are: a) 
Questioning, b) Examination by seeing, c) Examination by touching."

[1251] Rabgay, Lobsang: rLung (Vata) Diseases: Diagnosis and Cure. (Traditional Tibetan 
Medical Science Series, 1). 30 p. Published by Dr. Lobsang Rabgay, Dharamsala (1981).
 "Basically rLung coordinates all conscious and muscular activities of the body by means of a central 
and peripheral nervous system, which is known as the white nervous system in Tibetan medical 
texts.- In studying pathology in the Tibetan medical system, recognition of the immense variability 
of the nyes-pa (Doshas in Sanskrit) in the body is of the greatest importance. Since nyes-pa are 
ally opposed to one another structurally and functionally (mkhris-pa and bad-kan oppose each other 
but rLung ensures their symbiosis in the body), normality ends and abnormality begins. Nyes-pa 
literally means defect and pathologically connotes morbidity. rLung, mkhris-pa and bad-kan are called 
nyes-pa because their abnormal increase, decrease or disturbance cause pathogenicity of the seven 
physical constituents - the basic structural units of the body - and the three excretory matters. 
Anatomically, the body is constituted of the five 'Byung-ba (elements) which are also the 
substratum of all animate and inanimate phenomena. A phenomenon or object acquires its particular 
teristics chiefly due to the predominant combination of specific sets of 'Byung-ba in a structural unit. 
For instance, a food item is determined as heavy and saccharine because it is composed primarily of 
earth and water 'Byung-ba that contain these potencies intrinsically. Generally, the predominant 
'Byung-ba constituent is 50% and the remaining portion of the structural unit or atom is made up of 
the other 'Byung-ba in equal parts."

[1252] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Urine-analysis in Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication 
for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 3 (1981), pp. 53-60.
 "Urine-analysis is one of the four major diagnostic procedures that is used by the Tibetan 
physician. Urine-analysis originated from Greek and Persian physicians. Urine is one of the 
three principal excretory matters of the body. Its normal function is crucial to ensure the 
regulation of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems of the body which can affect 
the balance of the three physiological processes of humors (called 'wind, bile, and phlegm'). 
More solids are excreted from the body in the faeces than by any other route; urine is the 
principal route of water excretion; urine can be observed to diagnose a wide variety of 
disorders; faeces and urine is affected by eating and behaviour habits and even by seasonal 

[1253] Rabgay, Lobsang:  The Diagnosis and Cure of Jaundice in Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan 
Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 5 (1982), 
pp. 57-65.
 "Jaundice, known in Tibetan as cold mKhris-pa or coloured (yellow) conjunctivae is a disease 
of the liver and biliary systems, and in unhygienic conditions is severe and can even become 
fatal. When it occurs as a complication in cases of more destructive diseases such as 
abdominal carcinoma, treatment becomes difficult and the physician's options are considerably 
reduced. For many years now Tibetan physicians have been successfully treating a number of 
chronic and non-infectious diseases, and have gained enormous respect for their ability to treat 
jaundice, particularly the obstructive type, with oral drugs."

[1254] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Tibetan Miracle Drug Prepared [Special Report]. Tibetan Review 
(Delhi) XVII, 5 (1982), pp. 10, contd. 22c.
 "The Tibetan Medical Centre, Dharamsala, has now produced a drug of the most outstanding 
therapeutic value which, among other things, is highly recommended for treatment of cancer. 
The drug is called Tsothay (gTso thal; Purified Mercury Powder) and basically is made up of the 
active ingredients of mercury. This is derived by means of a complex pharmaceutic extractive 
process and involves the isolation and purification of toxic agents with the help of 16 elements, 
precious minerals and other solvents. Tsothay is not indicated in itself, but rather is used as the 
base of drugs such as mang-jor (multiple compound), drang-jor (cold compound), ratna sam-
phel, da-shal-chen-mo, and so forth."

[1255] Rabgay, Lobsang:  A Humanistic Approach to Treatment and Management of Cancer. 
Tibetan Review (Delhi) XVIII, 10 (1983), pp. 15-22.
 For comment see same title, Dharamsala 1984.
[1256] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Mind-Made Health: A Tibetan Perspective. Tibetan Review (Delhi) 
XVIII, 3 (1983), pp. 11-17.
 From this splendid article, I quote some passages: "The underlying principle of medicine and 
reality of life itself in short are based on compassion and wisdom according to the ancient sages 
and physicians. Every individual has the right to life and happiness and the role of physicians and 
those in the health profession is to assist that these are possible. But a physician can only be 
effective and genuine if he is able to relate to the patient. That relationship should be mutual and 
it can only be so if the physician is compassionate and understanding since the patient comes to 
him with total dependency. But compassion itself can only serve as the medium between people, 
and by itself alone the relationship cannot be meaningful and with purpose because it is not 
accompanied by wisdom to channel it through the proper pathways and perspective. In 
materialist medicine, the Tibetan physician is primarily concerned with the four elements, the 
gross type of channels and essential structures, while in spiritual or Tantric medicine the 
physician concentrates on the subtle types of channels which are imaginary meridians and the 
subtle essential structures. The gross channels are anatomically of two types known as the 
white and black channels; the white channel is the central and secondary [peripheral] nervous 
system while the black channel refers primarily to the vascular system including the lymphatic 
system. Gross essential structures are the seven essential organic constituents of the body 
namely, essential nutrients, blood tissues, muscle tissues, fatty tissues, bone tissues, marrow, 
and regenerative fluid. In Tantric or spiritual medicine primary emphasis is given to the subtle 
elements, channels and essential structures. The psychic channels consist of three major types 
known as central, right and left with 72000 branches or secondary channels all over the body. 
The central channel ranges upward from the heart to the crown of the head, then down to the 
point between the eyebrows. It moves downward from the heart to the middle of the head of the 
phallus or the vagina. To the right and left of the central channels are two others that constrict it 
not only by confining it between them but also encircling it at each channel centre three times 
each at the heart and fewer times at the other centres."

[1257] Rabgay, Lobsang:  A Humanistic Approach to Treatment and Management of Cancer in 
Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
(Dharamsala) Series No. 8 (1984), pp. 32-44.
 This article also appeared in Tibetan Review, October 1983. The author writes: "From the time I 
came into contact with cancer patients in  Dr. Yeshe Donden's and later Dr. Lobsang Dolma's 
clinics, one feeling persisted for a long time. In treating the patients most doctors, who treated 
them before they came here, missed a vital aspect of good medicine. There are a whole range of 
drugs in the Tibetan medical pharmacopoeia that are indicated for various types of cancer but 
their prescription is determined by two main factors. First, the humoral factor mainly active in 
the disease process, and secondly, the site of the disease and presence of secondary 
complications involved. Consequently, only a trained doctor is able to prescribe the exact 
medicines because he alone is able to determine the humoral activity, the site and presence of 
secondary complications. This means that a person who has an active rlung or energy pathology 
with cancer of the abdomen will receive quite a different kind of treatment from one who has a 
similar cancer but predisposed to mkhris-pa or bile."

[1258] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Mind-Made Health: Tibetan Medical Perspective. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 8 (1984), pp. 45-55.
 Reprinted in Myrobalan, 2 (1985), pp. 30-37.- "Human nature asks for comfort and happiness. 
Yet at every turn most of us face more and more situations that trigger mental and physical 
stress which in turn produce related disorders quite unknown in societies where life is simpler 
and where anxiety is less constant. Most of the time - because of a constant sense of 
competition in both work and domestic life, ambition, and a drive to succeed financially - we 
are hardly aware of the heavy toll that such a lifestyle is taking. We are helpless in tackling the 
bigger problems and so conveniently leave them to our leaders to try and solve. We are 
primarily concerned with our everyday difficulties. By trying to apply the concepts of a 
mechanistic outlook to every aspect of life, we have withdrawn from the underlying meaning 
and purpose. Our relationship with others including the environment, our sensory, intellectual 
and conceptual experience all determine our mind and body interaction. Buddhist medical 
philosophy is one of those ancient systems which deal with these relationships and concepts in 
great detail. First, however, it is important to understand the general viewpoint about the mind, 
its origin and nature."

[1259] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Relaxation Yoga: A Tibetan Way to Better Health. Tibetan Review 
(Delhi) XIX, 10 (1984), pp. 7-12.
 "Physicians in ancient India and Tibet observed the effects of the seasons, environment, diet, 
daily and seasonal activities to study how optimal health could be obtained. People who 
pursued a spiritual lifestyle such as the yogis were particularly conscious about good physical 
and mental health because it meant effective and quicker spiritual accomplishments. They 
practised, often in isolation, and had little time to come into the cities to visit physicians 
without disruption of their practices. In order to keep themselves healthy constantly, they 
devised a technique to keep themselves physically fit and at the same time one which could be 
integrated into their daily practices. The technique of fitness is known as Yantra Yoga. For 
many years Yantra Yoga technique of fitness and health remained confined among the Tantric 
practitioners and little was known outside that circle. Though Tantric and medical texts explain 
the techniques in detail and with illustrations, few people in the past dared to study them out 
of fear that they might transgress into areas not permitted. However, recently Tibetan teachers 
are becoming more open to the idea of importing these teachings on the ground that physical 
fitness is absolutely essential for the development of spiritual practice. Because few people 
today can devote themselves to spiritual practice for long periods of time, Tibetan teachers 
dealing with Yantra Yoga feel that these may be imparted to anyone even though he may not 
have any spiritual background."

[1260] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Tibetan Medicine: A Humanistic Approach to Health. Tibetan 
Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 8 (1984), 
pp. 24-31.
 "Tibetan Medicine provides an instructive way of thinking about illness and cure within a 
humanistic framework. When we compare the system and structural components of Tibetan 
Medicine with the early days of modern medicine we find that Tibetan physicians knew about 
many aspects of contemporary medical disciplines in addition to those similar to the 
scientifically based ones. Distinct from the Indian system of medicine, which divides clinical 
pathology into eight sections, the Tibetan outlines fifteen sections. They are: three 
pathophysiological processes (three humours), internal diseases, fever, diseases of head and 
neck, diseases of the solid and hollow organs, venerology, urology, miscellaneous diseases, 
hereditary diseases, pediatrics, gynaecology, toxicology, and sexology. Fundamentally health is 
seen as a state of dependency on a multiplicity of factors which include diet, behaviour, 
seasonal influences, psychological and social factors. No pathological factor exists independent 
of them and if the physician is to heal the patient he must consider them in his diagnosis and 
modality of treatment. He must relate organic pathology whenever there is a link with the 
patient's dietary habits, behaviour such as his attitude towards his job and marital 

[1261] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Tibetan Medicine: A Humanistic Approach to Health. Tibetan Review 
(Delhi) XIX, 8 (1984), pp. 8-12.
 Identical with previous entry.

[1262] Rabgay, Lobsang:  A Guide to Tibetan Medical Urinalysis. Tibetan Medicine, a 
Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 9 (1985), pp. 28-46.
 Reprinted in Myrobalan 3 (1985), pp. 51-73.- "Tibetan medical tradition is probably the least 
known system of medicine and the only documented science that enjoys an unbroken 
continuity of over 2500 (sic!) years. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine, was 
practised in Tibet, and Indian and Tibetan physicians travelled frequently between their two 
countries to promote and exchange medical information. However, from the 7th century 
onwards Greek, Persian and Chinese physicians visited Tibet at the invitation of Tibetan kings 
to share and teach their medical sciences. Many of the principles and clinical practices of these 
systems, were consequently integrated into the practice of medicine by Tibetan physicians. 
Eventually, in the 8th century, Yuthok Yonten Gonpo, the most well known Tibetan physician 
in medical history, founded the present Tibetan system. A Tibetan physician uses a number of 
diagnostic procedures among which urine-analysis is one of the most important. Diagnosis by 
urine originated from the Greek and this view is supported by a number of medical history 
texts, including the most authoritative one by sDe-srid Sangs rGyas rGya-mtsho, a minister to 
the Great Fifth Dalai Lama and a medical historian and writer [and Great Scholar]. He in turn 
quotes ancient texts, and one such text, the Manjushri Sutra states: 'The Chinese have 
specialised in the art of acupuncture, the Indians in herbology, while the Greeks have perfected 
the methods of diagnosis (urine-analysis).' Urin-analysis is used by a Tibetan physician both for 
detecting a state of health, and deviation from that state. It is routinely used with other pro-
cedures not only to obtain valuable clinical information about the health of the patient but also 
to diagnose organic pathology, their severity, and prognosis by means and techniques entirely 
different from the modern system of urine-analysis."

[1263] Rabgay, Lobsang:  Relaxation Yoga: A Tibetan Way to Better Health. Tibetan Medicine, 
a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 9 (1985), pp. 69-78.
 Reprinted from Tibetan Review, October 1984.- "Modern doctors are so intensely engrossed 
in fitting every complaint of the patient into the disease model that today for most people 
health means nothing more than the mere absence of disease. Few consider the other half - 
the positive aspect of health as mental and social well being. That is why in recent years we 
have witnessed alternative systems of healing, many of which have no documented or 
historical basis, smoothly to fill in the gap left by modern medicine. There is no question about 
the superiority of modern medicine when the disease model derived from the mechanistic world 
view of Newton fits the symptoms and explains the cause of the disease. Unfortunately, such 
diseases are fewer in number, and there are a whole variety of diseases, functional, 
psychological, and psychosomatic with anatomic damage that cannot be explained by the 
disease model. In fact, only 25 % of patients visiting Primary Health Clinics are effectively 
treated by modern medicine - the rest
75 % are treated more for their symptoms and the worry these symptoms produce rather than 
the cause of the problem."

[1264] Rabgay, Lobsang:  rLung Diseases and their Treatment. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication 
for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 9 (1985), pp. 47-68.
 Printed also as Booklet (Traditional Tibetan Medical Series No. 1), 33 p., Dharamsala 1981.

[1265] Rabgay, Lobsang: Tibetan Medicine, a Holistic Approach to Better Health. (Tibetan 
Medical Sciences Series). 86 p. Published by Dr. Lobsang Rabgay, Dharamsala 1985.
 This is already a reprint (1st edition probably 1982), no date given. From the preface: "I have 
finally been able to bring out the second issue in this series which was started three years ago. 
Somehow my own preoccupation with medicine and travel prevented me from doing so earlier. 
I had initially planned to bring out the sections on mKhris-pa (bile) and bad-kan (phlegm) 
diseases according to the Third Tantra dealing with clinical medicine. My friends came up with 
a better idea, however. Why didn't I put together some of my articles and lectures dealing with 
various aspects of Tibetan Medicine which would be of greater interest to readers? This is 
precisely what I have done. The third article was written with the help of Dr. Mark Epstein, 
a psychiatrist presently working at Cornell Medical Centre, New York. The task of promoting 
Tibetan Medicine is certainly a very difficult one, indeed, and well beyond the efforts of a 
single institution let alone a person. My hope is that by starting this series, people interested in 
the health profession will take up the challenge of working together to bring out more 
specialised works on Tibetan Medicine in English and support the efforts of Tibetan physicians 
in their practice.- Contents: 1) Tibetan Medicines: A Humanistic Approach to Health. 2) Mind-
Made Health: A Tibetan Perspective. 3) Mind and Mental Disorders in Tibetan Medicine. 4) A 
anistic Approach to Treatment and Management of Cancer. 5) Relaxation Yoga: A Tibetan way 
of better Health."

[1266] Rabgay, Lobsang: Tibetan Therapeutic Massage. (Tibetan Medical Sciences Series). 
xii, 58 p. Published by Dr. Lobsang Rapgay, Dharamsala 1985.
 ". . . massage is considered the most effective  external therapy for a number of disorders and 
highly recommended." - In the Tibetan massage the correct oil or lotion is more important than 
the technique itself. Massage techniques are closely related to Japanese and Chinese massage 
techniques. Explains moxibustion, too.

[1267] Rabgay, Lobsang:  A Guide to Tibetan Medical Urine-analysis. Acupuncture and Electro-
Therapeutics Research (New York) 11 (1) (1986), pp. 25-43.
 "One of the  many unique aspects of Tibetan Medicine is urine-analysis used not only for its 
clinical value but also for prognosis. Urin-analysis is based on clinical observation and 
theoretical knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to present a basic guideline of the nine 
clinical characteristics of urine temperature and to show how such variation in these 
characteristics has clinical significance. Major clinical features of urine associated with specific 
diseases like malignancy, asthma, osteoarthritis and cholelithiasis are discussed."

[1268] Rabgay, Lobsang: The Art of Tibetan Urinanalysis. A Do-It-Yourself Technique. (Tibetan 
Holistic Medical Series). 76 p. Published by Dr. Lobsang Rabgay, Dharamsala 1986.
 "Urinanalysis is a routine diagnostic procedure and one of the ways a Tibetan doctor detects 
the state of health. The traditional Tibetan method of urine-analysis is unique and it can be 
claimed that no other system of traditional medicine has perfected this method of diagnosis as 
Tibetan physicians have over the centuries. Next to sphygmology (=pulsology), urine-analysis 
is the most important method of finding out and confirming a disorder and its nature, locations 
and so forth. Though it may seem a simplistic process when one observes it being practised by 
a Tibetan physician, in reality it has taken the physician years of training to make it so 
seemingly a simple method of diagnosis. Generally, a medical student studies the second 
chapter of the Last Tantra and uses it as a source for studying and practising urine-analysis and 
very often complements his study with the commentary to that work. In the Last Tantra, urine-
analysis is explained under eight sections: 1. Preliminary rules to be observed; 2. Time of 
examination; 3. Description of container to be used; 4. Compoundal formation of urine; 5. 
Healthy urine; 6. Unhealthy urine; 
7. Death urine; 8. Evil spirit urine."

[1269] Rabgay, Lobsang: Tibetan Massage Chart. One sheet 18" x 24". Snow Lion Publ., 
Ithaca/N.Y., no year.
 Illustrated wall-chart of Tibetan massage and acupressure, describing traditional Tibetan 
lotions and methods for helping to remedy problems with headache, anxiety, insomnia, female 
difficulties, and many more. Very clear and easy to follow.

[1270] Rätsch, Christian: Lexikon der Zauberpflanzen aus ethnologischer Sicht. 206 S. 
Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1988.
 Reprint VMA, Wiesbaden 1992.- Vielfache Verweise und Beschreibungen von Pflanzen der 
tibetischen Medizin, auch mit Hinweis auf die tibetische Medizin, z.B. Akonit, Aloe, Hanf, aber 
auch Tulasi und Wacholder, mit bibliographischen Verweisen. Interessante und wissenschaftlich 
begründete Zusammenstellung.

[1271] Rätsch, Christian and Guhr, Andreas: Lexikon der Zaubersteine aus ethnologischer 
Sicht. 204 S. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1989.
 Reprint VMA, Wiesbaden 1992.- Verweise auf in Tibet verwendete "Zaubersteine", zum Teil 
mit Abbildungen; vor allem Literaturverweise zu Achat, Ammoniten, Azurit sowie zu Belemniten 
(d.h. 'Donnerkeile'), Bergkristall, aber auch etwa zu den Dzi-Steinen. Interessant die 
Ausführungen zu verschiedenen Edelsteinen, zu Korallen, zu den Saligramen, Türkisen und vor 
allem auch zum Zinnober.

[1272] Rai, Lalitkumar and Sharma, Eklabya: Medicinal Plants of the Sikkim Himalaya. Status, 
Usage and Potential. (Himavikas Occasional Publication No. 5). Published by the Govind Ballabh 
Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development. 152 p. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal 
Singh, Dehra Dun 1994.
 "Himalaya is known for its rich and diverse medicinal plant wealth from time immemorial. The 
diversity of this resource is quite pronounced both horizontally and vertically. The Sikkim 
Himalaya harbours a great variety of these plants and the folk medicinal practices using them 
are quite common among all ethno-cultural groups of the region. Some of these plants are 
already exploited at a large scale which has threatened their existence. Majority of them are 
known for their medicinal value and used only in folk medicine at a local level, while some have 
not received any attention as yet."

[1273] Rajbhandari, Keshab R: A Bibliography of the Plant Science of Nepal. 247 p. Nepal Press 
Shukra Path, Kathmandu 1994.
 "One of the difficulties encountered in the research of plant science of Nepal is to retrieve 
easily scientific references. Though work on Nepal has been conducted by various scientists 
since the beginning of 19th century, no consolidated information is available till now. The 
present bibliography fulfils the long-felt need of research workers, teachers and students of 
plant science, agriculturists, foresters, ecologists, environmentalists, planners and agencies 
connected with the development in the field of plant science. The bibliography contains 
references published up to the end of 1993 on various aspects of plant science, such as 
taxonomy, morphology, anatomy, cytology, cytogenetics, biotechnology, biodiversity, 
pathology, algae, fungi, desmids, diatoms, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, 
angiosperms, palaeobotany, palynology, vegetation, ecology, environment, conservation, 
phytogeography, economic botany, ethnobotany, explorations, expeditions, biographies, 
agriculture, forestry, and so on. The references are arranged in alphabetical order according to 
the authors' names. Subject index, index of place names and index of scientific names are 

[1274] Rakshain, KV (1940-1983): Pharmacological Study of Cynoglossum divarigatum, used 
in Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: "Ethnograficheskie Aspekty Izucheniya Narodnoy Meditsiny"
(= Abstracts of the All-Union Conference 10th to 12th March 1975 on Ethnographical Aspects 
of the Studies of Folk Medicine), pp. 84-85.  Leningrad 1975.
 In addition to the article listed here several more publications by the same author on alkaloids 
of Cynoglossum divarigatum and their pharmacological properties have been published, but are 
not included in the bibliography.

[1275] Rakshaina, Mts (1934- ): Bactericidal Action of Blood Serum in Homoeostatic 
Characteristics (Russian). In: Homoeostats of the Living and Technical Systems. Abstracts of 
the Reports, p. 98.  Irkutsk 1987.
 'Antihepatotoxic tea' - a complex plant preparation developed out of Tibetan prescriptions - 
has increased in acute hepatitis the bactericidal action of blood serum by 35% in comparison 
with controls.

[1276] Ramachandra Rao, SK:  Tibetan Medicine. Ancient Science of Life (Coimbatore) 2 
(1982), pp. 61-70.
 "Before I proceed to give a brief description of the rGyub-zhi, let me remind you that Tibetan 
medicine is entirely Ayurveda in its origination, approach, assumptions, diagnostic methods, 
prognosis, pharmacy treatment procedures, and Materia Medica. The theory that all 
substances, all physical and mental constitutions, all ailments and all curative processes, are 
pancha-bhautika in character (viz. composed of earth, water, fire, air and akaæa elements), the 
assumption that the patient's constitution, health and disease are determined by the tri-dosha 
(vata, pitta and kapha) are common to Ayurveda and Tibetan medicine. The Indian tradition that 
the science of medicine was handed down from Brahma to Prajapati, from Prajapati to the 
Aævins, and from the Aævins to Indra has been accepted in Tibet, with a slight amendment 
that it was Buddha-Kaæyapa who taught Brahma this art and science.
 Vagbhata's Astanga-samgraha mentions merely that Brahma learnt this immortal art along 
with the import Ayurvedamrtam Sartham Brahma Buddha Sanatanam, not however spelling out 
from whom. Tibetan tradition fills this gap.- It recognizes the father of Indian medicine, Atreya, 
as the teacher of Dhanvantari (Thang-la bar), and the lineage continues with Dka-'gnis Spyod, 
Mu-khyud-'dzin, bshol-'gro skyed, Me-bzyin-jug (Agniveæa), Lug-rig (Krshna-mesha?), and rGya-
sKegs-sma. These are Tibetan names of Indian medical authorities, but it is difficult to identify 
them except for Dhanvantari and Agniveæa. The medical works of all these authorities are 
clubbed together under the title Rtsa-ra-kasde (viz. Caraka aæta-varga). The Samhitas of 
Caraka, Suæruta and Vagbhata (the so-called Vrddha-trayi) have been rendered into Tibetan 
and accorded a prestigious position in the canonical literature, bsTan-hGyur."

[1277] Ramaiah, G Sundara and Rao, S D A Joga:  Buddhist Interpretation of Dreams. The 
Tibet Journal (Dharamsala) 13, No. 1 (1988), pp. 30-37.
 "Inquiry into the nature and function of the psyche has been very much the concern of 
philosophers of the past. The present day researches into the vast philosophical literature of 
ancient India, particularly Buddhism, demands an inter-disciplinary or even a multi-disciplinary 
approach. Analysis and classification of consciousness is a very interesting phenomenon in 
Buddhism. In this paper an attempt is made to understand the Buddhistic interpretation of 
dreams based upon some of the classical text.- Dream, according to Nagasena, is an image 
(Nimitta) coming into the field of consciousness. This definition of dream, observes Shwe Zan 
Aung, is incomplete as it does not distinguish a dream from a waking hallucination. But as the 
word Supina (Svapna), a dream, is derived from the root 'sup', i.e., to sleep, Nagasena 
undoubtedly meant 'consciousness in sleep'. . . . Nagasena provides not only a definition of 
dream, but also gives a classification of the dream and the types of the persons who dream 
and which kind of dream will become true. Dream, according to Nagasena, is a kind of 
suggestion coming across the path of the mind. He says, that there are six kinds of people who 
see dreams. They are as follows: (1) Men who are of windy humour. (2) Men who are of bilious 
humour. (3) Men who are of phlegmatic humour. (4) Men who dreams by the influence of a 
God. (5) Men who does so by influence of his own habits. (6) Men who does so in the way of 
prognostication.- Of all these dreams, says Nagasena, the last kind of dream is true and the 
rest are false."

[1278] Rapgay, Lobsang:  vide Rabgay written with 'b'.
[1279] Rapten, Kelsang: vide Kelsang Rapten.
[1280] Ravigupta: vide Ronald E. Emmerick, Wiesbaden 1982; Wien 1983.

[1281] Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang: Tibetan Medicine, illustrated in original texts. 
Presented and translated by the Ven. Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang. With introduction by 
Marianne Winder. 340 p. Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, London 1973.
 Also published by University of California Press, Los Angeles 1973, viii, 340 p., illustr. Includes 
the biography of the great physician-saint gYu-thog Yon-tan mGon-po: pp. 141-327. Bibliography 
of European works on Tibetan medicine pp. 98-102.- Paperback edition 1976. With 20 
illustrations including a series of Tibetan anatomy diagrams.- For reviews see I. Kania, Baltimore 
1978;  P. Kvaerne, Kathmandu 1975.- 
From a review by W. Stablein, Bloomington 1977, I quote the following passages: "It is indeed a 
pleasure to have on our bookshelves at least one book that represents in translation some of the 
variety of subjects encompassed by Tibetan medicine. As the author, the Ven. Rechung 
Rimpoche, chooses to give us a brief account of part of a work on Tibetan descriptive medical 
technology (Sde.srid.sangs.rgyas.rgya.mtsho's commentary on the four tantras rGyud-bzhi) 
together with a translation of the biography of the physician-saint Gyu.thog.yon.tan.mgon.po, 
the reader is introduced not only to the descriptive medical technê in a textbook-like format, but 
also to a genre of Tibetan literature (the biography, Tibetan rnam.thar) that, as Marianne Winder 
mentions in her introduction, 'shows the poetic and imaginative features characteristic of Tibetan 
literature.' This metaphorical ornamentation found in Yon tan's biography, as I shall comment 
again in a few paragraphs, having obvious (I hope) spiritual values, is also of enormous analytic 
value for studying what some of us have come to know as Tantric medicine: it is also conducive 
for understanding how Indo-Tibetan culture fuses art and technê into a cultural form. On the 
descriptive technê side, the chapter on the Sde.srid's commentary of the Bshad.rGyud presents 
us with summaries of a variety of medical subjects ranging from physiology and disease etiology 
(Chapters I-XII), to ethics, diet, treatment, pharmacology, and mental pathology (Chapters XIII-
XXXI). For the latter, Ven. Rechung could have explained why he omitted a translation of 
Chapter XXV, 'Vicious Inclinations as Causes of Diseases' (Tibetan: ngan.gyo.skyon.-
gyi,sgo.nas.brtag.pahi.lehu) - or was it omitted by the Sde.srid and why? Also, he does not say 
why he left out Chapter III, 'Anatomy' (Comparison with a house, Tibetan: lus.kyi.hdra.dpe.-
bstan.dpe.bstan.pahi.lehu). These are important chapters for our understanding of Indo-Tibetan 
configurations of disease and physiology."

[1282] Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang: Histoire de la Médecine Tibétaine. Vie de gYu-thog-
pa l'Ancien. Traduit de l'anglais par Jean-Paul R. Claudon et Sylvaine Jean, avec la 
collaboration de Martine Pageon-Tarin. 279 p. Edition "Le Chardon", Saint Dié (Vosges) 1989.
 Extrait de "Tibetan Medicine" par Rechung Rinpoché, publié par le Wellcome Institute for the 
History of Medicine, London 1973.

[1283] Rechung Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang:  Introduction. In: Aspects of Classical Tibetan 
Medicine. Special Volume of 1993. Bulletin of Tibetology (Gangtok/Sikkim)  (1993), pp. i-ii.

[1284] Rehmann, J(oseph) (1779-1831):  Beschreibung einer kleinen Thibetanischen Hand-
Apotheke. Journal der practischen Heilkunde, hrsg. von C. W. Hufeland und K. Himly (Berlin) V, 
(Drittes Stück, II) (1811), pp. 50-92.
 Mit der nachfolgend gelisteten Buchausgabe, St. Petersburg 1811, inhaltlich identisch.

[1285] Rehmann, J(oseph): Beschreibung einer Thibetanischen Handapotheke. Ein Beytrag zur 
Kenntnis der Arzneykunde des Orients. 54 S.,  F. Drechsler, St. Petersburg 1811.
 Erschien zudem auch in: Sammlung auserlesener Abhandlungen und merkwürdiger Nachrichten 
Russischer Naturforscher, 1. Theil, St. Petersburg, Moskwa, Riga und Leipzig 1812, S. 1-54.- 
Joseph Matthäus Augustinus Rehmann  erhielt von einem Lama an der sibirisch-chinesischen 
Grenze Medizinen. Bei genauem Nachlesen erkennt man, daß es sich um 60 chinesische 
Medikamente handelt, die von mongolischen Lamas außerhalb Tibets (sicherlich aber auch in 
Tibet selbst) verwendet, jedoch mit tibetischen Namen versehen wurden. Rehmann ließ die 
Arzneien durch einen Botaniker bestimmen, ebenso die tibetischen Namen durch Lamas 
aussprechen, um so zu einer lautlichen Umschreibung zu kommen. Es ist dies die früheste 
westliche Arbeit ausschließlich zur tibetischen Medizin! Über J. Rehmann und seine Reise, auf 
der er die tibetischen Medizinen erwarb, kann man sich weiter informieren bei W. Heissig: 
Mongoleireise zur späten Goethezeit. Berichte und Bilder des J. Rehmann und A. Thesleff von der 
russischen Gesandtschaftsreise 1805/1806. (Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in 
Deutschland. Supplementband 13). Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 1971.

[1286] Retel Laurentin, A:  vide Fernand Meyer, Paris 1987.
[1287] Reykhman, N:  Mongolian Medicine in Eastern Siberia (Russian). Sibiriya (= Siberia) 
(Russian) 37, from 11th September (1877), p. 5.
[1288] Rezanova, OI, Khundanova, Lydia L, Nikolayeva, GG, and Tankhayeva, LM: On the 
Tibetan Plant Medicine "Three Fruits" [i. e. Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Emblica officinalis]. 
In: Izuchenie Preparatov Estestvennogo i Sinteticheskogo Proiskhozhdeniya (= Studies of 
Treatments of Natural and Synthetic Origin) (Russian), pp.  87-89. Tomsk 1978.
 For a commentary on the "Three Fruits" see A. Wayman, Berkeley 1954/55.

[1289] Rezanova, OI, Naydakova, TsA, Badmayev, DD, Dargayeva, TD, and Tankhayeva, LM: 
Biochemical compound of Medicinal Plants, used in Indo-Tibetan Medicine for Pulmonary 
Diseases (Russian). In: Flora, Rastitel'nost'i Rastitel'nye Resurzcy Zabaikal'ya i Sosednikh 
Rayonov (= Flora, Vegetation and Plant Resources of Transbaikalia  and Neighbouring 
Regions). Issue 5., p. 97.  Chita 1975.
[1290] Rezanova, OI, Naydakova, TsA, and Tankhayeva, LM: The Phytochemical Investigation 
of some Plants of Transbaikalia, used in Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Materials of the 
Third Republican Practical Conference of the Physicians of Buryatia (Russian), pp.  99-200. 
Buryat Book Publishing House, Ulan-Ude 1975.
[1291] Rezanova, OI and Nikolayeva, GG: Polyphenolic Compounds of Scabiosa Comosa Fisch., 
a Plant used in Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: Materials of the Third Republican Practical 
Conference of the Physicians of Buryatia (Russian), pp. 201-203.  Buryat Book Publishing 
House, Ulan-Ude 1975.
 Some more publications by these authors, not included in this bibliography, have been 
published on the same subject.

[1292] rGyud bzhi:
 Tibetan edition Sman rtsis Shesrig Spendzod vol. 68, Leh 1975, and also Sman rtsis Shesrig 
Spendzod vol. 87, Leh 1978.- For Russian edition see D. B. Dashiyev (I, II, IV), Novosibirsk 
1989, and (III) Ulan-Ude 1991; for Mongolian editions see following entry.- Chinese  editions 
see Li Yongnian, Beijing 1983, and Ma Shilin et al., Shanghai 1987.- English complete edition 
(together with translation from Tibetan into Sanskrit) announced in 15 volumes by V. B. Dash, 
Delhi (vols. I to IV already appeared 1994/1995). For English partial translations read my 
remarks in the introduction to this bibliography.

[1293] rGyud bzhi: Anagaqu uqagan-u dörben ündüsü [= rGyud-bzhi, Mongolian edition]. 
Peoples Publishing House, Hohhot/Inner Mongolia 1959.
 Reprinted from an ancient (17th century) blockprint edition. Modern reprint again in 1978. Also 
in 1987 by Inner Mongolia Press of Science & Technology.

[1294] Richards, Elizabeth: vide Pema Dorjee: Tibetan Medicine, Dharamsala 1981.
[1295] Rigpai, L (=Rapgay): Il massaggio Tibetano. In: Il canto del cuculo. Milano 1987.
[1296] Rock, Joseph Francis (1884-1962): Banishing the Devil of Disease Among the Nashi. 
The National Geographic Magazine (Washington; D.C.)  (1924), pp. 473-499, illustr.
 "I recalled that a few days previously this man had come to me for medicine. His ailments I 
found were due to a black, ulcerated tooth, if such it could be called, for there was nothing left 
but a black hole in his lower jaw. His gums were swollen and intensely red and pus was 
gathering within the palate; he was unable to swallow or close his mouth and every movement 
of his lips must have caused him excruciating pain. I had sent him away, as I had neither 
means nor skill to cure or help him. Since I had failed him, he called the priests together and 
asked them to rid him of that evil spirit which causes all sickness. The beating of the drums 
was the announcement of the fact that Tombas had declared war upon the enemy, who was 
soon to be cornered, evicted, and banished. And this is the way it happened, for I was 
permitted to watch all the ceremonies and wild dances, if not to see the devil depart in 
person."- The ceremony then is described in all details.

[1297] Rock, Joseph Francis:  Contributions to the Shamanism of the Tibetan-Chinese 
Borderland. 6 plates with illustr. Anthropos (Fribourg/Schweiz) 54 (1959), pp. 796-818.
[1298] Rockhill, William Woodville (1854-1914):  The Lamaist ceremony called "making of 
mani pills". (Proceedings of the American Oriental Society, at its Meeting in Philadelphia, PA., 
October 31st and November 1st, 1888). Journal of the American Oriental Society (New Haven) 
14 (1890), pp. xxii-xxiv.
  "Certain indestructible particles of the bodies of the Buddhas and saints, as well as certain 
other bodily remains, have ever been considered by Buddhists to enjoy certain properties, such 
as that of emitting light, and of having great curative properties. The travels of Huein-Tsang 
and of Fa-hsien are filled with accounts of the discovery of such treasures, and of the 
supernatural properties which they possessed. Among Thibetans, the first class of these relics 
is know as 'pedung' (upel-gedung), the second as 'dung-rus' (gdung-rus). They say the pedung 
are minute globules found in the bones of Buddhas and saints, that they possess wonderful 
brilliancy, and that sometimes they may be seen on the exterior of some saintly person, when 
they have the appearance of brillant drops of sweat. While these pedung have most potent 
curative properties, they become also the palladium of the locality fortunate enough to have 
By a natural extension of the idea of the power of pedung, Thibetans have come to think that if 
one preserves and carries about on one's person even a little of the excretions, or of the hair or 
nail-trimmings of a saint who is known to have pedung, such, for instance, as the Tale-Lama, 
or the Panchen-Rimpoche, they will shield extraordinary objects one so often finds in Thibetan 
charm-boxes (Ka-Wo). The properties of pedung have also given rise to another belief, with 
which this paper is more properly concerned, - that of manufacturing pills, to which the god 
Shourizog, at the supplication of the officiating lamas, imparts the properties of his own divine 
body, and then imparts to them the curative and protective properties of real pedung. These 
pills are known as mani ril-bu, or 'precious pills', and are in constant use as medicine among 
the people of Thibet and Mongolia. Large quantities of them are also sent by each tribute 
bearing minion to the Emperor of China. In Chinese, they are called 'Tsu-mu-yas', or 'Thih-ma-
yao', and must not be confounded with a liliaceous plant of same name (Hanbury's 
Anemarrhena asphodeloides), the rhizome of which is used in medicine, and which is also a 
product of Thibet."

[1299] Roddick, Kate:  Heilpflanzen auf dem Dach der Welt. Mit 10 Fotos von Thomas L. Kelly. 
Illustrierte Wissenschaft (Norderstedt) 3,8 (1994), pp. 28-33.
[1300] Roddick, Kate:  Tibets laeger lever hojt pa urtemedicin. Illustreret Videnskab April 
(1994), pp. ??
[1301] Rode, Winfried:  Die tibetische Medizin (5 Teile). Dana Tibet Info (München) Nr.1, S. 4-
5; Nr.2, S. 7; Nr.3, S. 3-4; Nr. 4, S. 5-6; Nr. 5, S. 4-5 (1994/95).
[1302] Roerich, Georges de (=Yuri Nicolayevich, 1902-1960):  La Médecine au Thibet et les 
Lamas Guerisseurs. Ethnographie (Paris) No. 27 (1933), pp. 97-98.
 "Au Tibet et en Mongolie, chaque monastère important possède son propre docteur ou manpa. 
Une man khang, ou pharmacie, est souvent entretenue au monastère à l'usage des moines, des 
pèlerins et de la population du district. En été, les lamas-docteurs, accompagnés de leurs 
disciples, vont recueillir les plantes dans les montagnes. Il s'établit alors un véritable marché 
pharmaceutique. Au moins 60 p. 100 de la Materia Medica du Tibet est d'origine végétale. 
Parmi les drogues animales nous trouvons des extraits d'organes et des sécrétions de glandes 
animales, ce qui se rapproche de la science moderne."

[1303] Rohrer, Anton and Qusar, Namgyal:  Comparitive Paradigms of Homoeopathy and 
Tibetan medicine. sMan-rTsis [new series!]. A publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine 
and Astro Science (Dharamsala) 1, No. 2 (1995), pp. 21-42.
[1304] Ronge, Veronika: Vorkehrungen zum Schutz von Kleinkindern in Tibet und in der 
Mongolei. In: Documenta Barbarorum. Festschrift für Walther Heissig zum 70. Geburtstag. 
Hrsg. Klaus Sagaster und Michael Weiers. (Veröffentlichungen der Societas Uralo-Altaica. 18), 
pp. 330-340. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1983.
 Einige interessante Aspekte im Wortlaut: "Bereits vor der Geburt beginnt die Sorge um den 
Schutz des Kindes während der Schwangerschaft und für den Zeitpunkt der Geburt selbst. So 
sollte in Tibet eine werdende Mutter keine Nahrung von Leuten annehmen, die nicht 'dam cig' 
sind (den gleichen Yidam oder Lehrer haben), auch deren Einladung ins Haus nicht befolgen und 
insbesondere nicht die Kleider anderer Menschen tragen. Aus Furcht vor einer Fehlgeburt vermied 
sie möglichst jeden Kontakt mit Angehörigen der unteren Gesellschaftsschichten, wie Metzger, 
Schmied, Jäger, Fischer, Töpfer, Bettler etc. Vor allem dem Besuch einer Schmiede-
werkstatt während der Schwangerschaft schrieb man Geburtsmale des kleinen Kindes zu. Die 
Geburtshelferin soll sofort nach der Geburt ausrufen: 'es ist ein Bub!' - selbst wenn es sich um 
ein Mädchen handelt. Nach der Geburt eines Knaben werden glückverheißende Gebete und 
Lobsprüche zitiert, nicht aber bei der Geburt eines Mädchens.

Vor der Gefahr des Geschlechtswandels schützte man das Neugeborene, indem man einen Ring 
über das Glied streifte, um so eine nachträgliche Umwandlung in ein Mädchen zu verhindern 
(Brauch aus Amdo). In Ladakh hält man die Neuigkeit von der Geburt eines Knaben möglichst 
lange geheim, ja gibt ihn auch für ein Mädchen aus, um keine Neidgefühle, die dem kleinen Kinde 
schaden könnten, zu wecken . . . - Eine weitere Maßnahme zum Schutz des Kindes wie der 
Mutter besteht in der Gesichtsbemalung. In Ladakh bemalt man das Gesicht der Mutter nach 
einer Geburt mit einer Mischung (chig ma) aus verkohlten und zerriebenen Gerstenkörnern, 
Wasser, Sasfran, Zucker und einem Pflanzenabsud. Zwar war die Gesichtsbemalung als Schutz 
vor Wind und Wetter auch sonst in Tibet üblich, hier jedoch hatte sie die spezielle Funktion, 
durch Verunstaltung die übelwollenden Geister fernzuhalten und abzuschrecken. Dem 
Neugeborenen bemalt man Stirn und Nase mit einem schwarzen Rußstrich (zur), um es vor dem 
bösen Blick zu schützen oder aber vor überschwenglicher Bewunderung, die wiederum die 
Aufmerksamkeit böser Geister auf das Kind lenken würde. Die Kinder werden auf diese Art bis 
zum 3. und 4. Lebensjahr geschützt. Die gleiche Sitte ist in Tibet üblich, wird aber auch bei den 
Tuwinern der Westmongolei praktiziert."

[1305] Ronge, Veronika: Die Leichenzerstückler von Sera. 2 s/w Abb. In: Münchner Beiträge 
zur Völkerkunde, Band 2, pp.  105-116. Hirmer, München 1989.
 Die Beschreibung beruht auf einer Reise der Autorin in Zentraltibet im Jahr 1986.

[1306] Rossiysky, DM: Native Medicinal Plants and their Medical Use (Russian). 120 p.,
Moscow 1944.
[1307] Rovere, Pierfrancesco M:  Costituzioni e generalita nella tradizione medica Tibetana. 
Minerva Medica (Torino) 77(18) (1986), pp. 761-766.
 "The present work is the result of a preliminary study promoted by C.I.S.ME.T. (=The 
International Tibetan Medicine Study Centre) and aims to unify the diagnostic and therapeutic 
language of various medical cultures. In line with the spirit of the W.H.O. aimed at safeguarding 
the cultural heritage represented by popular and traditional medicines, and also encouraged by 
the Tibetan Medical Centre and under the auspices of His Holiness the Dalai Lama a 
terminological and conceptual integration of the basic elements of traditional Tibetan Medicine 
is proposed. The 'Lung, Tripa and Bäkän' constitutions are correlated with embryological 
anatomy. The 5 exhalations, 5 biles and 5 phlegms are analysed from a tissue viewpoint with a 
search for parallels with embryological tissues."

[1308] Rovere, Pierfrancesco M:  Ipercromie melaniche circoscritte e compensi funzionali. 
Prime interpretazioni riflessologiche. Minerva Medica (Torino) 77(28-29) (1986), pp. 1381-
 "On the basis of clinical observation and with reference to a Chinese and Tibetan medical 
tradition a reflexological interpretation is suggested for hyperchromatic structures in relation to 
organic and functional pathologies. Several possible nervous relationships involved in the 
process (hyperchromatism - nerve receptors) are analysed and it is hypothesised that 
hyperchromatism serves as a system for biological compensation."

[1309] Rowntree, Cecil:  Surgery in Thibet. Ethnologia Cranmorensis (Chislehurst/England) 3 
(1938), pp. 11-13 and 5 plates.
 "The recent acquisition by the Cranmore Ethnographical Museum of the more or less complete 
armamentarium of a Thibetan practitioner of medicine affords an opportunity of forming some 
kind of estimate of the present state of the practice of medicine and surgery in a country still 
remote from and inaccessible to Western culture. It is stated that the knowledge and practice 
of the medical arts in Thibet is largely confined to the priesthood, who in themselves constitute 
no inconsiderable proportion of the adult male population; and in a country of such vast 
distances with widely scattered foci of population - many of them nomadic in their mode of life 
- it is probable that much of such medical and surgical work as is done, is carried out by 
itinerant practitioners much as was the case in Mediaeval Europe."- The author then describes 
the instruments, found in the bag and shown on the plates.

[1310] Ryan, Mary and Dhadon Jamling:  Study of Tibetan Medicine on Arthritis - A Research 
Report. sMan-rTsis [new series!]. A publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine and Astro 
Science (Dharamsala) 1, No. 2 (1995), pp. 11-20.
[1311] Rybot, NVL:  A Small-Pox Edict Pillar at Lhasa. 1 illustr. Man (London) 26 (1936),
pp. 180-181.
 "The accompanying illustration" - writes the author - "is from a drawing of the Small-Pox 
Edict pillar which stands in Lhasa, opposite the main entrance to the Jo-khang or cathedral. The 
face of the slab, upon which the cup-marks or pock-marks were made, originally bore the 
Chinese characters of the Edict. The slab is about 6 feet high, and of granite or some kindred 
igneous rock. Down the centre of the slab is a vertical row of cup-marks shaped like spoons, 
one overlapping the other. Some of the larger cup-marks on either side of this vertical row are 
also spoon-shaped; but the others approximate to the circle. The Edict slab is based on, as well 
as crowned by, elaborately sculptured marble blocks - evidently the work of Chinese 
craftsmen. The tilework is also Chinese. The cup- or pock-marks, then, have been ground into 
the slab since the last decade of the eighteenth century, and I see in them a magical 
connection with the disease itself. I further believe that the cup-marks are 'unofficial' - by 
which I mean that they are the work of the superstitious populace of Lhasa, who have, in 
making them, practically obliterated the Chinese proclamation. I understand that on the other 
side of this slab the proclamation is incised in the Tibetan character and that it is not defaced 
by pock-marks."

[1312] Sacherer, Janice:  The high altitude ethnobotany of the Rolwaling Sherpas. 
Contributions to Nepalese Studies 6, No. 2 (1979), pp. 45-64.
 Rolwaling is an east-west running valley, parallel with the Chinese border. Some 297 different 
species of plants were identified in this altitude zone, although the local Sherpas had names for 
only 150. The author explains about edible plants and mushrooms, medicinal plants and 
poisons, incense plants, natural dyes, and plants with special uses and has classified plants 
found in Rolwaling Valley within those categories.

[1313] Sachs, Robert: Health for Life: Secrets of the Tibetan Ayurveda & Healing Arts.  Clear 
Light Publ., Santa Fee 1995.
 or.: Vitality & well beeing through Tibetan Ayurveda and Health Arts. Foreword by Lobsang 
Rapgay? (1994?)

[1314] Saddharmapundarikasutra: vide Leon Hurvitz (but other not listed translations do exist, too).
[1315] Sagant, Philippe:  The Shaman's cure and the layman's interpretation. [Translated by N. 
Scott from the French in l'Ethnographie, 83 (1987), pp. 247-273]. Kailash. A Journal of 
Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) 14, No. 1-2 (1988), pp. 5-40.
 "The shaman of this article belongs to the Limbu community of eastern Nepal. He was born 
sometime in the 1880s and died in 1957, which means that he lived at a time when the changes, 
the Indianization taking place in the far eastern part of Nepal, had not yet directly sapped the 
vitality of Limbu shamanism. This is evident in the considerable power attributed him by his 
entourage, the enormous responsibility with which they vested him. The following accounts were 
collected some twelve years after his death. They come from relatives, former clients, neighbours, 
sometimes enemies; I did not know him personally. The essential act in the shaman's healing 
activity is to attribute the responsibility for an illness to a specific spirit. But why one spirit rather 
than another? Why a tiger rather than a witch, why the local god rather than the return of a dead 
man? Why are not all spirits the same? I personally believe that the gift of a great shaman lies 
entirely in his ability to 'see'. That is, in being able, at a given time and in a particular situation, to 
associate a misfortune with a spirit. The study of the healing process provides an explanation. The 
shaman's cure is effective only if his clients are willing to admit their transgressions. In other 
words, society accepts the shaman's authority over the social order only to the extent that he is 
able to control the gods: this is to the advangage of society. The link between the function of 
healing and that of guaranteeing the social institutions is indissoluble; the relation between illness 
and civilization, obvious.- 
The present study is preliminary. It contains many approximations and a number of unanswered 
questions. There are also many overly ethnocentric definitions ('illness', 'healing', 'anxiety') which 
must be dealt with. Nevertheless, it seems that three phases can be discerned in shamanic 
healing, at least in the phedangma's practice. 1) The clinical examination in the course of which 
the community provides the shaman with information. In the case of illness, for example, the 
shaman, who is at home with these people, questions the patient on his recent past: his dreams, 
diet, activities, social relations, violations of taboos, spirit contacts, etc. He seizes on everything 
that might fill in his picture of the patient's history, his household, his settlement. 2) The symbolic 
horizon. Then comes the diagnosis, the divination. The shaman indicates the spirit responsible, a 
ritual to be performed. He suggests a 'symbolic horizon'. Having begun with his client's 
misfortunes, the patients' body, his community's history, he uses the trance to gain access to the 
world of the gods. In my opinion, for great shamans there is a close tie between the information 
they gather during the clinical examination and the symbolic horizon they propose. A great shaman 
is first of all a 'seer'.
 3) The layman's interpretation. Finally the process of interpreting can begin: this involves the 
patient and his entourage, sometimes the community as a whole. Everyone tries to make sense of 
the symbolic horizon, to understand the relation between the illness and the spirit that caused it. 
From the world of the gods, we return to that of men. This phase is not the shaman's worry. He 
may have been the first to see, but what he saw was of the Other World, to which he alone has 
access. The community must translate this into human terms by searching its past. A successful 
interpretation brings to light the violation of some taboo, a strain in the network of social relations. 
Sometimes this leads to confession by the guility parties."

[1316] Sagaster, Klaus: M. M. Haltods Notizen über die mongolische Volksmedizin. In: Heilen 
und Schenken. Festschrift  für Günther Klinge zu seinem 70. Geburtstag. Herausgegeben von 
Herbert Franke und Walther Heissig. (Asiatische Forschungen. 71.), pp.  78-96. Otto 
Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1980.
 Unter den Aufzeichnungen, die der 1978 verstorbene Lektor für Mongolisch an der Universität 
Bonn, M. M. Haltod, über das Brauchtum seiner tschachar-mongolischen Heimat hinterlassen 
hat, befinden sich auch einige Notizen über die mongolische Volksmedizin. Haltods Notizen 
gliedern sich in folgende Themengruppen: 1. Humanmedizin: A) Erfahrungsmedizin: a) Therapie 
folgender Krankheiten: Gehirnerschütterung (1); Magenschmerzen (2); starke Brustschmerzen 
(3); Leibschmerzen (4). b) Therapeutische Mittel: Aderlaß (5); Schröpfen und Skarifizieren (6); 
Brennen (7); Kompressen mit Panseninhalt (8); Drachenknochen (9). c) Verpackung von 
Heilmitteln (10). B) Magische Medizin: a) Ursachen folgender Krankheiten: Haarausfall 
("Haardiebstahl") (11, alt 36); Schluckauf (12, alt 54). b) Therapie folgender Krankheiten: Toll-
wut (12, alt 94); Niesen (14, alt 97). c) Therapeutische Mittel: Die Seele rufen (15, alt 55). 2. 
Tierheilkunde: Heilung von Grind bei Rindern (16, alt 37); Negativer Effekt von geschmolze-
ner Butter auf Hundebäuche (17, alt 112). Es folgen eingehende Beschreibungen, auch wichtige 
Definitionen und Hinweise zur Moxibustion.

[1317] Sambuyeva, ZG: The Cholagogic Action of New Plant Preparations (Russian). In: The 
Materials of the Republican Conference of the Pharmacists of Buryatia (Russian, pp.  45-46. 
Ulan-Ude 1983.
 The experiments have shown that most of the preparations of 16 species of Transbaikalian 
plants used in Tibetan medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract have marked 
cholagogic effects.
[1318] Sambuyeva, ZG, Nikolayev, SM, Naydakova, TsA, and Batorova, S(of'ya) M(ayorovna): 
Choleretic Plant Material from Transbaikalian Flora with Good Prospects (Russian). In: Problemy 
Osvoeniya Rastitel'nykh Resursov Sibiri i Dal'nego Vostoka (= Problems of the Assimilation of 
the Plant Resources of Siberia and the Far East). Abstracts of the Reports of the All-Union 
Scientific Conference (Russian), pp.  218-219.  Novosibirsk 1983.
 17 species of plants from Transbaikalian flora have been studied for their choleretic effect. 
The plants have been chosen in accord with Tibetan medical treatises and sources of 
Mongolian and Buryatian branches of Tibetan medicine.

[1319] Samochowiec, Leonidas, Janiec, W, and Wojcicki, Jerzy:  Influence of Padma 28 on the 
oxidation of Palmitic acid-14C to 14CO2. Polbiopharm Reports (Szczecin/Poland) 21 (1985), 
pp. 41-49.
[1320] Samochowiec, Leonidas, Janiec, W, and Wójcicki, Jerzy:  Influence of Padma 28 on the 
oxidation of Palmitic acid-1-14C to 14CO2. Herba Polonica (Poznan) TOM XXXII, Nr. 3-4 
(1986), pp. 183-186.
 "Padma 28 is a herbal mixture of the lamaistic medical science, consisting of 22 natural 
ingredients combined in a specific order, according to strict weight ratios and according to the 
description of Wladimir Badmayev et al.- Results from up to now performed clinical studies have 
indicated that Padma 28 appears to be effective in a considerable percentage of patients with 
chronic coronary heart diseases and in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The 
purpose of this study was to obtain information about the action of Padma 28 on lipid 
metabolism. Therefore the influence of this drug on the oxidation of palmitic acid-1-14C to 
14CO2 has been investigated."

[1321] Samochowiec, Leonidas, Palacz, A, Bobnis, W, and Lisiecka, B:  Oscillating Potentials of 
the Electroretinogram in the Evaluation of the Effects of Padma 28 on Lipid Metabolism and 
Vascular Changes in Humans. Phytotherapy Research (London) 6 (1992), pp. 200-204.
 "The effect of Padma 28 on lipid parameters and oscillating potentials of the electroretinogram 
in humans were measured. The aim of the study was to determine whether a correlation 
between disturbances in lipid metabolism and oscillating potentials exists. The lipid parameters 
studied in blood serum of patients included: triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol 
percentage. A decrease in the amplitudes of oscillating potentials was observed in patients 
with hyperlipidaemia, including both hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. In these 
patients, after 16 weeks of treatment with Padma 28, the values for oscillating potentials and 
lipid parameters normalized."

[1322] Samochowiec, Leonidas and Wieland, E:  Theoretical, Chemical and Pharmacodynamical 
Examinations of "Padma 28". Polbiopharm Reports (Szczecin/Poland) No. 20 (1983), pp. 3-34.
[1323] Samochowiec, Leonidas and Wojcicki, Jerzy:  Effect of Padma 28 on Lipid 
Endoperoxides Formation. Herba Polonica (Poznan) Tom XXXIII, Nr. 3 (1987), pp. 219-222.
[1324] Samochowiec, Leonidas and Wojcicki, Jerzy:  Effect of Padma 28 on Lipid 
Endoperoxides Formation. Polbiopharm Reports (Szczecin/Poland) 22 (1987), pp. 15-19.
[1325] Samochowiec, Leonidas, Wojcicki, Jerzy, Kosmider, K, Dadei, R, and Smulski, H:  
Wirksamkeitsprüfung von Padma 28 bei der Behandlung von Patienten mit chronischen 
arteriellen Durchblutungsstörungen. Teil I. Teil II (Nachbehandlung). Polbiopharm Reports 
(Szczecin/Poland) 21 (1985), pp. 3-40.
[1326] Samochowiec, Leonidas, Wojcicki, Jerzy, Kosmider, K, Dadei, R, and Smulski, H:  
Wirksamkeitsprüfung von Padma 28 bei der Behandlung von Patienten mit chronischen 
arteriellen Durchblutungsstörungen (Claudicatio intermittens, Fontaine Stadium II). Teil I. Herba 
Polonica (Poznan) Tom XXXIII, 1 (1987), pp. 29-41.
[1327] Samoylovich, P: The Lamentable Sanitary-Hygienical Conditions of the Buryat's Life 
during Czarism. The Spreading of Diseases. Medical Practice of the Lamas (Russian). In: The 
Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic, pp.  107-114. Moscow 1933.

[1328] Samson, Otto William:  Prints of Popular Gods in China and Some Parallels in Tibet and 
India. [Actes] VI. Congrès International Sciences Anthropologiques Ethnologiques 1960 (sic!), 
Section B9: Religion (Paris) 2, 2 (1964), pp. 475-478.
 "Objects of material culture from many parts of Asia, especially from India, Tibet, Burma and 
China are found in many ethnographical museums, but the popular prints and drawings from these 
regions have scarcely been systematically collected and have only in few instances found a place 
in museum collections; although they are often intimately connected with the craftsman whose 
tools are shown, e. g. the smith, or with the peasant whose plough may be on view. In India and 
Burma such prints or drawings of gods are usually taken from the prevalent religion, Hinduism and 
Buddhism, in Tibet there are prints only loosely connected with Buddhism. In China there are very 
many gods or deified persons who have their roots in a folk religion not originally connected with 
Taoism or Buddhism although both these have made some successful attempts to incorporate 
them in their pantheons. The author collected, in the countries mentioned above, hundreds of 
these prints and drawings from the houses, shops, bazaars and temples, also on a pilgrimage to 
the Holy Mountains, the Tai Shan and the Wu Tai Shan, in China. Protectors from disease form a 
major portion of paper gods, coupled with these are those gods helping to make childbirth easy. 
The different small-pox goddesses are as prevalent as the disease itself, even divided into classes, 
first and second. These gods have their parallels in Tibet where disease-fighting amulets portray a 
demon whose arms and feet are manacled. The picture of a scorpion will act as a protection from 
demon possession."
[1329] Samuel, Geoffrey: Civilized Shamans. Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. 725 p. 
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London 1993.
 Printed also by Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu 1995.- Numerous references to Tibetan 
Medicine. In his foreword, the author points out that a third religious orientation, the 'Pragmatic 
Orientation', is concerned with this-worldly goals such as health and prosperity. Its relationship 
to Buddhism is complex and is considered in chapter 2. The 'ancient matrix' and its shamanic 
practices were generally less appealing to the rulers of Buddhist states than the karma-oriented 
aspects of Buddhism. Shamanic practitioners might offer the possibility of magical control over 
the problems of everyday life, but they also represented potential sites of rebellion against the 
order imposed by the state. They were generally tolerated in premodern Buddhist states, but 
they were kept firmly subordinate to state power, and were seen as inferior and marginal in 
relation to the Buddhism that reinforced that state power.

[1330] Sangay, Thubten:  vide Thubten Sangay.

 [1331] Sangye Gyamtso = Sans-rGyas rGya-mTsho (1653-1705): The Regent to the Great 
Fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682).  See also Kristina Lange, Berlin 1976. Vide Vai du rya snon po; 
vide Glan-thabs.

[1332] Sangye Gyamtso: gSo-rig sMan-gyi Khog-'bugs. For a Chinese translation see Wang Lei, 
Nanjing 1991.
[1333] Sangye Gyamtso:  Glang thabs (Acute Diseases of the Organs of the Abdominal Cavity) 
and their Correction in Tibetan Medicine: Translation into Russian from the Third Section [i.e. 
volume] of the rGyud-bzhi (sic!) and the Vaidurya sÏgon-po. [Acad. of Sciences of the USSR, 
Siberian Division. Buryat Branch, Institute of Social Sciences. Ulan-Ude 1976]. Chief Editor B.V. 
Semichov. Translated from the Russian by Dr. Stanley Frye. Tibetan Medicine, a Publication for 
the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 4 (1981), pp. 1-116.
 For English commentary see Badarayev et al., Dharamsala 1981.

[1334] Sangye Gyamtso: The Vaidurya snon po: A Treatise of Indo-Tibetan Medicine (Russian). 
Researched by E. G. Bazaron and T. A. Aseyeva. Chief Editors B. D. Badarayev and V. E. 
Nazarov-Rygdylon. 117 p., illustr.  The USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, Buryat 
Scientific Center, the Institute of Biology, Novosibirsk 1984.
 (Appendix published by "Science", Siberian Division, Novosibirsk 1985).- For commentary see 
Bazaron and Aseyeva, Novosibirsk 1984 [No. 192 of this bibliography].

[1335] Sangye Gyamtso: Tibetan Medical Thangkas of the Four Medical Tantras. Bod lugs gSo-
Rig rGyud-bzhi'i Nang Don Bris-cha Ngo mTshar mThong ba Don lDan. Tibetan-Chinese Edition 
of the Tibetan Medical Thangkas, Scientific Editor Byams-pa 'phrin-las. Chinese Translator and 
Annotator Wang Lei. Designer of the original atlas and Colourater dBang-chen rDo-rJe and 
Ngag-dBang Chos-Grags. 500 p. Peoples Publishing-House of Tibet, Lhasa 1986.
[1336] Sangye Gyamtso: Tibetan Medical Thangka (sic!) of the Four Medical Tantras. 
Translator and compiler of the original edition Byams-pa 'Phrin-las. English translator and 
annotator Cai Jingfeng. Designer of the original atlas and caption (sic!) dBang-chen rDo-rje and 
Ngag-dbang Chos-grags. 500 p. Tibet Peoples Publishing House, Lhasa 1988.
 Foreword in English by Cai Jingfeng, July 1987 in Lhasa, English text "About Tibetan Medical 
Thangkas" by Wang Lei, June 1983.- From the English introduction by Prof. Cai Jingfeng: "It 
should be pointed out that the current edition is not the rigorous word-to-word translation of 
the Tibetan-Chinese edition of the Medical Thangka series, rather, it follows more strictly the 
Tibetan originals. During the process of translation, we have corrected some of the mistakes 
and shortcomings in the Tibetan-Chinese edition. Due to some technical reasons, the Chinese 
translation doesn't follow strictly to the Tibetan originals, instead, it is, actually, a liberal 
translation. Hence, some of the important points in the originals are not manifested, whereas 
some of the Chinese contents are not reflected in the Tibetan originals. What is more, there are 
some incorrect spellings of the Tibetan words. 
All of these shortcomings are checked. However, the most distinctive changes are the major 
revisions on the captions of some thangkas. Within the series, there are twin thangkas, 
including thangkas Nos. 6-7, 9-10, 16-17, 40-41, 49-50, 75-75, the original Tibetan captions 
of which should be read from one thangka, line to line to its corresponding partner thangka. 
Unfortunately, the Tibetan-Chinese edition printed these captions of twin thangkas seperately, 
rendering the captions illegible and difficult to understand. We have rerendered the captions so 
that it can be read smoothly and easily understood. Major revisions were also made on the 
Chinese translation of the thangka captions. All the revisions and corrections are based strictly 
on the originals from the Four Medical Tantras (rGyud-bzhi) and sDe-srid Sangs-rGyas rGya-
mTsho's gSo-rig sMan-gyi Khog-'bugs and Vaidurya sNgon-po."

[1337] Sangye Gyamtso: Tibetan Medical Paintings. Illustrations to the Blue Beryl Treatise of 
Sangye Gyamtso (1653-1705). Prepared from the Russian translations of the late Yuri 
Parfionovich, and the English translations of the Tibetan sources by Gyurme Dorje and Fernand 
Meyer. General editor Anthony Aris. Foreword by the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. Introduction by 
Fernand Meyer.- Volume I: Plates; Volume II: Text.  - Vol. I: Foreword, Introduction and 156 ill. 
(76 col.) on 77 plates on ix, 1-170;  vol. II: VII, 173-336 p.  Serindia, London 1992.
 Also published with Harry N. Abrams, New York 1992.- "The origin of this series cannot yet be 
established with certainty. According to information obtained from my colleague Heather Stoddard, 
from the curator of the collection in May of 1991, these paintings are copies ordered from the 
School of Medicine and Astrology by a Buryat monk called Sonoyev who studied in the Tibetan 
capital for seven years and who brought back the collection to Tsugulsky Datsang monastery in 
Chita region. In 1932 the famous Buryat Lama Agvan Dorjiev (1840-1938) transfered the paintings 
to the Medical College of Atsagat. In 1934 a Buryat painter undertook to prepare another set from 
them. He had completed thirty-one, also today preserved in this collection, when his work tails off 
with a half-completed thangka, the artist having been the probable victim of a purge. 
In 1936, after the monastery had been destroyed, the series which had been brought from Tibet, 
as well as its incomplete copy, were confiscated, stamped on their backs with the accession mark 
of the 'Museum of Atheism' and placed in the state collections of the museum at Ulan-Ude.- All 
the paintings in the series, with the exception of those which present a back view complementing 
the preceding plate, begin with the same formula, which makes reference to one or several 
chapters of the 'Blue Beryl', the ornament of the intention of Bhaisajyaguru, which explains the 
'Four Tantras'.  If this mention did not necessarily indicate that the original illustration had been 
created at the instigation of, or during the time of Sangye Gyamtso, the author of this work, we 
had at least to begin by seeking confirmation for this hypothesis in the Blue Beryl itself. 
In fact, the regent reports in the colophon of this work that the production of the paintings began 
in 1687, on the twenty-sixth day of the fourth month of the Tibetan year, at the same time as the 
composition of the text. He even tells us that a year later, at the time of the completion of the 
Blue Beryl, the series already numbered sixty paintings. These were produced by 'Lhobrag Norbu 
Gyamtso (Lho brag nor-bu rgya-mtsho) who did the outlining, while Lhasawa Genyen (Lha-sa-ba 
dge-gnyen) applied the colours'. There is little documentation of the progress of the enterprise in 
the following years. 
The biography of the Sixth Dalai Lama tells us that in 1697, sixty-two medical paintings illustrating 
the Four Tantras were presented to the hierarch at the time of his enthronement. It seems 
therefore that only two new plates had been added to the series between 1688 and 1697. It was 
completed at the latest in 1703, since on this date the regent, in his work on the history of 
medicine, the Khogbug (Khog-'bugs), gave the list of the inscriptions which are still to be found 
today at the bottom of each of the seventy-nine paintings which form the collection kept at the 
School of Medicine and Astrology in Lhasa" (Fernand Meyer).

[1338] Sangye Gyamtso: The Atlas of Tibetan Medicine (Russian). The Vault of the Illustrations 
to the Tibetan Treatise of the XVII Century "The Blue Beryl". Edited by the Buryat Scientific 
Center of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, The Institute of Biology & 
The Institute for Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Committee of the 
Russian Federation on the Affairs of UNESCO, The Buryat Institute of Social Sciences of the 
Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian). 592 p.  Publishing House 
"Galart", Moscow 1994.
 Introduction by Natalia D. Bolsokhoyeva, Dandar Bazarzhanovich Dashiyev, V. S. Dylykova-
Parfionovich, K. M. Gerasimova, L. E. Myall' and T. V. Sergeyeva.- The translation of the text 
"Atlas" by T. A. Aseyeva, N. D. Bolsokhoyeva, T. G. Bukhasheyeva and D. B. Dashiyev.- 
Explanatory text to the plates of the "Atlas" composed on the basis of the investigations of the 
Tibetan medical treatises "The Four Books" and the "Blue Beryl" by the late Ju. M. Parfionovich. 
Chief Editor of the articles by N. D. Bolsokhoyeva, D. B. Dashiyev and K. M. Gerasimova is R. E. 
Pubayev.- Scientific Editor of the division dedicated to the plant drugs and the composer of the 
Indices is D. Ju. Butkus. Composer of the glossaries is V. S. Dylykova-Parfionovich.- S. V. 
Klokov participated in the compound of the publication. The Scientific Chief Editor is the late Yu. 
M. Parfionovich.- Foreword by the XIVth Dalai Lama.

[1339] Sangye Gyamtso; Parfionovitch, Yuri, Gyurme Dorje, and Meyer, Fernand: Antica 
Medicina Tibetana. Edizione Italiana a cura di Antonella Comba. Tavole miniate del Berillo 
azzurro di Sangye Gyamtso (XVII sec.). Prefazione del Dalai Lama. Introduzione di Fernand 
Meyer. Riassunti dei capitoli del trattato Berillo azzurro. Volume I (Tavola): 76 tavole a colori, 
180 pagine. Volume II (Testo): Traduzione di tutte le iscrizioni Tibetane, note, bibliografia, 
indici. 77 illustrazioni in bianco e nero, 172 pagine. 180/172 p. Zanfi Editori, Modena 1994.
 La publicazione dei Thangka (pitture eseguite su tela o seta) della medicina che illustrano il 
Berillo Azzurro, commentario ai Quattro Tantra del reggente Sangye Gyamtso, è un avvenimento 
culturale die rilevante importanza per quanti si interessano di medicina tibetana. I Thangka, 
commissionati da Sangye Gyamtso stesso, reggente dello stato tibetano dal 1679 al 1705, ed 
allestiti tra il 1687 e il 1703, erano stati intesi come mezzo per illustrare in modo chiaro e 
comprensibile il Berillo Azzurro e quindi agevolare gli studenti di medicina nella comprensione e 
nella memoriz-
zazione della materia. Oggi rimangono solamente tre raccolte di questi dipinti: una, risalente al 
periodo del XIII Dalai Lama e conservata nella Scuola di Medicina ed Astrologia di Lhasa (Mentsi-
khang), presenta alcuni Thangka probabilmente appartenenti alla raccolta originale. Un' altra, 
anch' essa risalente allo stesso periodo, conservata dalla Commissione per i Beni Culturali della 
Regione Autonoma Tibetana, un tempo si trovava a Lhasa nella palazzina estiva del Norbulinka.

[1340] Sans rgyas rgya mtsho: vide Sangye Gyamtso.
[1341] Sárközi, Alice: A Tibeto-Mongolian Manuscript of Lexicographical Explanations of the 
rGyud-bzhi. In: Tibetan and Buddhist Studies, commemorating the 200th Anniversary of the 
birth of Alexander Csoma de Körös. Vol. II. Ed. Louis Ligeti [= Bibliotheca Orientalis Hungarica 
Vol. XXIX/2], pp.  249-279. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1984.
 "Among many other subjects, Alexander Csoma de Körös [1784-1842] paid keen attention to 
the principal Tibetan medical work, the rGyud-bzhi 'Four Treatises'. It is attributed to Shakya, 
though not introduced into the Kanjur and Tanjur. Csoma gave a detailed analysis of this 
fundamental handbook of medicine based on the book written by his lama-teacher Sans-rgyas 
Phun-chogs, a monk of the monastery of Zangla. This work is the only book which was published 
by Csoma almost in its entirety. The work has four parts: 1. Tib. rTsa-rGyud - Skr. Mula-tantra - 
'The Primary text'. 2. Tib. Bsad-rGyud - Skr. Akhyata-tantra - 'The Explanatory text'. 3. Tib. 
Man-nag-rGyud - Skr. Upadeæa-tantra - 'The text of Instructions'. 4. Tib. Phyi-ma-rGyud - Skr. 
Uttara-tantra - 'The Concluding text'.- 
The language and mode of expression in the rGyud-bzhi are very cryptic and this is perhaps the 
reason why there are so many commentaries on different sections of this work. The most 
important commentaries are: Legs-bShad nor-bu (Skr. Subhasita-ratna) by Byams-pa (14th 
century). Commentary by Zur-mkhar-ba mNyam-nyid-rdo-rje [1439-1475]. Vaidurya snon-po (Skr. 
Nila vaidurya, or Blue Lapis Lazuli) by Sde-srid Sans-rgyas rgya-mcho (1653-1705).- The present 
paper is devoted to a small Tibeto-Mongolian bilingual list of terms taken from the third chapter 
of the rGyud-bzhi. 
The manuscript belongs to a private library. It consists of eleven leaves (49x10 cm) and is 
written with black calamus on darkened Russian paper pasted together of several layers. The 
orthography of the handwriting shows Oirat characteristics: in several places it spells ö and ü 
instead of o and u, and even in the second syllable gives a superfluous yod in these vowels. The 
booklet is not a strict systematic classification of words, a list giving only medical terminology, 
but different kinds of words and expressions are given that were thought obscure and worth 
explaining by the compiler from this or some other point of view. It contains about a thousand 
entries grouped in about eighty chapters. The titles of these chapters read only in Tibetan, and 
they are nearly identical with those given by Csoma in his analysis."

[1342] Satyavati, GV: Medicinal Plants of India. 487 p. Indian Council of Medical Research, 
Delhi 1976.
 With illustrations.

[1343] Saunders, Robert:  Some Account of the Vegetable and Mineral Production of Boutan 
and Thibet. By Mr. Robert Saunders, Surgeon at Boglepoor in Bengal; communicated by Sir 
Joseph Banks, Bart. P.R.S. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London) LXXIX 
(1789), pp. 79-111.
 "The people of this happy climate are not exempt from the venereal disease, which seems to 
rage with unremitting fury in all climates, and proves the greatest scourge to the human race. It 
has been long a matter of doubt, whether this disease has ever been cured by any other specific 
than mercury and its different preparations. In defence of the opinion of other specifics being in 
use, it has always been urged, that the disease is frequent in many parts of the world, where it 
could not be supposed that they were acquainted with quicksilver, and the proper method of 
preparing it as a medicine. I must own, that I expected to have been able to have added one 
other specific for this disease to our list in the Materia Medica, being informed that the disease 
was common, and their method of treating is successful; nor could I allow myself to think they 
were acquainted with the method of preparing quicksilver, so as to render it a safe and 
efficacious medicine. In this, however, I was mistaken. The disease seems in this country to 
make a more rapid progress, and rage with more violence, than in any other. This is to be 
accounted for from the grossness of their food and little attention to cleanliness. There is one 
preparation of mercury in common use with them, and made after the following manner. A 
portion of alum, nitre, vermillion, and quicksilver, are placed in the bottom of an earthen pot, with 
a smaller one inverted put over the materials, and well luted to the bottom of the larger pot: Over 
the small one, and within the large one, the fuel is placed, and the fire continued for about forty 
minutes. A certain quantity of fuel, carefully weighed out, is what regulates them with respect to 
the degree of heat, as they cannot see the materials during the operation. When the vessel is 
cool, the small inverted pot is taken off, and the materials collected for use. I attended the whole 
of the process, and examined the materials afterwards. The quicksilver had been acted on by the 
other ingredients, deprived of its metallic form, and rendered a safe and efficacious remedy."

[1344] Saunders, Robert: Robert Saunder's, Wundarztes zu Boglepuhr in Bengalen, 
mineralogische und botanische Reise nach Butan und Tibet. In: Magazin von merkwürdigen 
neuen Reisebeschreibungen, aus fremden Sprachen übersetzt. I., pp.  359-400. Christian 
Friedrich Voß und Sohn, Berlin 1790.
 (Es handelt sich um eine Übersetzung aus den 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 
London (1789), LXXIX, pp. 79 ff.', die Quelle wird im deutschen Text nicht erwähnt).- 
Saunders gehörte zum "Expeditionsteam" von Samuel Turner und begleitete diesen auf seiner 
Reise 1783 nach Tashilunpo. Sein Werk zeichnet sich durch scharfe Beobachtungsgabe aus, 
Bemerkungen vor allem zur Gesundheit und zur medizinischen Versorgung der tibetischen 
Bevölkerung. Er beschreibt heiße Quellen, die von Kranken aufgesucht werden, und weist auf 
die weit verbreiteten venerischen Krankheiten, Pocken und manches mehr hin. Er interessiert 
sich für die Pulsdiagnostik und erkennt die Verbindung der tibetischen zur chinesischen Medizin.

[1345] Schenk, Amelie: Tranceverhalten der Orakelheiler in Ladakh. 
In:Wissenschaftsgeschichte  und gegenwärtige Forschungen in Nordwest-Indien. Internationales 
Kolloquium vom 9. bis 13. März 1987 in Herrnhut. Herausgegeben und redigiert von Lydia Icke-
Schwalbe und Gudrun Meier. (Dresdner Tagungsberichte. 2.), pp.  234-242.  Staatl. Museum 
für Völkerkunde, Dresden 1990.
[1346] Schenk, Amelie: Inducing Trance: On the Training of Ladakhi Oracle Healers. In: 
Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya, 
September 21-28, 1990, at the Ethnographic Museum of the University of Zürich, ed. Charles 
Ramble and Martin Brauen. (ESZ 12), pp.  331-339.  Zürich 1993.
[1347] Schenk, Amelie: Schamanen auf dem Dach der Welt. Trance, Heilung und Initiation in 
Kleintibet. Mit 80 Fotos auf Tafeln. 236 S., illustr.  Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 
Graz 1994.
 "Abseits der institutionalisierten Medizin hat sich in Ladakh eine uralte Tradition der Heilweisen 
erhalten, die von Schamanen praktiziert wird. In dieser umfassenden Dokumentation kommen 
die 'Geistmenschen' erstmals selbst zu Wort. Durch die Beschreibung ihrer Lebengeschichten, 
ihrer Ausbildungswege, ihrer Empfindungen im Zustand der Trance und der Atmosphäre von 
Orakel- und Heilseancen wird der Leser hineingenommen in die so eigenartige Welt der geistigen 
Verwandlung der Schamanen auf dem Dach der Welt."

[1348] Schenk, Amelie: Trance als Therapie. Die Bewußtseinstechniken tibetischer Schamanen. 
In: Trance, Besessenheit, Therapie - Heilrituale im Vergleich. (Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle 
Medizin und Psychotherapie, herausg. von Renaud van Queckelberghe und Dagmar Eigner. Nr. 
6).  In Vorbereitung 1996.
[1349] Schiefner, Anton (1817-1879): Über das Bonpo-Sutra: "Das weisse Naga-Hundert-
tausend". (Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, VII. Série, 
Tome XXVIII, 1.), pp. 1-86. Commissionäre der Akademie, St. Pétersbourg 1880.
 Das Werk wurde, wie viele Veröffentlichungen der wissenschaftlichen Akademien, auch als 
Einzelpublikation verkauft. Es ist dies die letzte Arbeit Schiefners, er starb vor Vollendung der 
Einleitung zu dieser vollständigen Übersetzung des Sutra. Über den Inhalt und die Bedeutung 
dieses berühmten Bonpo-Textes vide Berthold Laufer, Helsingfors 1898.

[1350] Schlagintweit, Hermann, Schlagintweit, Adolph, and Schlagintweit, Robert: Results of a 
Scientific Mission to India and High Asia. Undertaken between the years MDCCCL IV., and 
MDCCCL VIII, by order of the directors and honourable East India Company (4 vols. and 1 
atlas). F. A. Brockhaus (Leipzig), and Trübner (London),  1861-1866.
 For commentary on Tibetan medicine see Beigel, Wien 1863.

[1352] Schlagintweit, Robert: Zusammenfassung der in Indien und Hoch-Asien vorkommenden 
heissen Quellen. In: Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes' Geographischer Anstalt (Dr. A. 
Petermann), pp. 104-105.  Justus Perthes, Gotha 1863.
 Viele der hier in Ladakh und Tibet gelisteten heißen Quellen waren bzw. sind noch immer 
wichtige medizinische Heilquellen, die bis auf den heutigen Tag von tibetischen Ärzten 
empfohlen und von der Bevölkerung genutzt werden. Mit genauen Angaben zur 
Ortsbestimmung und zur Temperatur des Wassers.

[1353] Schleicher, Peter:  Wirkung von Padma 28 auf das Immunsystem bei Patienten mit 
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrom im Stadium des Pre-Aids. Klinische Bewertung einer Pilot-
Studie. Schweizerische  Zeitschrift für GanzheitsMedizin 2 (1990), pp. 58-62.
 "Bei der immunologischen Bewertung von Patienten mit HIV-positivem Befund während der 
Therapie mit Padma 28 über einen Zeitraum von sechs Monaten zeigt sich eine stabilisierende 
Wirkung auf die Subpopulationen der Lymphozyten. Immunologisch auffällig ist dabei die starke 
Aktivierung der T-Zellen und die Zunahme der Granulozyten bei gleichzeitiger Abnahme des 
Prognosefaktors für Aids-Patienten (Abnahme bedeutet Verbesserung des Wertes). Die 
Ergebnisse zeigen eine Phagozytosesteigerung und Aktivierung der Monozyten, Granulozyten 
und T-Zellen unter Padma 28. Dies führt zu einem erhöhten Antigenclearing. Die bisher 
untersuchten immunologischen Wirkungen von Padma 28 berechtigen zum Einsatz in der 
adjuvanten Therapie beim HIV-positiven Patienten und fordern weiterführende Untersuchungen 
zur Aufklärung der Wirkmechanismen."

[1354] Schmid, Toni:  Masters of Healing. Mit 3 Abb. Bulletin of Tibetology (Namgyal Institute 
of Tibetology - Gangtok; Sikkim) II, 3 (1965), pp. 5-10.
 About 12 scrolls which reproduce "The Art of Healing". For a detailed description see 
"Medicine in Tibet" by Ilza Veith, Leverkusen 1960. Vide Sangye Gyamtso, too.

[1355] Schmidt, Heinz Helmuth Michael: Das Yogaæata. Ein Zeugnis altindischer Medizin in 
Sanskrit und Tibetisch. Herausgegeben und übersetzt mit Anmerkungen und Indices. (Diss. 
Philosoph. Fakultät der Universität Bonn, vom 3. 5. 1978) 252 S. Privatdruck, Bonn 1978.
 Das hier edierte wichtige medizinische Werk, das in Indien, Zentralasien, Ceylon und Tibet 
große Bedeutung erlangte, steht an erster Stelle der medizinischen Literatur im Tanjur. Es wird 
in buddhistischen Kreisen dem berühmten Nagarjuna zugeschrieben. Es entstand mit 
Wahrscheinlichkeit vor dem 7. nachchristlichen Jahrhundert. Der Inhalt geht ganz überwiegend 
auf Mixturen für spezielle Krankheiten und auf Vorschriften allgemeiner Art ein (Entstehung und 
Behandlung der drei 'dosas', und der Unreife).- For an English translation of the Yogaæataka 
see V. B. Dash, Dharamsala 1976.

[1356] Schmidt, Michael: Zur Geschichte der tibetischen Übersetzungen altindischer 
medizinischer Werke. In: 27th International Congress on the History of Medicine, Barcelona 
1980. Actas, Vol. 1, 1981, pp. 336-339. Barcelona 1981.
 "Die folgenden Ausführungen zur Geschichte der tibetischen Übersetzungen indischer 
medizinischer Werke beschränken sich . . . auf das rGyud-bzhi und das erste der in den Tanjur,  
Abteilung mDo (Skt. Sutra), Unterabteilung gSo-ba-rig-pa (Skt. cikitsavidya) aufgenommene 
Werk, des Yogaæata. Neben diesen finden sich noch eine Reihe medizinischer Traktate an 
verschiedenen Stellen im tibetischen Kanon verstreut. Diese Werke, und andere, der Medizin 
nahestehende, z.B. alchimistische und ähnliche, werden hier nicht zur Sprache kommen."

[1357] Schmolke, Margit:  Zur Bewältigung von Tod und Sterben durch Mysterien: Das 
Tibetanische Totenbuch unter Berücksichtigung altägyptischer und Maya-Texte. Dynamische 
Psychiatrie (Berlin) 18 (1985), pp. 283-300.
 "Das Tibetanische Totenbuch wie das Ägyptische Totenbuch und das Totenbuch der Maya 
geben Zeugnis von der Wichtigkeit, die diese Kulturen dem Prozeß des Sterbens und dem Tod 
beimessen. Sie dienen der Vorbereitung auf den Tod, wobei die Art und Weise, wie ein Mensch 
stirbt, als ganz entscheidend für seine Wiedergeburt und damit die Qualität seines neuen 
irdischen Lebens angesehen wird. Die Kenntnis dieser alten Mysterienbücher erhält eine neue 
Bedeutung vor dem Hintergrund der psychologischen 'Leben nach dem Tod'-Forschung der 
letzten Jahre an klinisch bereits für tot erklärten Menschen, die, zurückgekehrt zum Leben, von 
Erlebnissen berichten, wie sie sehr ähnlich in den Totenbüchern geschildert werden. Anliegen 
der Autorin ist es, mit der Darstellung des Tibetanischen Totenbuchs eine Vorstellung von Tod 
und Sterben zu vermitteln, die ein Verständnis der Geheimnisse des Lebens einschließt, weil 
Tod und Geburt nur als unterschiedliche Aspekte desselben Vorgangs begriffen werden. Das 
Tibetanische Totenbuch ist ein Führer für den Verstorbenen vom Augenblick des Todes bis zu 
seiner Wiedergeburt bzw. zu seiner Erleuchtung, falls es ihm gelingt, sich aus dem Kreislauf der 
Wiedergeburten zu befreien. Zugleich enthält es eine Lebens- und Weisheitslehre für die 
Hinterbliebenen, in deren Beisein die Todeszeremonie mit dem Verlesen des Textes vollzogen 
wird. Die Autorin würdigt das Tibetanische Totenbuch als ein Mysterienbuch für alle, die auf 
der Suche nach innerer, geistiger Befreiung sind und die ständiges Sterben und 
Wiedergeborenwerden in jedem Augenblick als Mysterium des Lebens begreifen."

[1358] Schönebeck, Alfred:  Tibetansk Medicin. 3 illustr. Geografisk Tidsskrift (Kjöbenhavn) XX 
(1910), pp. 224-230.
[1359] Schräder, R, Nachbur, B, and Mahler, F:  Die Wirkung des Tibetanischen 
Kräuterpräparates Padma 28 auf die Claudicatio intermittens. Schweiz. Medizin. Wochenschrift 
115 (1985), pp. 752-756.
 "Anhand einer prospektiven, Placebo-kontrollierten Doppelblindstudie wurde die Wirksamkeit 
von Padma 28, einem tibetischen Naturheilmittel, bei Patienten mit Claudicatio intermittens 
untersucht. Nach therapiefreiem Intervall von 2 Wochen wurden 23 Patienten mit Padma 28 
und 20 Patienten mit Placebo behandelt. Die Patienten waren zufällig auf beide Gruppen 
verteilt, hatten eine Anamnesedauer von mehr als 8 Monaten, anamnestisches 'steady state' 
und eine maximale initiale Gehstrecke unter 250 m. Die mit Padma 28 behandelte Gruppe 
zeigte bei standardisierter Laufbandergometrie nach 16 Wochen eine Zunahme sowohl der 
maximalen als auch der schmerzfreien Gehstrecke um rund 100%. In der Kontrollgruppe betrug 
die Verlängerung der maximalen Gehstrecke 21% (p<0,05 gegenüber Padma 28), diejenige der 
schmerzfreien Gehstrecke 46%. Die klinische Verträglichkeit war gut; in keinem Fall mußte die 
Studie wegen Nebenwirkungen abgebrochen werden."

[1360] Schrempf, Mona: 'Cham performance as Healing Ritual - the gShen rab r.Yun Drun dGu 
'Cham at the Bon po Community of Dolanji/India. In: Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the 7th 
Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Schloß Seggau, Graz, June 18th - 
24th 1995. Academy of Science of Austria,  1997?

[1361] Schreter, AI: On Decipherment of Plant Names from Tibetan Treatises (Russian). In: 
Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Folk-Medicine. Abstracts of the Reports of the Scientific 
Conference (Russian), pp.  152-154. Ulan-Ude 1987.
 The author critisizes analytically a few publications on Tibetan Medicine, including decipherment 
of Tibetan names of plants mentioned in the treatises Vaidurya snon-po and mDzes mtshar mig 

[1362] Schüttler, Günter: Die letzten tibetischen Orakelpriester. Psychiatrisch-neurologische 
Aspekte. (Forschungen zur Ekstase. Monographien und Expeditionsberichte). Mit z. T. farb. 22 
Abb., 163 S. Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 1971.
 Der Autor, ein Psychiater, konnte 1970 mit Erlaubnis des Dalai Lama in Indien und in Kalimpong 
das tibetische Staatsorakel des Klosters Netschung explorieren und bei einer Zeremonie 
beobachten, sowie von zahlreichen bedeutenden Persönlichkeiten Informationen erhalten, die er 
als ein in psychischen Phänomenen geschulter Wissenschaftler deutet. Eine für diesen Bereich 
einzigartige Arbeit, die nicht durch einen trockenen Stil, sondern mit einer lebendigen und 
teilnehmenden Beschreibung imponiert. "Bei allen Versuchen und Möglichkeiten der Erklärung 
bleibt ein ungeklärter Rest im psycho-physischen Aspekt dieser außergewöhnlichen Erscheinung, 
der sich noch immer unserem Zugriff entzieht. Dieses Phänomen wird in absehbarer Zeit weiterer 
Erforschung nicht mehr zugänglich sein, da dieses Zeugnis einer an den Wurzeln des tibetischen 
Buddhismus liegenden Volksreligion in Kürze erlischt. Beachtlich ist die Bedeutung der 
ikonographisch festgelegten Gewänder. Was durch sie als magisches Medium repräsentiert wird, 
das wird nach dem Prinzip der wirksamen Form real gegenwärtig" (Siegbert Hummel, Tribus 21.).

[1363] Schulemann, Werner:  Der Inhalt eines tibetischen mC'od rten. Zentralasiatische Studien 
(Bonn) 3 (1969), pp. 55-76.
 Das einzig medizinisch Interessante unter den im Reliquiengefäß erhaltenen Dingen sind 
Leichenteile. Die Pflanzenteile wurden separat von M. Steiner beschrieben (M. Winder).

[1364] Seltzer, Leon F: Paradoxical Strategies in Psychotherapy (Symptom Prescription 
Reframing). Thesis. 344 p. University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati 1983.
 "Despite the increasing popularity of paradoxical interventions, the present study represents the 
first attempt to (1) explicate the large variety of paradoxical procedures delineated in the literature, 
(2) discuss the different rationales proposed for these procedures, (3) review and evaluate the 
rical research undertaken on their behalf, and (4) systematically evolve a unified and coherent 
theory of paradox in therapy. As an introduction to the many ways clinicians have used 
paradoxical strategies in treatment, this project elucidates paradoxical tactics from a relativistic, 
interactional (or communicational), and dialectical perspective. It also explores their Eastern 
antecedents and analo-
gues in certain tenets and practices associated with Zen and Tibetan Buddhism, Morita therapy, 
Tantra, Judo, and Aikido. Historically tracing their implementation in Western psychotherapy, it 
points out their use in the work of Adler, Dunlap, Frankl, Rosen, Perls, Erickson, Haley, and Watz-
lawick; and finally, it provides an encapsulation of paradoxical interventions arranged by theoretical 

[1365] Selzer, Richard:  High Priest (Personal Physician to the Dalai Lama). Harper's Magazine 
January (1976), pp. 77-78.
[1366] Semenov, SR and Telyat'yev, VV: Medicinal Plants of Eastern Siberia (Russian). 217 p., 
Irkutsk 1966.
[1367] Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich (1900-1980/81?):  vide auch B. D. Badarayev "Glang 

[1368] Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich:  Tibetan Medicine in the BM ASSR = Buryat-Mongolian 
Expedition of the Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian). Sovetskaya 
Etnografiya [Soviet Ethnography] (Leningrad) No. 5-6 (1932), pp. 216-228.
 For the "Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic" the official name today is 
"Republic of Buryatia".- Für die vollständige deutsche Übersetzung vide den nachfolgenden 
Eintrag.- Unsere unmittelbare Aufgabe zielte dahin, schreibt der Autor B. V. Semichov, auf-
klärende Nachrichten über die Lage der tibetischen ärztlichen Schule und die Heilanstalt im 
Arschan beizubringen. Tibetisch: chos grva oder chos ra, wörtlich: Schule oder Hof der religiösen 
Lehre; theologisch-philosophische Bildungsanstalt in den größeren und mittleren Klöstern, deren 
Absolvierung für alle Mönche obligatorisch ist und erst die Möglichkeiten zur Spezialisierung, wie 
auch für die Medizin, eröffnet. Ausführliches über die eigenartige Struktur und den Lehrbetrieb 
dieser Anstalten vide bei Unkrig/Filchner, Kumbum Dschamba Ling, Leipzig 1933, Kapitel XVII, 
besonders pp. 348-359.-
 "Diese Probleme sind bislang völlig unerforscht geblieben und auch all die Erkundigungen, die wir 
während der kurzen Zeit unserer Arbeit einziehen konnten, sind natürlich nicht als erschöpfende 
zu werten. Dennoch aber dürften auch sie, ungeachtet ihrer Kürze, geeignet sein, die nötige 
Vorstellung von den Verhältnissen zu vermitteln. Schon vor unserer Abreise aus Leningrad wurde 
die Frage der Erforschung der Schule mehrfach erörtert, und zwar hauptsächlich mit Fachleuten, 
die sich der Forscherarbeit auf dem Gebiet der normalen Datsang-Lehranstalt, des Tschoira, 
zugewandt hatten, und so beschlossen wir denn, unsere Arbeit im Arschan nach folgendem Plan 
zu gestalten: A) Ziffermäßiger Bestand der ärztliche Tätigkeit ausübenden Lamen im Verhältnis 
zur Gesamtzahl der letzteren überhaupt. B) Bestand der Lama-Ärzte in qualitativer Beziehung, u. 
z. a) Qualifikation, b) die Stätte des Unterrichts, c) die Lehrtradition,
d) die Qualifikationslisten (san to [gsan-tho?]). C) Umfang der Praxis. D) Der Verdienst des 
Arztes. E) Die medizinische Lehranstalt, u. z. a) die Struktur, b) die Wirtschaftsführung, c) das 
Lehrpersonal, d) die Lernenden, e) die Statuten der Schule (chza-ig), f) das Programm, g) die 
Lehrmittel, h) die Methode und i) die Dauer des Unterrichts." - Die vollständige deutsche 
Übersetzung dieser Arbeit ist gelistet bei W. A. Unkrig, Leiden 1935.
[1369] Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich:  Die tibetische Medizin bei den Burjaten. 1 Abbildung. 
(Die burjatisch-mongolische Expedition des Botanischen Gartens der Russischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften). Aus dem Russischen übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen von W. A. 
Unkrig, Neuheiligensee bei Berlin. Janus. Archives internationales pour l'histoire de la médecine 
et la géographie médicale (Leiden) 39 (1935), pp. 1-36.
 [Tibetskaja medicina v BM ASSR. (Buryato-Mongol'skaya ekspediciya Botaniceskogo Sada 
Akademii Nauk SSSR.) Sovetskaya etnografiya. 1932: 5/6, pp. 216-228].- Von Interesse mag 
die einführende Bemerkung von W. A. Unkrig sein: "Das Original der vorliegenden Übersetzung 
findet sich in der in Leningrad erscheinenden umfangreichen Zeitschrift 'Sovetskaya Etnografiya' 
(=Sovjet-Völkerkunde), Jhrg. 1932, Doppelheft 5/6, pp. 212 (216?)-228. 
Meine Bemühungen, mit dem Verfasser über die Redaktion der Zeitschrift und auf anderem Wege 
in brieflichen Verkehr, besonders auch zwecks Autorisation der Übertragung, zu treten, haben 
sich leider als vergeblich erwiesen, wie denn überhaupt seit den letzten beiden Jahren über 
brieflichen Beziehungen nach und von Rußland - auch bei eingeschriebenen Sendungen - ein zu 
beiderseitiger Mißstimmung führendes Verhängnis waltet, angesichts dessen selbst wohl-
berechtigte amtliche Reklamationen, wie ich nur zu gut aus eigener Erfahrung weiß, zu keinem 
Resultat führen. Überdies erhielt ich erst vor ganz kurzer Zeit auf Umwegen die Nachricht, daß 
der sonst in Leningrad tätige Verfasser der hier in deutscher Übertragung zum Ausdruck 
gelangenden Arbeit vor wenigen Monaten auf mehrere Jahre nach Sibirien verbannt sei."- 
Zum Inhalt der Arbeit vide den vorangestellten Eintrag B. V. Semichov, Leningrad 1932.

[1370] Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich:  On Some Plant Products of Indo-Tibetan Medicine 
Growing in the Buryat Mongolian ASSR (Russian). Kraevedcheskiy Sbornik Buryat-Mongol'skiy 
Filial Geograficheskogo Obshchestva SSSR (= The Regional Collection, published by the 
Buryat-Mongolian Branch  of the USSR Geographical Society, Ulan-Ude), 2 (1958), pp. 158-
[1371] Semichov, Boris Vladimirovich: The Tibetan Medicine as Instrument in the Hands of the 
Buryatian Lamas (Russian). In: Protiv Religioznykh Perezhitkov (= Against the Religious 
Survival), pp.  50-65.  Ulan-Ude 1960.

[1373] Sen, S:  Two Medical Texts in Chinese Translations. Visva-Bharati Annals (Calcutta) 1 
(1945), pp. 70-95.

[1374] Senft, Willi: Großartige Erfolge der Tibetischen Medizin. In: Tibets Götter leben. 
Unvergängliches und Unbekanntes vom Dach der Welt nach der Kulturrevolution, pp.  205-214. 
Leopold Stocker, Graz/Stuttgart 1983.
 Hier einige medizinische Beispiele, die der Autor in seiner Übersichtsarbeit zusammengestellt 
hat: "Seelische Depression: Massage des Hinterkopfes. Fettleibigkeit: Verabreichung von 
Honigwasser. Gallensteine: Reichlicher Genuß von Butter. Ansteckende Epidemien: Man soll die 
Gegend verlassen (Ausnahme: Pockenimpfung in Südtibet schon lange bekannt). Kopf- und 
Zahnschmerzen: Kauterisation an den Schläfen und Daumenwurzeln. Magengeschwüre: Kleine 
Mengen von Kalk. Rheuma: Oberflächliche Stiche mit einer Nadel in den erkrankten Körperteil. 
Schlaflosigkeit: Kopf und Ohren abends mit Butter einschmieren. Potenzmittel: Moschus, 
Knoblauch, Süßholz u.a. vermischt mit verschiedenen Nahrungsmitteln in bestimmten Mengen."

[1375] Sergievskaya, LP: Materials for the Study of Folk Medicinal Plants of Transbaikalia 
(Russian). In: Publikatsii Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Meditsinskikh Aromaticheskikh Rasteniy 
(= Publications of the All-Union Institute for Medical Aromatic Plants), vol. 1 (Russian).   
Moscow 1940.
[1376] Sergievskaya, LP: The Desert of Buryat Mongolia (Russian). In: To the Memory of P. N. 
Kirilov in Connection with the Anniversary of his 100th Birthday [Publications of the Tomsk 
State University, vol. 116), pp.  217-279.  Tomsk 1952.
[1377] Sergievskaya, LP:  Useful [Medicinal] Plants of Buryatia  (Russian). Kraevedcheskiy 
Sbornik Buryat-Mongol'skiy Filial Geograficheskogo Obshchestva SSSR (= The Regional 
Collection, published by the Buryat-Mongolian Branch  of the USSR Geographical Society, Ulan-
Ude), issue 3 (1958), pp. 75-98.
[1378] Shabayev, MG: Essays on the History of Public Health of Tuva (Russian). 195 p., illustr. 
Tuva Book Publishing House, Kyzyl 1975.
[1379] Shah, Ahmad: Four Years in Tibet. (With an annex: Pictures of Tibetan Life. A 
Collection of Sketches made by Rev. Ahmad Shah during his Tour in Tibet: 41 plates). 78 p. 
E. J. Lazarus, Benares 1906.
 Reprint Gian Publishing House, Delhi 1991, without listing the original publisher.- On Tibetan 
Medicine (spiritual healing, pills, and the use of hot springs) see Chapter X, pp. 59-61. A. Shah 
was a medical doctor and missionary with the Moravians in Leh/Ladakh.

[1380] Shakirov, ASh: The Folk Curative Remedy mumiyah (asil) and its Use as Medicine 
(Russian). In: First Interrepublican Symposium on the Experimental Study of "mumiyah", 
Dushanbe, October 1965 (Russian), pp.  75-77.  Dushanbe 1965.
[1381] Shakirov, ASh:  The Influence of mumiyah on the Regeneration of Bone and on Alkaline 
Phosphatase in Experimental Tubular Bone Fractures (Russian). Orthopaedy, Traumatology & 
Prothetics [Moscow] (Russian) 5 (1965), pp. 24-27.
 [1382] Shakirov, ASh: Antimicrobial Action of mumiyah-asil in Connection with some Pus 
Causing Microorganisms (Russian). In: Materials of the Second Scientific Conference of the 
Young Scholar-Physicians of Uzbekistan, pp.  127-128.  Tashkent 1966.
[1383] Shakirov, ASh: Treatment of Infected Wounds by mumiyah-asil in the Experiment 
(Russian). In: Materials of the Scientific Practical Conference of the Tashkent Advanced 
Training Institute for Physicians, pp.  58-59.  Tashkent 1966.
[1384] Shakirov, ASh: The Medicine mumiyah and its Effect in the Treatment of Bone 
Fractures (Russian). In: Publications of the Uzbek Research Scientific Institute of Traumatology 
and Orthopaedy, vol. 11 (Russian), pp.  86-87.  Tashkent 1967.
[1385] Shakirov, ASh: Mumiyah-asil: A Powerful Remedy (Russian). Fan Publishing House, 
Tashkent 1968.
[1386] Shakirov, ASh: Treatment of Infected Wounds by mumiyah-asil. Clinico-laboratoy and 
Experimental Investigations (Russian). Autoreferat of the Candidate's Thesis. Tashkent 1968.
[1387] Shakirov, ASh:  Treatment of Infected Wounds by mumiyah in the Experiment 
(Russian). Experimental Surgery & Anesthesiology [Moscow] (Russian) 6 (1969), pp. 36-39.
[1388] Shakirov, ASh, Kelman, ZN, and Dadakhanov, E: The Influence of mumiyah on 
Pathogenic Microflora of Experimental Wounds (Russian). In: Publications of the Uzbek 
Research Scientific Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedy, vol. 11 (Russian), pp.  91-92.  
Tashkent 1967.
[1389] Shakirov, ASh and Mirzokarimov, AM: The Nature of mumiyah and its Connection with 
the Molybdene Concentration of Mineral Waters (Russian). In: Reports of the Academy of 
Sciences of the Tadzhik SSR. No. 12, pp.  36-38.  Dushanbe 1963.
[1390] Shamarpa Rinpoche: Sangye Menla, approche spirituelle de la médecine tibétaine. 
Traduction de Jérome Edou. 47 p. Ed. Dhagpo Kagyu-Ling, Montignac 1982.
[1391] Sharma, Bishnu Prasad (1932- ): Native Healers of Nepal. 91 p. Kathmandu Bir Hospital, 
Kathmandu 1981.
[1392] Sharma, Priyavrat (1920- ): vide Caraka Samhita; vide also V. B. Dash 1987.
[1393] Shastin, NO:  On 'Khunchir'-Trade in Mongolia (Russian). Report of the Ordinary 
Meeting of the Troitskosavsko-Kyakhta Branch of the Priamur Division of the Russian 
Geographical Society issue No. 4, 1895, pp. 25-32.
[1394] Shastri, Acharya Pramanand:  Prachin Tibet mem Ayurveda ka prachar [The Prevalence 
of Ayurveda in Ancient Tibet]. The Journal of the Bihar Research Society (Patna) XL-XLII 
(1954-56):  pp. 1954, XL, 3: 266-271; 1955, XLI, 2: 217-228; 1956, XLII, 1: 47-71.
[1395] Shavrov, NP: Tibetan Medicine (Russian). In: The Scientific Medical Society of the 
Medical Faculty of the Irkutsk State University. Results of the First Year of its Existence, No. 
8, p. 16.  Irkutsk 1922.
 The geographical description of Mongolia and Tibet is given. Russian physicians like Kirilov, 
Lozinsky and some others tried to understand the system of Tibetan medicine. The famous 
explorer Pozdneyev  translated one of the most valuable Tibetan medical manuals, the rGyud-
Shi, into Russian, and he also presented to the Museum of the Petrograd Botanical Garden his 
collection of more than 200 preparations used in Tibetan medicine. The author gives a brief and 
common description of Tibetan medicine, he marks its elementary quality and inclination to 
quackery. Remedies, used in Tibetan medicine (powders, pills, thin gruels, complex mixtures 
etc.) and the methods of Tibetan medicine (diet, massage, caunterization, blood-letting, 
hydropathy, compress etc.) are described. He proposes the need for a more detailed study of 
remedies and methods of the Tibetan medicine.
[1396] Shavrov, NP:  Tibetan Medicine (Russian). Irkutsky Meditsinskiy Zhurnal (= Irkutsk 
Medical Journal) (Russian) 4 (5) (1923), pp. 26-31.
[1397] Shavrov, NP: The Medicine of Tibet (Russian). In: Sibirskaya Sovestkaya Entsiklopediya 
(= The Siberian Soviet Encyclopaedia), Vol. 3 (Russian), pp. 356-358.  Moscow 1932.
[1398] Shinnick, Phillip and Omura, Yoshiaki:  Difference in the location of finger placement on the 
radial artery for pulse diagnosis in the Orient; and, 15th to 18th century Occidental rare books on 
pulse diagnosis. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research (New York) 10 (1985), pp. 309-
 "Present day finger placement on the radial artery for pulse diagnosis to determine the relation-
ship between organs and general condition vary according to widely used Chinese or Tibetan 
method. Variations exist between different historical Chinese periods on finger organ represen-
tation points, but vary to minimum extent among Tibetan historical and current writers. By 
photographing lesser known Occidental 15th to 18th century rare books on pulse readings from 
the New York Academy of Medicine and the Philadelphia College of Physicians and Surgeons, a 
clearer understanding of Oriental influences on Occidental cardio-vascular understanding is 
apparent. The Chinese pulse meridian influenced European scales for measurement in pulse rate 
(or rhythm), vessel size, and organ condition."

[1399] Shophman, MA: "Secrets" of Oriental Medicine (Russian). 40 p.  Znanie (= Knowledge) 
Moscow 1963.
[1400] Shraiber, APh:  The Medicinal Grasses of Transbaikalia (Russian). Zabaykal'skiy 
Khozyain (= The Transbaikalian Owner) (Russian):  (3) pp. 14-16, (4) pp.  12-14, (13) pp.  6-7, 
(17) pp.  3-6 (1916).
[1401] Shraiber, APh:  Transbaikalian Peoples Interest in Medicinal Plants (Russian). 
Zabaykal'skiy Khozyain (= The Transbaikalian Owner) (Russian) 2 (1916), pp. 18-19.
[1402] Shraiber, APh:  The Wild Growing Medicinal Plants of Eastern Siberia (Russian). Review 
of Gardening, Fruits and Vegetables (Russian) 1-2 (1916), pp. 34-62.
[1403] Siklos, Bulcsu:  'Datura' rituals in the Vajramahabhairava-Tantra. Curare (Braunschweig) 
16, 2 (1993), pp. 71-76.
[1404] Simon, E:  Arachnoidea collected by G. N. Potanin (1835-1920) during his Journey 
through China and Mongolia (1876-1879) (Russian). Izvestiya Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk
(= Review of the Russian Academy of Sciences) (Russian) 2, Nr. 4 (1895), pp. 331-346.
 The detailed description of the following Arachnida: A. Ordo Araneac I Familia Erisidae 1. Eresus 
niger Petagna 2. E. tristis Croneberg 3. E. granosus sp. nov. II Familia Drassidae 1. Drassodes 
lapidosus Walck. 2. D. troglodytes C. Koch. 3. D. infletus Cambr. 4. D. nigrosegmentatus sp. 
nov. 5. D. sollers sp. nov. 6. Gnaphosa Potanini sp. nov. 7. G. mongolica sp. nov. III Familia 
Theridiitae 1. Lithyphantes corralatus Linn. 2. Linyphia triangularis Cl. 3. Argiope lobata Pall. 4. 
Araneus (Epcira) mongolicus sp. nov. 5. A. (Epeira) diadematus Clerck. 6. A. (Epeira) ixobola 
7. A. (Epeira) Potanini sp. nov. 8. A. (Epeira) ceropegia Walck. 9. A. (Epeira) adianta Walck. 
10. A. (Singa) pigmaeus Sund. 11. Tetragnatha extensa L. IV. Familia Thomisidae 1. Thomiscus 
albus Gmelin (onustus Walck) 2. T. Grubei  3.  Xysticus cristatus Clerck. 4. X. altaicus sp. nov. 
5. Tibellus oblongus Walck. 6. Thanatus Cronebergi. 7. Micaria quinguenotata sp. nov. 
8. M. aciculata sp. nov. 9. Chiracanthium punctrorium Villers 10. Sparassus Potanini sp. nov. V. 
Familia Lycosidae 1. Lycosa singoriensis Laxm. 2. Lycosa pastoralis E. Simon 3. Lycosa 
latefasciata Croneberg 4. Lycosa pulverulenta Cl. 5. Evippa onager sp. nov. VI  Familia Altidae 1. 
Yllenus hamifer sp. nov. 2. Y. flavociliatus sp. nov. B. Ordo Opiliones 1. Phalangium consputum 
sp. nov.
2. P. Potanini sp. nov. 3. Egaenus insolens sp. nov.

[1405] Sipinskaya, DPh, Gurevich, IYa, and Blinova, K(lavdiya) F(edorovna): Exploitation of 
Technology and Chemical Study of the Treatments with mumiyah (Russian). In: Abstracts of 
the Scientific Practical Conference on the Problem "Fundamentals of Developments of 
Pharmacy and Searches for New Ways in Preparation of Medicines and the Methods of their 
Investigation", p. 256.  Tomsk 1970.
[1406] Skal-bzang 'Phrin-las:  dMan-dpyad zla-ba'i rGyal-po and Extremely Plain Question of 
Huangqdi Neijing (Chinese, English abstract). Chinese Journal of Medical History [Beijing] 
(Chinese) 22, No. 2 (1992), pp. 115-118.
 The author argues and disputes on Zhang Xingqian's and Zhang Huixuan's article (vide Beijing 
1986) about the origin of Somaraja. He claims that the Somaraja was compiled in the 7th 
century by the Tibetan scholar Byung-po and others. This summary is based on fundamental 
Tibetan medical theories - the essence of the experiences of their ancestors - and absorbs the 
essence of the medical systems of other brotherly nationalities and countries (Cai Jingfeng).

[1407] Skal-bzang 'Phrin-las:  A Primary Approach on the Knowledge of the Three-Element 
Theory. Chinese Studies of Tibetology [Lhasa] (Chinese) 4 (1993), pp. 69-74.
 The three-element theory is fundamental in Tibetan medicine and infiltrates into all parts of this 
medical science. This paper discusses the theory from five aspects: 1. The basic conception; 2. 
its application in physiology; 3. its application in pathogenesis; 4. its application in 
therapeutics; 5. its application in genetics (Cai Jingfeng).

[1408] Skinsnes, OK:  Leprosy in Tibetan Art and Religion. International Journal of Leprosy and 
Other Mycobacterial Diseases (New York) 39, No. 1 (1971), pp. 60-65.
 "Out of this tradition there come two representations related to leprosy, one concerned with an 
Oriental concept of its moral cause and one involving cure of the affliction. The first is derived 
from tanka presentation of the birth-stories telling of the former existences of the Buddha and 
those about him. The second comes from the tanka rendition of one of the several forms of 
Avalokitesvara (Chinese: Kuanyin or 'Goddess of Mercy') known as Simhanada Lokesvara. Neither 
of these presentations speaks for either the presence or absence of leprosy in Tibet. The birth-
story is derived from the account of the Indian Buddhist teacher, Arya Sura who probably lived 
before 434 A.D., long before Buddhism took root in Tibet. It does speak for the presence of 
leprosy in India at this early period. The account of the cure of the Mongol King speaks for the 
presence of leprosy in Mongolia at the time that lamaism was introduced into Mongolia. This was 
several centuries after Buddhism was first brought to China from India by way of the longer route 
through the mountains and across the Gobi desert, and leprosy could readily have been brought to 
Mongolia from India, or elsewhere, at an earlier date by earlier travellers along these trade 

[1409] Skorupski, Tadeusz: Tibetan Amulets. With an introductory preface by Per Kvaerne. 122 p. 
White Orchid Press, Bangkok 1983.
 102 amulets are shown and described, for instance against eye-diseases, epidemics, snake-
bites, leprosy. As the author points out: "The amulets and the protective cakras are a very 
interesting reflection of ordinary life in Tibet. One can see through them how much the 
Tibetans in their daily lives depend on and are afraid of various local deities and different 
demoniac powers which can cause damage, bring epidemics and natural catastrophies. The 
number of amulets designed against a whole range of illnesses and plagues, against bandits 
and wild animals seem to be a good indication of how much they suffer from them. They are 
also a good example of how much their ordinary life is motivated and pervaded by religion. The 
Tibetans turn towards religion for almost anything, be it trading, suffering from severe cold, 
desiring progeny, destroying enemies and so forth."

[1410] Slyunin, NV: Materials for the Study of Folk Medicine in Russia (Russian). In: 
Publications of the Society of the Russian Physicians in St. Petersburg, with the Appendix of 
the Protocols  of the Society Meeting for 1881-1882. Issue 1, pp. 307-397.  St. Petersburg 
[1411] sMan-rTsis [new series!]: Journal of the Tibetan Medical & Astro Institute. Editor in 
Chief Dr. Namgyal Qusar.  Dharamsala 1995 - .
 Volume 1, no. 1 appeared spring 1995, no. 2 in fall 1995.- The older journal was spelled 
sMan-rTzis (1991-1994), but is now spelled - with new numbering and under new editorship - 
sMan-rTsis [new series!] from 1995 onwards.

[1412] Snellgrove, David L: "Caring for others by means of diagnosis" (dPyad-kyis 'tsho-ba) in 
gZi-brjid (Translated in: The Nine Ways of Bon (Oriental Series, vol. 18), pp.  36/37-40/41. 
Oxford University Press, London (sic!) 1967.
[1413] Sodnomov, AN and Tsybanova, DTs: On Buryatian Medical Terms (Russian). In: 
Materialy po Izucheniyu Istochnikov Trach'tsionnoy Sistemy Indo-Tibetskoy Meditsiny 
(= Materials on Studying Original Sources of the Traditional System of Indo-Tibetan Medicine) 
(Russian), pp. 72-75.  Novosibirsk 1982.
 This work is an attempt to describe Buryatian medical terminology, taking into account the 
combination of traditions of Buryatian folk medicine and influence of nowadays medicine.

[1414] Sokolov, WS:  vide Gusyeva-Badmayeva, A. P., Gammerman, A. F. and Sokolov, V. S., 
Stuttgart 1972.
[1415] Somlai, G: Preliminary Investigation of a Tibetan Medical Chart. [In: Tibetan and 
Buddhist Studies, commemorating the 200th Anniversary of the birth of Alexander Csoma de 
Körös. Vol. II. Ed. Louis Ligeti = Bibliotheca Orientalis Hungarica Vol. XXIX/2], pp.  313-319.  
Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1984.
 "Many interesting and remarkable subjects arise in the course of studying Tibetan culture. One 
such field is the medicine of the Land of Snow. The principal work on medicine in Tibet is that 
entitled the rGyud-bzhi - the tract in four parts. It is attributed to Shákya, though not introduced 
into the Kah-gyur or Stan-gyur collections. Although Csoma was in a way interested in Tibetan 
Medicine, the source of his knowledge was not the mentioned rGyud-bzhi, but the little syllabus 
of his Tibetan master called Sans-rgyas Phun-tshogs. According to the introduction in the 
booklet, he - the bla-ma - being ill at ease, claimed apologetically that he was not encouraged to 
write the syllabus by ambition: 'Oh, how I would wish, with the impudence of a selfish baby, To 
complete with a myriad scholars of the mahayana and with the medical knowledge of so many 
scholars who ascended to the rank of the wise and the perfect! But it is not to be. This short 
compendium was only made for my friend, born in Europe, A wise man tied together with the 
thread of destiny of His old deeds; a wanderer through all the countries of the Earth.'- This 
syllabus may have been sufficient for Csoma to gain a general view of Tibetan Medicine, but it is 
surely unsatisfactory for 
a student of the subject. To make study easier and more perceptible to the sense, some charts 
were introduced, e.g. anatomical figures and representations."

[1416] Sonam Topgay (=Rabgay, Lobsang):  Pharmacognosy in Tibetan Medicine. Tibetan 
Medicine, a Publication for the Study of Tibetan Medicine (Dharamsala) Series No. 1 (1980),
pp. 30-35.
 "Generally, a Tibetan pharmacist who is usually also a physician uses crude drugs as therapeutic 
agents, but frequently their chief active constituents are separated by various means and are 
employed in a more specific manner.- The physical and chemical constituents of a medicinal plant 
act as the substratum of its properties and drug action. In order to evaluate a drug, that is to 
identify it and to determine its quality and purity, a number of methods are involved but the most 
important one is evaluation by means of the sense organ, principally by the tongue and nose. Taste 
acts as an indicator of the element compound and tastes are of six types, namely: acid, saline, 
saccharine, alkaline, bitter and pungent. Their element compounds are as follows: saccharine is 
constituted predominantly by water and earth, acid by fire and earth, pungent by water and fire, 
alkaline by water and wind, and saline by wind and earth. Though taste is perceived directly, 
knowledge of its compound, properties and probable drug action is only known by inference and 
observation of the effects of taste on the body. For instance, saccharine increases phlegm which 
is heavy and blunt in nature, therefore by the law of similarity saccharine is taken as heavy and 
the drug is also taken as heavy. This is further established by the law of dissimilarity as it 
decreases bile and wind which are dissimilar to earth and water.- Having determined the element 
compound of a drug by its taste, we can then infer the drug properties. A drug with the 
predominant constituents of earth and water will have heavy, stable, blunt, smooth, oily, and dry 
property. Consequently, the drug will produce an action of stabilization and physical and mental 
control and concentration. It is most efficacious for wind disorders."

[1417] Song Zhiqi:  Medicine of Fraternal Nationality, Tibetan Medicine (Chinese). New Journal 
of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Chinese)  (1978), p. 37.
 This short article introduces briefly the history of Tibetan medicine, its fundamentals, diagnosis 
and therapeutic approaches; and the development of modern Tibetan medicine, including 
medical institutions, training of professionals, production of patented drugs, publications, and 
the treatment of three common diseases, viz. rheumatic arthritis, duodenal ulcer, and epilepsy 
(Cai Jingfeng).

[1418] Sosnovsky, VI:  The Mystery of Shaman's Stone (Russian). Universitetskoe Slovo (= 
The University Word) issue 24 (1923).
[1419] Spiegelberg, Frederic:  Ghost Traps. 6 illustr. Medical Newsmagazine: MD (New York) 
11, (2) (1967), pp. 161-163.
 Unusual Lamaist ritual objects are ghost traps (in Tibetan: mdos) found on rooftops or over the 
doors of houses to protect the household from evil and to entrap spirits, demons and devils 
that are believed to manifest themselves as liquids. Mounted on a base of clay mixed with 
ashes of the dead, the ghost traps, seen in photographs by Herm Nathan, consist of a vertical 
stake and a flat, circular or triangular wooden structure interwoven with yarn and wool balls 
that resembles a radar or television antenna.- There are 14 types of traps that vary in size, 
form and significance; determination of size and shape of a trap to be used depends on the 
type of spirit to be trapped. Ghost traps are for protection from local sickness demons, religious 
defilement, diseases of the sexual organs. All of the traps shown on photographs were 
constructed for Dr. Spiegelberg by monks of the Enchay monastery in the Sikkimese Himalayas 
supervised by the Rinzing Lama.

[1420] Srivastava, RC and Mainera, AK:  A Note on Dactylorhiza Hatagirea (D. Don) Soo - An 
Important Medicinal Orchid of Sikkim. National Academy Science Letters-India 17 (Nr. 7-8) 
(1994), pp. 129-130.
 The paper provides an account of a medicinal orchid viz. Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo.- 
This report extends the distribution of this species of N.W. Himalaya & Tibet to Sikkim.

[1421] Srivastava, TN and Gupta, OP: Medicinal Plants used by Amchies in Ladakh. In: 
Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal Plants. Ed. C. K. Atal & B. M. Kapur, pp.  519-526. 
Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Jammu-Tawi, India 
 "The traditional medical practitioners of Ladakh are known as Amchies. The system of medicine 
which they use traces its origin to the Ayurvedic system prevalent in India. It is believed that 
Lord Buddha delivered this original Tibetan system of medicine while he was meditating in the 
medicinal forest, somewhere near Bodh Gaya. It was later in the reign of the Tibetan King 
Streng-De-Chan [i.e. Khri srong lde btsan] (750 A.D.) that a renowned scholar named Vairocana 
was sent to India and he translated this into Tibetan language with the help of Acharya Chandra 
Deva. The text was later brought to Tibet. This medical system had accumulated a huge 
literature with the passage of time and Amchies of great fame and reputation contributed 
immensely to this system. The Tibetan system of medicine, very often known as 'Amchi 
System' is in vogue in Lahaul, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, the Ladakh district of J. & K. and 
some other regions of the Himalayas.- 
The Ladakh area was intensively surveyed by the authors in order to collect information 
regarding the availability of medicinal plants in the region, more particularly those used by 
Amchies in their system of treatment. About 1000 plant species were noticed and collected in 
the forest ranges of Ladakh and about 250 folk-lores were also recorded regarding the medicinal 
uses of the plants. The party members remained in association with the local Amchies for a long 
period and could get information regarding the uses and the way of administration of drugs in 
their traditional system of treatment. The information thus compiled is given in table form."

[1422] Stablein, William(1943- ):  A Medical-Cultural System Among the Tibetan and Newar 
Buddhists: Ceremonial Medicine. Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies (Kathmandu) I,3 
(1973), pp. 193-203.
 William Stablein has been a Lecturer at Columbia University. His interests include topics 
pertaining to liturgy, medicine, and textual criticism; another major concern is the development 
of an interdisciplinary approach to Eastern religions.- "Throughout South-Asia there are three 
medical systems: Western, Ayurvedic and ceremonial, which in many instances blend into each 
other. What I am calling ceremonial medicine is the most archaic and most mysterious to 
researchers and public health workers.
 Its neglect is due to three general misconceptions: 1) that Ayurvedic medicine is the dominant 
form of curing; 2) that curing rituals are somehow always associated with the concept of 
primitive magic and 3) that Vajrayana Buddhism is a topic restricted either to a study of 
classical Sanskrit and Tibetan texts or to students who have received secret teachings which 
they are not allowed to show under any circumstances. First of all, Ayurvedic medicine has 
accommodated a certain aspect of what I am calling 'ceremonial medicine' under the heading 
bhutavidya. 'Ceremonial medicine' in turn has incorporated the actual substances and 
sometimes techniques of Ayurvedic medicine. This same reciprocal accommodation process is 
continued into 'ceremonial medicine'. This same reciprocal accommodation process is true also 
for Western and Ayurvedic medicine. Indeed in some respects the process is continued into 
'ceremonial medicine'. The second misconception is simply the fact that not enough ritual 
studies have been carried out in communities influenced by the Tantric tradition with the view 
in mind to understand the cultural configurations of health and disease. The third points to the 
ritualistic nature, not the philosophical, of Tantric texts which are the basis of the actual 
practices especially among the Newars and Tibetans of Kathmandu valley."

[1423] Stablein, William: The Mahakalatantra: A Theory of Ritual Blessings and Tantric 
Medicine. (Columbia University, Ph. D. Thesis). x, 300 p., illustr.  University Microfilms 1978, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 1975.
[1424] Stablein, William: Mahakala the Neo-Shaman - Master of the Ritual. In: Spirit 
Possession in the Nepal Himalayas. Ed. J. T. Hitchcock, R. L. Jones, pp. 361-375.  Vikas 
Publishing House, Delhi 1976.
[1425] Stablein, William:  Tantric Medicine and Ritual Blessings. The Tibet Journal 
(Dharamsala) I, 3/4 (1976), pp. 55-69.
 "In a naive sense Tantric medicine, like the art, is the medicine and its practice found in 
Tantric texts. But comparing canonical Tantric texts such as found in the Gyü (rGyud) sections 
of the Ka-gyur (bKa'-'gyur) and Tan-gyur (bsTan-'gyur) and those books such as the Gyü-shi 
(rGyud-bzhi), or as far as that goes, the perfect medicinal tradition called man-drub (sMan-
sgrub), the categories of medicine and religion can be problematical. In order to delineate and 
interpret Tantric medicine we must familiarise ourselves with at least four sources: the root 
Tantras (tza-wa-gyu, rtza-ba-rGyud) in the Ka-gyur, their commentaries in the Tan-gyur, the 
later liturgical texts including the perfect medicine tradition (sMan-sgrub) and of course those 
texts that formally fall under the category of healing (so-rig, gso-rig). The liturgical texts such 
as the 'fulfillment and healing!' (kang-so, bskang-so) ritually carry on the Tantric tradition of 
practicing ritual and meditation for the purpose of obtaining powers (ngo-dr'ub, dngos-grub), 
but at the same time emphasise the generation and transfer of ritual blessings (jin-lab, byin-
brlabs).- Whereas perfect medicine (man-dr'ub) refers to the total process or ritual of making 
and compounding medicine, the term ril-bu designates the forming of the pill. The fact remains 
that pills are never compounded without some phase or another of the perfect medicine's ritual 
and meditation. 
Despite the efficacy of the substances themselves (which are quite often verified by Western 
techniques to have varying degrees of curing potency), the healing process is conceptualised in 
the same universe of discourse as the powers (dngos-grub). Apropos, it is curious that the 
Sanskrit term for power, siddhi, i.e. miraculous power, also designates 'healing'. It is not 
surprising therefore that most of the formulae in the Mahakalatantra for attaining the eight 
extraordinary powers utilise the use of pills, ointments and solutions. In fact, the miraculous 
power (siddhi) itself is sometimes given the name of the final form of the compound-like pill 
power (ril-bu ngo-dr'ub) or ointment power (mig-man ngo-dr'ub).- Medicines, especially in the 
Mahakala rite and man-dr'ub ritual are particularly significant in that ritual blessings (jin-lab) are 
conceived of in terms of medicine. Aesthetics is obviously an important aspect of the rite 
where ideas such as beauty and happiness play an important role in the effectiveness of the 
ritual. Indeed, the philosophical dimensions enable us to maintain the depth needed for a 
consistent understanding of the rite. The Tantric ceremonial circle of healing is then a holistic 
method par excellence that appeals to man's thirst for aesthetic experience, a healthy 
existence and liberation."

[1426] Stablein, William:  Tibetan Mantra - Medical System. Tibetan Review (Delhi) XI, 6-7 
(1976), pp. 15-19.
 Identical with next entry.

[1427] Stablein, William: Tibetan Medical-Cultural System. In: Dawa Norbu, An Introduction to 
Tibetan Medicine, pp.  39-51.  The Tibetan Review Publishers, Delhi 1976.
 "The first and simplest example of ceremonial curing that I have witnessed was in 1969 when I 
watched a Newar hierophant fan with a peacock feather his sacred utterances onto some pills 
which were in turn administered to a woman with a skin disease. I observed innumerable times 
almost the same basic process in the Tibetan community for a variety of complaints. As Tibetan 
and Newar ceremonial functions have roots in the Vajrayana Buddhist tradition, it is not 
surprising that many parallels are found.- In summary, a medical-cultural system of those 
communities in Kathmandu valley currently practising Vajrayana Buddhism is as follows : 
(1) the hierarchical structure of divinities and cultural heroes as represented by a vertical system; 
(2) the hierophant who projects the divine hierarchy which is fed back as an inner projection 
within his Vajra-body (rdo. rje. lus) through which flows the curing ambrosia (bdud. rtsi). 
(Because the hierophant and the laymen respond to the divine hierarchy as if it were a separate 
unit, I include it as such for the sake of analysis); 
(3) substance, which through the recycling of the hierophant becomes pledged and hence the 
cure par excellence; and, 
(4) the traditional community that shares the pledged substance and has faith that even if it does 
not produce the miraculous cure that is hoped, it will at least give the strength to accumulate 
more religious merit for a peaceful death and better afterlife. As the above model of ceremonial 
medicine is an archaic one, similar patterns may well occur in oth